Cooke-Mcewen, Crystal & Gates, Michael, 2020, Contributions to Disholcaspis Dalla Torre And Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), Zootaxa 4859 (3), pp. 355-382 : 377

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Disholcaspis   type specimen notes

During the course of this study type and some non-type specimens were imaged for a majority of Disholcaspis   species. Supplementary Table 1 View TABLE 1 lists all the species in the genus Disholcaspis   , their type location (if determined during this study), and which ones were imaged. There has also been a considerable amount of imaging performed on some of Kinsey’s manuscript names. These specimens are listed as Disholcaspis   sp. 1–17 in Table 1 View TABLE 1 and Supplementary Table 1 View TABLE 1 . Consistent diagnostic differences could not be determined between the manuscript name specimens and their closely related species so none are described at this time.

The type specimen for D. cinerosa   is considered missing. It was supposed to be deposited at the American Entomological Society collection (ANSP) with the rest of Bassett’s types but was documented in 1922 as missing at the time of the collection relocation ( Cresson 1922). The collection at ANSP was checked again during this study and this specimen was determined to still be missing. Cresson (1922) mentioned that the type collection was divided with the intention of sending some specimens to Yale or Cornell. This side collection was said to have been evidently destroyed by Mrs. Bassett after her husband’s death ( Cresson 1922). It is possible the D. cinerosa   type was with those ill-fated specimens, but just in case the intended destinations for that side collection was checked as well. Yale looked for the specimen and did not have it in their holdings. Cornell’s collection has their types digitized and there were no specimens for this species listed in their collection (“Browse the Collection”, 2012). Cresson (1922) also made note that some of the Bassett types were found at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and “other collections”. All the Disholcaspis   types were requested from AMNH and this type was not found during their search for specimens. It is possible that the D. cinerosa   type may be held in another collection. Between 1881, when Bassett first described the species, and 1902 when he died, the only two gall wasp workers to publish research papers dealing with Disholcaspis   were Gillette and Ashmead (Supplementary Table 1 View TABLE 1 ). The Colorado State University C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity (CSUC) did not contain the specimen so it does not appear that Gillette had the specimen on loan. Ashmead’s Hymenoptera   collection ended up at USNM (Smithsonian NMNH Department of Entomology 2017, para. 3), but the D. cinerosa   type was not found in that collection either. The curator at USNM mentioned that some of Ashmead’s material may have ended up at the British museum and their curator was not able to find the D. cinerosa   type in their collection. The Illinois Natural History Survey was also mentioned by the USNM curator as a good place to search for early gall worker material so they were also contacted about this type specimen, but without success in finding it. This specimen is currently considered lost.

The location of the D. mexicana Beutenmu   ̈ller type specimen is also unknown. It should probably be in the AMNH with the rest of Beutenmüller’s specimens, but it could not be located. However, AMNH did have some general collection specimens for that species. Another specimen that was expected to be at AMNH, but whose location is currently unknown is the type for D. lasia sublasius (Kinsey)   . The type for the other subspecies described in that same paper was found at AMNH, but not this particular specimen.

It is unclear whether a type specimen exists for D. quercusmamma   . There was no clearly designated specimen in the original description ( Walsh and Riley 1869). During the various searches for Disholcaspis   types (Supplementary Table 1 View TABLE 1 ) a specimen for this species was never found. Even the collection at the Illinois Natural History Survey was photographed and searched for this specimen. Unfortunately, there are no other clues or mentions of a type to aid in the search.

As for the D. spongiosa   type specimen, Beutenmüller (1909) mentioned that it might be at the Berlin museum. The Museum für Naturkunde ( ZMHB) in Berlin was contacted and the type could not be found despite their col- lection including much of Karsch’s material. The original description ( Karsch 1880) did not specify that a type was designated so it is possible one does not exist   .