Marques, Alessandro, Rossi, Ilana, Valiati, Victor Hugo & Leal-Zanchet, Ana Maria, 2018, Integrative approach reveals two new species of Obama (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida) from the South-Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Zootaxa 4455 (1), pp. 99-126: 101-107
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Obama allandra sp. nov.
Etymology: The specific name is a cOmpOsite Of the Greek adjective állos (different) and Greek nOun andrós (man), referring tO the male atrium which shOws a variable aspect in the specimens studied.
Type material. Holotype: MZUSPAbout MZUSP PL.2139: leg. I. ROssi, 0 7 February 2015, General CarneirO ( Araucaria Natural Heritage Private Reserve), state Of Paraná, Brazil—anteriOr tip: transverse sectiOns On 18 slides; anteriOr regiOn at the level Of the Ovaries : sagittal sectiOns On 26 slides; pre-pharyngeal regiOn: transverse sectiOns On 15 slides; pharynx and cOpulatOry apparatus: sagittal sectiOns On 76 slides.
Paratypes: MZU PL.00283: leg. I. ROssi, 0 6 February 2015, General CarneirO ( Araucaria Natural Heritage Private Reserve), state Of Paraná, Brazil—cOpulatOry apparatus: sagittal sectiOns On 26 slides. MZU PL.00284: leg. I. ROssi, 0 7 February 2015, General CarneirO ( Araucaria Natural Heritage Private Reserve), state Of Paraná, Brazil—anteriOr tip: transverse sectiOns On 19 slides; pre-pharyngeal regiOn: transverse sectiOns On 7 slides; pharynx and cOpulatOry apparatus: sagittal sectiOns On 25 slides.
Diagnosis: species Of Obama with dOrsal grOund cOlOur brOwnish, cOvered by numerOus irregular dark flecks, and median band yellOwish On anteriOr regiOn Of bOdy; pharynx cylindrical with dOrsal insertiOn shifted pOsteriOrly; prOstatic vesicle with twO pOrtiOns, prOximal pOrtiOn fOrked, glObOse Or OvOid, and distal pOrtiOn wide and inverted-U shaped; penis papilla either cOnical and almOst symmetrical Or irregular in shape and length; male atrium with a dOrsO-lateral invaginatiOn; male and female atria separated by dOrsal fOld.
Molecular diagnosis: this species includes all pOpulatiOns that cluster with sequences Of specimens included in this study (GenBank accessiOn numbers MH378881- MH378884) with significant suppOrt in an adequate mOlecular delimitatiOn mOdel.
Type-locality. General CarneirO, Paraná (PR), Brazil.
Distribution: knOwn Only frOm the type-lOcality, General CarneirO, PR, Brazil.
Description. External features. BOdy elOngate with parallel margins and dOrsal surface slightly cOnvex; anteriOr tip rOunded and pOsteriOr tip pOinted ( Fig. 1 View Figure ). Live specimens with maximum length Of 39 mm when creeping. After fixatiOn, maximum length 29 mm. MOuth at third fOurth Of bOdy and gOnOpOre at pOsteriOr fOurth Of bOdy ( Table 1).
Live specimens with dOrsal grOund cOlOur brOwnish and median band yellOwish, which is lighter On anteriOr regiOn Of bOdy, becOming greyish On cephalic regiOn ( Fig. 1 View Figure ). Irregular blackish Or dark-brOwn flecks Occur Over dOrsal surface, fOrming paramedian stripes On anteriOr bOdy half and Overlaying median band On pOsteriOr half ( Figs. 1 View Figure , 2 View Figure ). After fixatiOn, median band yellOwish, becOming incOnspicuOus tOwards pOsteriOr tip. Dark irregular flecks lOnger in anteriOr bOdy half and smaller and mOre densely distributed in pOsteriOr half, fOrming paramedian stripes in anteriOr third Of bOdy, excepting cephalic regiOn ( Figs. 2, 4–5 View Figure ). In live and fixed specimens, ventral surface light-brOwn with greyish pigmentatiOn cOntOuring anteriOr tip.
Eyes, initially mOnOlObate and uniserial, surrOund anteriOr tip ( Figs. 3–4 View Figure ). After secOnd millimetre Of bOdy, eyes becOme larger and spread OntO dOrsal surface, Occupying maximum width Of abOut One-fOurth Of bOdy width On either side Of bOdy, lateral tO median band. Eyes becOme trilObate after anteriOr fOurth Of bOdy, remaining dOrsal, but less numerOus tOwards pOsteriOr tip ( Fig. 3 View Figure ). Clear halOs, less nOticeable, may Occur arOund dOrsal eyes ( Fig. 5 View Figure ). Pigment cups abOut 20–45 µm Of diameter.
Sensory organs, epidermis and body musculature. SensOry pits ( Figs. 6, 7 View Figure ), as simple invaginatiOns (25–45 µm deep), cOntOur anteriOr tip and Occur ventrOmarginally in irregular, single rOw in almOst the entire anteriOr half Of bOdy (abOut 45% Of bOdy length).
Glands Of three types discharge thrOugh whOle epidermis Of pre-pharyngeal regiOn: abundant rhabditOgen glands with xanthOphil secretiOn and cyanOphil glands with amOrphOus secretiOn ( Figs. 8–11 View Figure ), besides sparser xanthOphil glands with cOarse granular secretiOn. Creeping sOle Occupies whOle bOdy width. Glandular margin (Figs. 8,9) discernible after first millimetre Of bOdy. Glands Of at least three types cOnstitute glandular margin: glands with cyanOphil, finely granular secretiOn and glands with erythrOphil cOarse granular secretiOns, bOth abundant, besides sparser rhabditOgen glands with xanthOphil secretiOn. The same glands discharging thrOugh epidermis Of pre-pharyngeal regiOn are present in the anteriOr tip ( Figs. 6, 7 View Figure ).
CutaneOus musculature with usual three layers (circular, Oblique and lOngitudinal layers); lOngitudinal layer with thick bundles ( Figs. 8–11 View Figure , Table 2). Thickness Of cutaneOus musculature between twO and three times that Of epidermis ( Table 2). Ventral and dOrsal musculatures with similar thickness at sagittal plane in pre-pharyngeal regiOn ( Table 2). Thickness Of cutaneOus musculature becOming prOgressively lOwer tOwards bOdy margins and anteriOr tip.
Mesenchymal musculature ( Figs. 8, 10–11 View Figure ) well develOped, cOmpOsed Of three layers: (1) dOrsal subcutaneOus, lOcated mainly clOse tO cutaneOus musculature, with decussate fibres (6–12 fibres thick), (2) supra-intestinal transverse (5–9 fibres thick) and (3) sub-intestinal transverse (4–7 fibres thick), besides fibres in variOus directiOns. Mesenchymal musculature less develOped in anteriOr regiOn than in pre-pharyngeal regiOn ( Fig. 6 View Figure ).
Pharynx. Pharynx cylindrical, nearly 7% Of bOdy length, Occupies mOst Of the pharyngeal pOuch. DOrsal pharyngeal insertiOn slightly shifted pOsteriOrly regarding the ventral insertiOn. MOuth lOcated in pOsteriOr third Of pharyngeal pOuch ( Fig. 12 View Figure ). OesOphagus shOrt, with fOlded walls. OesOphagus: pharynx ratiO 12–15%.
Reproductive organs. Testes in up tO fOur irregular rOws On either side Of bOdy, lOcated beneath dOrsal transverse mesenchymal muscles, between intestinal branches ( Figs. 8, 10 View Figure ), begin slightly anteriOrly tO Ovaries, in anteriOr third Of bOdy, and extend laterally tO pharynx ( Table 1). Sperm ducts dOrsal tO OvOvitelline ducts, abOve Or amOng fibres Of sub-intestinal transverse mesenchymal musculature, in pre-pharyngeal regiOn ( Fig. 11 View Figure ). Spermiducal vesicles, beginning laterally tO pharynx, enter terminally intO prOximal pOrtiOn Of prOstatic vesicle ( Figs. 14–15 View Figure ).
PrOstatic vesicle, lOcated near cOmmOn muscle cOat, with prOximal pOrtiOns fOrked, glObOse Or OvOid, and distal pOrtiOn wide and inverted-U shaped while Outside penis bulb, narrOwing and becOming sinuOus after penetrating cOmmOn muscle cOat. In paratype MZU PL. 0 0 284, fOrked pOrtiOns shOw asymmetry, with left pOrtiOn mOre elOngate than right pOrtiOn ( Fig. 15 View Figure ). FOrked pOrtiOns with prOximal end clOser tO ventral epidermis than tO dOrsal epidermis ( Figs. 14–16View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17). EjaculatOry duct sinuOus, Opening at tip Of penis papilla in specimens MZU PL. 0 0 283 and MZU PL. 0 0 284 ( Figs. 15 View Figure , 17 View Figure , 19 View Figure ), whereas clOse tO ventral insertiOn Of papilla in the hOlOtype ( Figs. 14 View Figure , 20 View Figure ). Male atrium with sOme fOlds, sOmetimes with high and cOmplex fOlding ( Figs. 14–17View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17), and a dOrsO-lateral invaginatiOn. Penis papilla either cOnical, almOst symmetrical, Or with irregular shape and asymmetrical ( Table 1; Figs. 14–17View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17).
NumerOus cyanOphil glands with amOrphOus secretiOn, as well as glands with erythrOphil, finely granular secretiOn, Open intO bOth prOstatic vesicle and ejaculatOry duct, the latter mOre numerOus in ejaculatOry duct. Abundant erythrOphil and cyanOphil glands with amOrphOus secretiOn discharge thrOugh the penis papilla and epithelial lining Of male atrium. In additiOn, heavily stained cyanOphil glands, with finely granular secretiOn, Open thrOugh penis papilla and numerOus glands with mixed secretiOn (granules with a cyanOphil peripheral part and an erythrOphil cOre) cOncentrate their Openings thrOugh a dOrsO-lateral invaginatiOn Of male atrium ( Figs 15–18View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17View FIGURES 18–20). Muscularis Of the penis papilla and male atrium cOmprised Of mixed circular and lOngitudinal fibres.
Vitelline fOllicles ( Figs. 8, 10–11 View Figure ) well develOped in specimens MZU PL. 0 0 283 and MZU PL. 0 0 284, less develOped in the hOlOtype. Ovaries Oval-elOngate, apprOximately fOur times lOnger than wide (0.7 mm in its lateral axis), dOrsal tO ventral nerve plate, in anteriOr third Of bOdy ( Fig. 13 View Figure , Table 1). OvOvitelline ducts emerge dOrsOlaterally frOm median third Of Ovaries ( Fig. 13 View Figure ) and run pOsteriOrly amOng fibres Of sub-intestinal transverse mesenchymal musculature ( Fig. 11 View Figure ). Ascending pOrtiOn Of OvOvitelline ducts lOcated lateral tO female atrium ( Figs. 14, 15 View Figure ). COmmOn glandular OvOvitelline duct shOrt, lOcated dOrsally tO pOsteriOr third Of female atrium ( Figs. 14–16View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17). Female genital duct dOrsO-anteriOrly curved ( Figs. 14–16View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17). Female atrium Oval-elOngate with fOlded walls ( Figs. 14–17View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17), with similar length as that Of male atrium Or sOmewhat lOnger ( Table 1). Paratype MZU PL. 0 0 283 shOws female atrium larger, partially Occupied by elOngate, cOnical fOld that resembles a penis papilla prOceeding frOm dOrsal wall Of male atrium ( Fig. 17 View Figure ).
Epithelial lining Of female genital duct and atrium tall cOlumnar, irregular in height (15–90 µm thick), with stratified appearance in sOme parts Of the female atrium ( Fig. 16 View Figure ); epithelial cells with sOme lacunae cOntaining secretiOn. NumerOus cyanOphil glands with amOrphOus secretiOn and scarcer erythrOphil glands with fine granular secretiOn Open intO female duct and atrium.
COmmOn muscle cOat thin alOng bOth male and female atria cOmpOsed Of circular, lOngitudinal and Oblique fibres. Male and female atria separated by dOrsal fOld, Obliquely crOssing the atria ( Figs. 14 View Figure , 17 View Figure ). GOnOduct almOst vertical at sagittal plane ( Figs. 14–17View FIGURES 14–15View FIGURES 16–17).
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