Hemiphractus elioti

Hill, Robert L., Martin, Kathryn G., Stanley, Edward & Mendelson Iii, Joseph R., 2018, A taxonomic review of the genus Hemiphractus (Anura: Hemiphractidae) in Panama: Description of Two New Species, Resurrection of Hemiphractus panamensis (Stejneger, 1917), and Discussion of Hem, Zootaxa 4429 (3), pp. 495-512: 499-503

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4429.3.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:75A5698E-758E-473A-AE16-5118880AA412

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B27487B0-7234-FF9F-56A2-FF5CFD07F298

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hemiphractus elioti
status

new species

Hemiphractus elioti  new species

( FIgS. 2–4View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4, 6 View Figure )

Hemiphractus panamensis Duellman 1970  [in part; for reference to specimens from western Panama.

Hemiphractus fasciatus Trueb 1974  [in part; for reference to specimens from western Panama]; Duellman 2001 [in part; for reference to specimens from western Panama]; Crawford et al. 2012 [in part, for samples from Río Blanco and El Copé, Prov. Coclé, and Altos de Maria, Prov. Panamá, Panamá]; Castroviejo-Fisher et al. 2015 [in part; for sample from El Copé Prov. Coclé, Panamá]; Köhler 2011 [fig. 467; in part, for map showing isolated populations in western Panama].

Holotype. UTACV A-64827, A SMALL, ADULT MALE, OBTAINED AT PANAMá  : PROV. PANAMá: RíO MARIA, ALTOS DE MARIA, N 0 8 o 38.585’, W 0 80o 04.357’, 875 M, ON 20 MAY 2005, BY EDgARDO GRIFFITh AND HEIDI ROSS  .

Paratypes. FEMALES: UMMZAbout UMMZ 152622, 152623, PANAMA: COCLé: 6 MI [9.7 kM] NNW EL COPé, 600–800 M; AMNHAbout AMNH A124114, PANAMA: ChIRIqUI: CONTINENTAL DIVIDE ABOVE QUEBRADA DE ARENA, 1200–1300 M. MALES: AMNHAbout AMNH A124113, A124115, PANAMA: ChIRIqUI: CONTINENTAL DIVIDE ABOVE QUEBRADA DE ARENA, 1200–1300 M; UMMZAbout UMMZ 153118, PANAMA COCLé: 6 MI [9.7 kM] NNW EL COPé, ON CONTINENTAL DIVIDE AT SAwMILL, 600–800 M, USNMAbout USNM 572599, PANAMA: COCLé: N OF EL COPé.

Diagnosis. Hemiphractus elioti  MAY BE DISTINgUIShED FROM ALL SPECIES OF Hemiphractus  EXCEPT H. fasciatus  , H. kaylockae  , H. panamensis  , AND H. scutatus  BY NOT hAVINg A POSTORBITAL INDENTATION. Hemiphractus elioti  MAY BE DISTINgUIShED FROM H. scutatus  , AN AMAzONIAN SPECIES NOT OCCURRINg IN PANAMA, BY ITS SMALLER SIzE (MAXIMUM SVL IN MALES 52.5 MM VS. 57.4 MM IN H. scutatus  ; FEMALES 64.7 MM VS. 80.5 MM IN H. scutatus  ; DATA FOR H. scutatus  FROM TRUEB 1974), AND BY hAVINg SMALL EXPANDED PADS ON ThE FINgERS AND TOES (ABSENT IN H. scutatus  ). Hemiphractus elioti  DIFFERS FROM H. fasciatus  , H. kaylockae  , AND H. panamensis  BY hAVINg NEOPALATINE ODONTOIDS IN CONTACT wITh VOMERINE TEETh AT ThE CENTER OF ThE PALATAL REgION (NARROwLY SEPARATED IN H. kaylockae  VS. wIDELY SEPARATED IN BOTh H. panamensis  AND H. fasciatus  ; CONDITION UNkNOwN IN H. scutatus  ; FIg. 6 View Figure ). Hemiphractus elioti  FURThER DIFFERS FROM H. panamensis  AND H. fasciatus  BY hAVINg APPROXIMATELY SEVEN VOMERINE ODONTOIDS (VS. APPROXIMATELY TwO; CONDITION UNkNOwN IN H. scutatus  ; FIg. 6 View Figure ). Hemiphractus elioti  MAY BE DISTINgUIShED FROM H. kaylockae  BY hAVINg STRAIghT MARgIN OF ThE LATERAL MARgINS OF ThE PARAOCCIPITAL hORNS (wITh DISTINCT INDENTATION, FORMINg AN ANgULAR MARgIN IN H. kaylockae  ; FIg. 2 View Figure ); SUPRAORBITAL RIDgES ABSENT (EVIDENT, DISTINCT IN H. fasciatus  , wEAkLY DEVELOPED IN H. panamensis  ; FIgS. 2 View Figure , 9 View Figure ); CANThAL RIDgES USUALLY ABSENT OR INDISTINCT (EVIDENT, DISTINCT IN H. fasciatus  , H. kaylockae  , AND SLIghTLY DEVELOPED IN H. panamensis  ; FIgS. 2 View Figure , 9 View Figure ). Hemiphractus elioti  hAS A SUBTEMPORAL FENESTRA VERY SMALL IN MALES, APPROXIMATELY ONE-hALF OF ORBIT IN FEMALES, whEREAS ThE FENESTRAE ARE APPROXIMATELY ONE-ThIRD DIAMETER OF ThE ORBIT IN BOTh MALES AND FEMALES OF H. kaylockae  ( FIg. 2 View Figure ), APPROXIMATELY ½ DIAMETER OF ThE ORBIT OF FEMALES IN H. fasciatus  ( FIg. 9 View Figure ; MALES UNkNOwN), VERY LARgE, APPROXIMATELY 1.5 TIMES SIzE OF ORBIT, IN FEMALES OF H. panamensis  ( FIg. 9 View Figure ; MALES UNkNOwN); LATERAL MARgINS OF ThE qUADRATOjUgALS EXTEND TO LEVEL OF ThE LATERAL TIPS OF, OR VERY SLIghTLY BEYOND, ThE PARAOCCIPITAL hORNS IN DORSAL VIEw (EXTENDINg FAR BEYOND ThE LATERAL TIPS OF ThE PARAOCCIPITAL hORNS IN H. panamensis  ; FIgS. 2 View Figure , 9 View Figure ).

Description of the holotype. SMALL, ADULT MALE, SNOUT – VENT LENgTh ( SVL) 40.5 MM ( NOTAbout NOT INCLUDINg PROBOSCIS); TIBIA LENgTh 22.3 MM ( NOTAbout NOT INCLUDINg CALCAR); FOOT LENgTh 19.6 MM; hEAD LENgTh 20.3 MM ( NOTAbout NOT INCLUDINg PROBOSCIS); hEAD wIDTh 20.2 MM; SNOUT – PARAOCCIPITAL PROCESS LENgTh 20.2 MM; TYMPANUM OVOID, 5.4 MM hIgh X 3.8 MM wIDE; EYE DIAMETER 5.5 MM; INTERORBITAL DISTANCE 6.9 MM; EYE – TYMPANUM DISTANCE 3.1 MM; BODY MODERATE; hEAD LARgE, wIDER ThAN BODY, gREATEST wIDTh AT LEVEL OF PARS ARTICULARIS, BEARINg PROMINENT PARAOCCIPITAL PROCESSES; PARAOCCIPITAL PROCESSES PROjECTINg POSTEROLATERALLY IN DORSAL VIEw, EXTENDINg POSTERIOR TO LEVEL OF PARS ARTICULARIS; SkIN CO-OSSIFIED OVER DORSAL SURFACE OF SkULL; OCCIPITAL AND PARAOCCIPITAL RIDgES PRESENT, wEAkLY DEVELOPED; SUPRAORBITAL, zYgOMATIC RIDgES ABSENT; PREORBITAL, CANThAL RIDgES BARELY EVIDENT, LESS PROMINENT ThAN OCCIPITAL AND PARAOCCIPITAL RIDgES; CANThUS ROSTRALIS INDISTINCT; LOREAL REgION FLAT; PROBOSCIS ShORT, FLEShY, POINTED, TRIANgULAR IN CROSS SECTION; SNOUT ANgLINg POSTERIORLY AT LESS ThAN 45o FROM hORIzONTAL; NOSTRILS OVOID, SLIghTLY PROTUBERANT, PROjECTINg DORSALLY, SLIghTLY LATERALLY; LIPS NOTAbout NOT FLARED. TOP OF hEAD RELATIVELY FLAT; INTERORBITAL REgION 34 % hEAD wIDTh; EYE DIAMETER 27 % hEAD wIDTh; TYMPANUM VERTICALLY OVOID, ORIENTED POSTERIORLY AND SLIghTLY LATERALLY, VISIBLE BELOw PARAOCCIPITAL PROCESSES IN DORSAL VIEw, gREATEST DIAMETER 1.5 TIMES EYE DIAMETER; wIDTh OF TYMPANUM 1.2 TIMES EYE – TYMPANUM DISTANCE; UPPER EYELID BEARINg SINgLE ENLARgED POINTED PROjECTION AND SCATTERED SMALLER TUBERCLES; INTERORBITAL, POSTORBITAL TUBERCLES ABSENT; SkIN OVER POSTERIOR SURFACE OF PARS ARTICULARIS BEARINg ONE SMALL, FLEShY TUBERCLE. TONgUE LARgE, OVOID; VOCAL SLITS ABSENT; MANDIBLE BEARINg SERRATIONS ALONg ENTIRE LENgTh OF LOwER jAw, wITh TwO PROMINENT, TUSk- LIkE ODONTOIDS PROjECTINg FROM MENTOMECkELIAN BONES. AXILLARY MEMBRANE ABSENT; ThORACIC FOLD ABSENT; DERMAL

FOLDS ON wRISTS ABSENT; FINgERS LONg, SLENDER, BEARINg ENLARgED DISTAL PADS; FINgER PADS 2.6 TIMES DIAMETER OUTER METACARPAL TUBERCLE LOw, TRIPARTITE, DIFFUSE; INNER METACARPAL TUBERCLE OVOID, RAISED; RELATIVE LENgThS OF FINgERS: III> IV> II> I; LATERAL FLANgES ABSENT ON FINgERS; FOREARM wITh SCATTERED TUBERCLES, LOw, ROUND, BEARINg wEAkLY DEVELOPED LATERAL FRINgE; wEBBINg ON hANDS ABSENT. HEELS OF ADPRESSED hIND LIMBS OVERLAP; TIBIOTARSAL ARTICULATION EXTENDINg TO SNOUT whEN hINDLIMB EXTENDED; TARSAL FOLD PRESENT, wEAkLY DEVELOPED; TIBIA LENgTh 55 % SVL; FOOT LENgTh 48 % SVL; OUTER METATARSAL TUBERCLE wEAkLY DEVELOPED, DIFFUSE; INNER METATARSAL TUBERCLE PRESENT, RAISED, OVOID; TOES II–IV wITh PROMINENT, LATERAL FRINgE; FRINgE OF TOE V EXTENDINg ONTO OUTER SURFACE OF BASE OF TARSUS; DORSAL SURFACE OF hIND LIMB RELATIVELY SMOOTh, BEARINg IRREgULAR SETS OF TUBERCLES CONCENTRATED ON ThREE TRANSVERSE BANDS OF DARk-BROwN COLORATION ON ShANk; CALCAR PRESENT, SMALL; RELATIVE LENgThS OF TOES: IV> V> III> II> I; TOE PADS 2 X wIDTh OF PENULTIMATE PhALANgES OF DIgITS; wEBBINg BASAL. CLOACAL OPENINg DIRECTED POSTEROVENTRALLY AT MIDLEVEL OF ThIgh. DORSUM AND FLANkS SMOOTh; VENTRAL SURFACES AND ThROAT AND ChIN IRREgULARLY gRANULAR; SACRAL DIAPOPhYSES PROjECTINg LATERALLY BEYOND TRANSVERSE PROCESSES OF ALL VERTEBRAE; LATERAL TERMINI OF TRANSVERSE PROCESSES OF PRESACRAL VERTEBRAE VI–VIII NOT CO-OSSIFIED wITh SkIN (NEARLY TO LEVEL OF SACRAL DIAPOPhYSES) AND VISIBLE EXTERNALLY; SIX NEURAL SPINES PROjECTINg DORSALLY, CO-OSSIFIED wITh SkIN, VISIBLE EXTERNALLY. PUPIL hORIzONTAL.

IN ALCOhOL, DORSUM BEIgE wITh MINUTE BLACk PUNCTATIONS ( FIg. 4 View Figure ). ThIgh AND ShANk BEARINg ThREE INDISTINCT TRANSVERSE BANDS OF IRREgULAR, BROwN MOTTLINg ON DORSAL SURFACES, CORRESPONDINg wITh ThREE BANDS OF TUBERCLES ON ShANk ONLY; ULTIMATE AND PENULTIMATE PhALANgES OF TOES IV–V DARk BROwN; FOREARM BEARINg BROAD, BROwN, TRANSVERSE BAND ON DORSAL SURFACE; DORSAL SURFACE OF MANUS MORE PALE ThAN FOREARM, ULTIMATE AND PENULTIMATE PhALANgES OF FINgERS V–IV DARk BROwN. UPPER AND LOwER LIPS wITh NARROw, TRANSVERSE, DARk BROwN BANDS, NOT EXTENDINg ONTO PROXIMAL SURFACES. FLANkS BEIgE wITh DIFFUSE BROwN PUNCTATIONS; VENTER BEIgE wITh SCATTERED DIFFUSE, FINE BROwN MARkINgS; ThROAT BEIgE wITh FINE BROwN MOTTLINg. VENTRAL SURFACE OF FOREARM BEIgE wITh FINE, BROwN MOTTLINg; VENTRAL SURFACE OF hAND BEIgE. VENTRAL SURFACES OF hIND LIMB AND FOOT BEIgE wITh FINE, PALE BROwN MOTTLINg; TOES I AND II ARE UNIFORMLY BEIgE, TOES III–V UNIFORMLY BROwN.

Variation. CONSISTENT SEXUAL DIMORPhISM IN COLORATION OR SkIN TEXTURE wAS NOT EVIDENT. GRANULATION OF ThE ThROAT IN Hemiphractus elioti  IS VARIABLE AMONg SPECIMENS EXAMINED, VARYINg FROM SMOOThLY gRANULAR wITh NO TUBERCULATION (E.g., USNM 153118, 297543, 572600, 572601) TO SMOOThLY gRANULAR wITh DISCRETE TUBERCLES PRESENT (E.g., AMNH 107955, 124113, 124115, UMMZ 167358, 297542, 572599). TEXTURE OF ThE VENTER RANgES FROM SMOOTh (E.g., UMMZ 152622,152623) TO UNIFORMLY gRANULAR (E.g., UMMZ 297543); SOME SPECIMENS (E.g., AMNH 107955, 124113, 124114, UMMZ 153118, USNM 297541, 297542, 572599) wITh gRANULAR VENTERS ALSO hAD VARIABLE NUMBERS OF DISCRETE TUBERCLES PRESENT. ThROAT COLORATION IS hIghLY VARIABLE, INCLUDINg SPECIMENS wITh UNIFORM TAN (E.g., AMNH 107955, USNM 297542, 297543) TO UNIFORM DARk BROwN (E.g., AMNH 124113–15, UMMZ 152622, 152623, USNM 572599); EIThER PATTERN MAY INCLUDE A FAINT TO PROMINENT PALE-COLORED STRIPE EXTENDINg FROM ThE SYMPhYSIS OF ThE LOwER jAw ONTO ThE PECTORAL REgION, A SPECkLED PATTERN OF whITE AND BROwN (E.g., USNM 572600), OR A gENERALLY whITE gROUND COLORATION, wITh DISTINCT MARgINAL gRAY MARBLINg (E.g., USNM 572601). VENTRAL COLORATION IN MOST SPECIMENS TYPICALLY IS A CONTINUATION OF ThE gULAR COLORATION OF DARk BROwN OR TAN EXTENDINg TO APPROXIMATELY MID-ABDOMEN whERE IT ABRUPTLY ChANgES TO A TAN COLORATION (E.g., AMNH 107955, 124113–15, UMMZ 153118, 152622, 152623, USNM 572599). VENTRAL COLORATION OF SOME SPECIMENS (E.g., USNM 297541–43) IS UNIFORMLY PALE TAN, OR whITE (E.g., UMMZ 167358, 572600, USNM 572601); ONE SPECIMEN (USNM 572600) IS UNIqUE IN hAVINg A SPECkLED VENTRAL PATTERN OF BROwN AND whITE. ThE DORSUM IS UNIFORMLY SMOOThLY gRANULAR IN ALL SPECIMENS AND OVERALL A UNIFORM ShADE OF BROwN. MOST SPECIMENS ShOw A SINgLE DARk BAND ON ThE FOREARM (ABSENT OR BARELY DISCERNIBLE IN AMNH 107955, UMMZ 152623, USNM 297542, 297543, 572599, 572600); TwO OR ThREE DARk TRANSVERSE BANDS ON ThE FEMORAL AND TIBIAL REgIONS (ABSENT OR BARELY DISCERNIBLE ON AMNH 10795, UMMZ 152623, 297541–43, 572599–601), AND A DARk BAND OR ChEVRON PRESENT ON ThE SACRAL REgION (E.g., AMNH 124113–15, UMMZ 152623); IN ADDITION, SPECIMEN AMNH 124113 hAS A DARk IRREgULAR VERTEBRAL STRIPE EXTENDINg FROM ThE SACRAL BAND TO ThE OCCIPUT. ThE POSTERIOR SURFACE OF ThE ThIgh OF USNM 572599 BEARS A PATTERN OF TAN SPOTS OVER A BROwN BACkgROUND COLORATION, AND UMMZ 152623 hAS A DISTINCT whITE STRIPE ALONg ThIS SURFACE.

Etymology. EDgARDO GRIFFITh AND HEIDI ROSS hAVE gREATLY CONTRIBUTED TO ThE kNOwLEDgE BASE OF ThE NATURAL hISTORY, REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOgY, AND CONSERVATION OF PANAMANIAN AMPhIBIANS, INCLUDINg Hemiphractus  . WE ARE PROUD TO ACkNOwLEDgE ThE EFFORTS OF OUR FRIENDS AND COLLEAgUES BY NAMINg ThIS NEw SPECIES OF Hemiphractus  IN hONOR OF ThEIR SON, ELIOT. ThE SPECIFIC EPIThET IS ThE SINgULAR gENITIVE CASE OF ThE NAME ELIOT.

Distribution and ecology. SPECIMENS OF Hemiphractus elioti  hAVE BEEN COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS LOCALITIES IN ThE CORDILLERA DE TALAMANCA, INCLUDINg SITES IN ThE PROVINCES OF BOCAS DEL TORO, ChIRIqUI, COCLé, AND PANAMá IN wESTERN PANAMA ( FIg. 5 View Figure ). HABITAT IS PRE-MONTANE MOIST PRIMARY FOREST RANgINg IN ELEVATION FROM 600–1600 M. LIVINg SPECIMENS hAVE BEEN OBSERVED FROM gROUND LEVEL TO <1 M IN VEgETATION AT NIghT. COLORATION AND MORPhOLOgICAL FEATURES PROVIDE EXCELLENT CAMOUFLAgE AMONgST LEAF LITTER ON ThE FOREST FLOOR. CAPTIVE SPECIMENS AT ThE EL VALLEAbout VALLE AMPhIBIAN CONSERVATION CENTER FED READILY ON OThER ANURANS, gECkOS ( Hemidactylus  SPP.), NEwBORN MICE ( Mus musculus  ), AND EARThwORMS (H. ROSS AND E. GRIFFITh PERS. COMM., RLH PERS. OBS.). WhILE DISSECTINg SPECIMENS TO DETERMINE SEX, UNIDENTIFIED ANURANS wERE EVIDENT IN ThE STOMAChS OF SPECIMENS. NUMEROUS UNIDENTIFIED NEMATODE wORMS wERE ALSO OBSERVED IN ThE COELOM AND IMBEDDED IN ThE PERITONEUM AND TISSUES OF OThER ABDOMINAL ORgANS. MYERS (1966) DESCRIBED A DISTINCTIVE MOUTh gAPINg BEhAVIOR, YELLOw ORAL COLORATION, AND DEFENSIVE BITINg IN SPECIMENS REFERABLE TO H. panamensis  ( FIg. 3B View Figure ) AND H. kaylockae  ( FIg. 8C View Figure ). SIMILAR BEhAVIORS hAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN H. elioti  . REPEATED OBSERVATIONS OF CAPTIVE REPRODUCTION OF ThIS SPECIES AT ThE EL VALLEAbout VALLE AMPhIBIAN CONSERVATION CENTER hAVE ShOwN ThAT FEMALES CARRY EggS AND YOUNg ON ThEIR BACkS, AS IS kNOwN TO OCCUR IN ALL DESCRIBED SPECIES OF Hemiphractus  .

UMMZ

University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

NOT

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

VALLE

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Amphibia

Order

Anura

Family

Hemiphractidae

Genus

Hemiphractus

Loc

Hemiphractus elioti

Hill, Robert L., Martin, Kathryn G., Stanley, Edward & Mendelson Iii, Joseph R. 2018

2018
Loc

Hemiphractus fasciatus

Trueb 1974

1974
Loc

Hemiphractus panamensis

Duellman 1970

1970