Zelus longipes (L., 1767)

Zhang, Guanyang, Hart, Elwood R & Weirauch, Christiane, 2016, A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens, Biodiversity Data Journal 4, pp. 8150-8150: 8150

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8150

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:262DB958-2422-46B6-92E6-1675C3C07DB1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B1521EF9-3146-5273-6045-71401270EF9B

treatment provided by

Biodiversity Data Journal by Pensoft

scientific name

Zelus longipes (L., 1767)
status

 

Zelus longipes (L., 1767) 

Cimex longipes  Linnaeus, 1767, p. 724, orig. descr.; Gmelin, 1788, p. 2197, list ( Reduvius  ); Turton, 1806, p. 690, descr.

Reduvius longipes  : Fabricius, 1775, p. 730, descr.; Fabricius, 1781, p. 378, descr.; Fabricius, 1787, p. 309, list; Fabricius, 1794, p. 196, descr.

Zelus longipes  : Fabricius, 1803, p. 283, descr.; Stål, 1872, p. 88-89, cat. (subgenus Zelus  ); Blanchard, 1840, p. 101, descr.; Stål, 1862, p. 449-450, descr.; Uhler, 1878, p. 427, list; Uhler, 1886, p, 24, checklist; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 253, note; Kirkaldy, 1900a, p. 263, note; Fracker, 1913, p. 239, 240, key and list (subgenus Zelus  ); Cotton, 1917, p. 170-173, note; Barber, 1923, p. 27-28, note and syn.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Wolcott, 1950 (1948), p. 212, list and note; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Guagliumi, 1953, p. 16, note; Barber, 1954, p. 13-14, list; Elkins, 1954, p. 44, 45, note and fig.; Simmonds, 1956, p. 232, note; Alayo, 1967, p. 5, 36-37, list and note; Hart, 1986, p. 543-546, redescription, note, fig. and key; Hart, 1987, p. 304, note and key; Maldonado, 1990, p. 328, cat.

Euagoras longipes  : Walker, 1873, p. 117-118, cat.

Reduvius rubidus  Lepeletier and Serville, 1825, p. 278, orig. descr,; Guerin-Meneville, 1857, p. 411-412, descr. and list (subgenus Evagoras  ).

Evagoras rubidus  : Amyot and Serville, 1843, p. 368-369, descr. and senior syn. of Evagoras speciosus  Burmeister. Stål, 1862, p. 449, junior syn. (in part) of Z. longipes  . Walker, 1873, p. 117, junior syn. of Euagoras longipes  .

Euagoras rubidus  : Walker, 1873, p. 118, cat.

Zelus rubidus  : Stål, 1872, p. 89, cat. and descr. (subgenus Zelus  ); Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 153, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 252-253, cat. and note; Fracker, 1913, p. 238, 240, key and list (subgenus Zelus  ); Ballou, 1913, p. 65, note; Jones, 1914, p. 462, note; Osborne and Drake, 1915, p. 531, list; Cotton, 1917, p. 173, note; Ritchie, 1917, p. 94, note; Gibson, 1919, p. 276, list; Dash, 1920, p. 31, note; Barber, 1923, p. 27, junior syn. of Z. longipes  ; Bruner, 1926, p. 78, descr.; Gowdey, 1927, p. 16-17, note; Martorell, 1939, p. 189, list; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist and junior syn. of Z. longipes  ; Alayo, 1967, p. 36-37, note.

Reduvius phalangium  Fabricius, 1794, p. 1966, orig. descr.; Zirnsen, 1964, p. 338, list; Hart, 1986, p. 543, junior syn. of Z. longipes  .

Zelus phalangium  : Fabricius, 1803, p. 283, descr.; Stål, 1872, p. 92, cat.; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 153, cat.; Fracker, 1913, p. 240, descr. and list; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, checklist.

Diplodus phalangium  : Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist.

Zelus bilobus  Say, 1832, p. 12, orig. descr.; LeConte, 1859, p. 306, descr.; Stål, 1862, p. 449, list (as variety of Z. longipes  ); Stål, 1872, p. 88, cat. (subgenus Zelus  ); Uhler,1876, p. 61, list; Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 151, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 253, note; Van Duzee, 1909, p. 176, list; Torre-Bueno and Engelhardt, 1910, p. 150, list; Fracker, 1913, p. 239, 240, key and list (subgenus Zelus  ); Barber, 1914, p. 505, list; Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist (s .g. Zelus  ); Dozier, 1917, p. 542, note; Van Duzee, 1917, p. 259, cat. (subgenus Zelus  ); Dozier, 1920, p. 357, note; Blatchley, 1926, p. 568, 569, key and descr. (subgenus Zelus  ); Readio, 1927, p. 169-170, key, descr. and note; Miller, 1929, p. 462, note; Creighton 1936a p. 94, note; Creighton, 1936b, p. 382, note; Elliott , 1938, p. 39, key and list; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Sibley, 1951., p. 92, list ; Oliver, 1964, p. 316, note; Whitcomb and Bell , 1964, p. 22, list; Davis, 1969, p. 81, fig. and note (sic. Zellus bilobatus  ); Hart, 1986, p. 543, junior syn. of Z. longipes  .

Euagoras speciosus  Burmeister, 1835, p. 227, orig. descr.; Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848, p. 45, Tab. CCLXIV. fig. 817, descr. and fig; Hart, 1986, p. 543, junior syn. of Z. longipes  .

Evagoras speciosus  : Amyot and Serville, 1843, p. 368, junior syn. of Evagoras rubidus  Le P. and Serv.

Zelus speciosus  : Stål, 1862, p. 449, syn. (as variety of Z. longipes  ) Stål, 1872, p. 89, cat. (subgenus Zelus  ); Berg, 1879, p. 151, note; Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 153, cat.;, Kirkaldy, 1909, p. 32, list and syn.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, checklist.

Zelus speciosus  var. stolli Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, nomen nudum; Champion, 1898, p. 253, syn. (= Zelus rubidus  ). Euagoras tricolor  Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848, p. 45-46, Tab. CCLXIV, fig. 818, orig. descr. and fig.; Stål, 1862, p. 450, syn. (as variety of Zelus longipes  ); Stål, 1872, p. 89, syn. (as variety of Zelus speciosus  ); Champion, 1898, p. 253, junior syn. of Zelus rubidus  ; Fracker and Bruner, 1924, p. 170, list; Bruner, 1926, p. 79, descr; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, junior syn. of Zelus speciosus  .

Zelus mactans  Stål, 1861, p. 148, orig. descr.; Stål, 1872, p. 88, cat. (subgenus Zelus  ); Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Fracker, 1913, p. 239, 240, key and list (subgenus Zelus  ); Barber, 1923, p. 28, note; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 49, checklist; Alayo, 1967, p. 36, key and note; Hart, 1986, p. 544, lectotype desig. and junior syn. of Z. longipes  .

Diplodus mactans  : Walker, 1873, p. 125, cat.

Velia agavis  Blasguez, 1870, p. 289, 290, fig. 14, orig. descr.; Champion, 1898, p. 253, junior syn. of Z. rubidus  ; Kirkaldy, 1909, p. 32, junior syn. (as variety of Z. speciosus  ); Fracker, 1913, p. 240, junior syn. of Z. rubidus  .

Materials

Type status: Holotype. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Bears the following labels: longipes / 65; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zeluslongipes; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: (L., 1767); Location: country: St. Thomas; Record Level: institutionCode: Linnaean Society, London  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Lectotype of Zelusmactans Stal, 1861 (designated by Hart, 1986), junior synonym of Zeluslongipes (Linnaeus, 1767). Bears the following labels: Cuba / Stal / mactans Stal / Typus.; sex: Adult Male; Taxon: scientificName: Zeluslongipes; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: (L., 1767); Location: country: CUBA; Record Level: institutionCode: NHRS  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Allolectotype of Zelusmactans Fabricius, 1803 (designated by Hart, 1986), junior synonym of Zelusmactans Stal, 1861, junior synonym of Zeluslongipes (Linnaeus, 1767). Bears the following labels: Cuba / Stal / Stal / Paratypus.; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zeluslongipes; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: (L., 1767); Location: country: CUBA; Record Level: institutionCode: NHRS 

Description

Figs 127, 128, 129

Male: (Fig. 127a, b, c, d) Medium-sized, total length 13.62-17.91 mm (15.77 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Orangish red and brownish-black; pattern variable; most of dorsal surface brownish-black; orangish red usually on head, part or entire anterior pronotal lobe, lateral margins of posterior pronotal lobe, proximal and distal parts of corium; occasional specimens with nearly completely dark dorsum. Ventral and lateral surfaces usually orangish red; black stripe along anterior margin of abdominal segment, lacking in some specimens, sometimes also whitish exudation next to black stripe and on pleura and lateral surface of pronotum. Scape, pedicel and legs with or without bands. VESTITURE: Densely setose. Anteocular lobe with short to moderate, erect setae; postocular lobe with short to long, erect setae. Anterior pronotal lobe with short to long, erect setae, confined to setal tracts dorsally. Abdomen with short to moderately long, erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.52. Postocular lobe moderately long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye smallish; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.5: 0.3. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus evident throughout, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc distinctly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle rounded, without projection. Scutellum moderately long; apex blunt, not projected. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about twice length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 128) Pygophore: Rounded; mid-lateral fold adjacent to paramere insertion; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process cylindrical; slender; moderately long; semi-erect; nearly straight; apex in posterior view rounded, slightly folded posteriad. Paramere: Cylindrical; long, surpassing medial process; directed posteriad; nearly straight; apical part not enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat squarish; lateral expansion arising close to base; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, slightly convex, laterally angulate; apex truncate, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, not connected by bridge; basally separate throughout. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; diverging; in lateral view very slightly curved; bridge long; extension of basal plate small, laterally expanded onto arm.

Female: (Fig. 127e, f) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 15.19-18.36 mm (mean 17.39 mm, Suppl. material 2).

Diagnosis

Although highly variable, the black and red coloration is distinctive of Z. longipes  . The combination of size, coloration, rounded humeral angle, and raised anterior pronotal lobe serves to separate this species from any others that may cause confusions. Males can also be recognized by the long and slender medial process, the apex slightly folded posteriad, and the long paramere, exceeding apex of medial process. Among the Zelus longipes  species group (Fig. 10), Z. bahiaensis  also has a long paramere clear exceedingly medial process, but the two species can be readily separated on the basis of coloration.

Distribution

Southern parts of US, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, Northern South America, Paraguay and Southern Brazil (Fig. 129). Countries with records: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Belize, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Saba, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, USA, Venezuela, Virgin Islands (British) and Virgin Islands (US).

Taxon discussion

Zelus longipes  is a highly variable species. In any given area there is a wide range of color and color pattern variations. The dorsal coloration can vary from nearly entirely orange brown, through various patterns of orange-brown and brownish-black, to almost completely black. The habitus images provided here only represent a subset of the range of variations. The most typical form is one with alternating orange and black areas on the dorsum, abdominal venter orange or reddish-brown, each segment black anteriorly, and legs black with two yellow rings medially. Hart (1986) discussed intraspecific variations and the history and uses of several synonyms.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Reduviidae

Genus

Zelus

Loc

Zelus longipes (L., 1767)

Zhang, Guanyang, Hart, Elwood R & Weirauch, Christiane 2016

2016
Loc

Evagoras rubidus

Burmeister 1843

1843
Loc

Evagoras speciosus

Burmeister 1843

1843
Loc

Evagoras speciosus

Burmeister 1843

1843
Loc

Evagoras rubidus

Burmeister 1843

1843
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Evagoras

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Zelus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Euagoras longipes

Burmeister 1835

1835
Loc

Euagoras longipes

Burmeister 1835

1835
Loc

Euagoras rubidus

Burmeister 1835

1835
Loc

Euagoras speciosus

Burmeister 1835

1835
Loc

Euagoras tricolor

Burmeister 1835

1835