Penestomus montanus , Miller, Jeremy A., Griswold, Charles E. & Haddad, Charles R., 2010

Miller, Jeremy A., Griswold, Charles E. & Haddad, Charles R., 2010, Taxonomic revision of the spider family Penestomidae (Araneae, Entelegynae), Zootaxa 2534, pp. 1-36: 19-23

publication ID

zt02534p036

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8F657D94-8DD3-4184-BB90-A43C3268DF42

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B322CC14-AAB4-F190-FB45-0C48BA8CC4A7

treatment provided by

Jeremy

scientific name

Penestomus montanus
status

sp. nov.

Penestomus montanus  sp. nov.

http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:5413BD60-C459-4606-BB30-5B 8E 1E 16AA57

Figs 3A, 3C, 12C, 12D, 13, 14, 21

Penestomus  sp. nov. 3: Miller et al., 2010, fig. 1F.

Type material. Holotype: ♀, near Ha Mphahama , Qacha's Nek Distr., Lesotho, 30°5.520'S, 28°35.746'E, 1820 m, 9 November 2003, sandstone ridge under rocks in webs, C. Haddad ( AcAT 2006/1534, NCA)GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 ♂, 4 ♀, 4 juveniles, same data as holotype ( AcAT 2006/1535, NCA)GoogleMaps  . SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape: 1 ♀, Qacha's Nek (Site No. 30) 30.16502°S, 28.62045°E, 1748 m, 28 November 2005, grassland active ground searching, UKZN [University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg] staff ( AcAT 2006/1538, MDTP 5192, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, same data ( AcAT 2006/1547, MDTP 2082, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juvenile, same data ( AcAT 2006/1542, MDTP 7053, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 1 juvenile, Qacha's Nek (Site No. 33) 30.15118°S, 28.62637°E, 1829 m, 30 November 2005, grassland active ground searching, UKZN staff ( AcAT 2006/1541, MDTP 77378, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, same data ( AcAT 2006/1537, MDTP 5483, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, Qacha's Nek (Site No. 36) 30.15538°S, 28.59319°E, 1692 m, 2 December 2005, grassland active ground searching, UKZN staff ( AcAT 2006/1540, MDTP 5888, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 juvenile, Prentjiesberg (Site No. 45) 31.1159°S, 28.1745°E, 1482 m, 10 December 2005, grassland active ground searching, UKZN staff ( AcAT 2006/1539, MDTP 78909, NCA)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, Prentjiesberg (Site No. 46) 31.1159°S, 28.1745°E, 1491 m, 10 December 2005, grassland active ground searching, UKZN staff ( AcAT 2006/1536, MDTP 6743, NCA)GoogleMaps  .

Etymology. The specific epithet is Latin for from the mountains, named for the montane habitats in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg and Maluti mountains in South Africa and Lesotho, respectively, to which the species is apparently endemic.

Diagnosis. Male distinguished by the distal part of RTA1, which has the bifid tips relatively short (Fig. 14 A), longer in P. egazini  and P armatus  (Fig. 10 A). Further distinguished by the shape of the MA, which has a lobe on the anterior margin of the tail piece (Fig. 14 A), absent from other species, and by the embolic tip, which is subrectangular and entire in P montanus  (Fig. 14 A), bifid in other species (Fig. 10 A).

Female distinguished from other planus  group species except P. prendinii  sp. nov. by the grooves on the PL, which diverge posteriorly (Fig. 12 C); other species except P. prendinii  sp. nov. have the grooves nearly parallel (Fig. 8 A). Distinguished from P. prendinii  sp. nov. by the posterior margin of the AL, which is straight medially, then turns sharply to form lateral corners that project somewhat more posteriorly (Fig. 12 E). The AL in P. montanus  is unique among planus  group species in being nearly oval in shape and weakly differentiated from the rest of the epigynum (Fig. 12 C).

Description. Carapace brown, rugose, covered by fine black setae, with broad white setae concentrated in thoracic region, fovea round, shallow (Figs 13 A, C). Sternum dusky pale yellow (Figs 13 B, D). Chelicerae dark red-brown, with four promarginal teeth, two retromarginal teeth. Chelicerae with fine black setae, those of male with broad white setae in addition. Legs with broad white setae (more in male than female) and fine black setae. Tibiae with two rows of dorsal trichobothria, metatarsi with one distal trichobothrium. Legs brown basally, pale yellow distally. Abdomen dark gray dorsally with pair of light dorsolateral patches, covered with mixture of fine black and broad white setae (Figs 13 A, C).

Male pedipalp: RTA1 with inside tip short and blunt, outside tip curved and pointed (Fig. 14 A). Dorsal ridge short, restricted to base of RTA1. RTA2 with apex short, projecting distally (Fig. 14 C). MA with anterior lobe arising from near distal part of tail (Fig. 14 A). Embolus without keel on outer margin, distal region flat, subrectangular, not bifid (Figs 14 A, B).

Epigynum. AL suboval, weakly differentiated from surrounding cuticle; PL approximately 1/4 length of epigynum, with grooves diverging posteriorly (Fig. 12 C).

Male macrosetae: Leg I: femur d1, tibia r2-2-2, v1-2 -2, metatarsus r1-1, v2-2 -2; leg II: femur d1, tibia p 1-1-2, r1, v2-2 -2, metatarsus r1, v2-2; leg III: femur d1, tibia r1, v2-2 -2, metatarsus r1, v1-2; leg IV: femur d1, tibia v2-2 -3-2, metatarsus v2-1 -1-2, tarsus r1.

Female macrosetae. Leg I: femur d1, tibia v1-2 -2, metatarsus v2-2 -2; leg II: femur d1, tibia v1-2, metatarsus v2-2; leg III: femur d1, tibia v2, metatarsus v2; leg IV: femur d1, tibia v2, metatarsus v1-1 -1-1-2, tarsus r1.

Paratype male (AcAT 2006/1535): Total length 4.0, carapace 1.84 long, 1.34 wide, 0.45 high, sternum 1.03 long, 0.63 wide. Leg measurements:

Paratype female (AcAT 2006/1535): Total length 4.1, carapace 1.8 long, 1.5 wide, 0.3 high, sternum 1.1 long, 0.6 wide. Leg measurements:

Natural history. This species occupies a relatively narrow altitudinal range (collected between 1480- 1830 m), which coincides with sandstone rock formations. Above 2000m sandstone is virtually absent, and granite and basalt formations dominate. The specimens from Ha Mphahama were collected on a sandstone ridge and constructed their webs underneath rocks lying on the soil surface. The webs followed a winding path that varied from ca. 6 cm in early instar immatures to ca. 18 cm in one adult female. Prey remains included Formicidae  , Curculionidae  HNS  and small Gryllidae  HNS  .

Distribution. Known from Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, and Lesotho (Fig. 21).