Aphonopelma chalcodes Chamberlin, 1940

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 58-71

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B44C33C6-9D5A-4826-40D5-AE70D306D0C8

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scientific name

Aphonopelma chalcodes Chamberlin, 1940
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma chalcodes Chamberlin, 1940  Figures 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35; Suppl. material 4

Aphonopelma chalcodes  Chamberlin, 1940: 7; male holotype, male paratype, and two female paratypes from Tucson, Pima Co., Arizona, 32.221743 -110.926479 6, elev. 2473ft., 27.vii.1936, coll. Prof. C.T. Vorhies; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica chalcodes  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma chalcodes  Smith, 1995: 82.

Aphonopelma apacheum  Chamberlin, 1940: 15; male holotype from Tucson, Pima Co., Arizona, 32.221743 -110.926479 6, elev. 2473ft., elev. ft., no collecting date, coll. unknown; deposited in AMNH. Paratype male from the Santa Catalina Mountains, Pima Co., Arizona, 32.315500 -110.711168 5, elev. 3800ft., 8-12.vii.1916, coll. Dr. F.E. Lutz; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica apacheum  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma apacheum  Smith, 1995: 73. syn. n.

Aphonopelma minchi  Smith, 1995: 121; male holotype from Usery Pass Rd., near Usery Mountain Regional Park, Maricopa Co., Arizona, 33.482543 -111.623178 4, elev. 2033ft., no collecting date, coll. A. Smith and M. Sullivan; deposited in BMNH. Paratype male from western end of Apache Trail, 33.444378 -111.510491 5, elev. 1937ft., no collecting date, coll. A. Smith and M. Sullivan; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Aphonopelma schmidti  Smith, 1995: 140; male holotype and female paratype from Mineral Mountain, near Florence Junction on Hwy 60, Pinal Co., Arizona, 33.265044 -111.348427 5, elev. 1916ft., 10.viii.1992, coll. A. Smith and M. Sullivan; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Aphonopelma stahnkei  Smith 1995: 146; male holotype and male paratype from Tempe, Maricopa Co., Arizona, 33.425510 -111.940005 6, elev. 1176ft., no collecting date, coll. Dr. H.L. Stahnke; deposited in BMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma chalcodes  (Fig. 30) is a member of the iodius  species group and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear DNA identifies Aphonopelma chalcodes  as a strongly supported lineage that is sister to the rest of the iodius  species group ( Aphonopelma eutylenum  , Aphonopelma iodius  , and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  sp. n.) (Fig. 8). Aside from distribution, there are no pronounced measurements or characters that help discriminate Aphonopelma chalcodes  from the phenotypically similar species in the iodius  species group. Females and non-mature males of Aphonopelma chalcodes  can easily be differentiated from Aphonopelma catalina  sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua  sp. n., Aphonopelma madera  sp. n., Aphonopelma marxi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  by possessing a more lightly colored carapace (the other species are generally black or dark brown). Males and females of Aphonopelma chalcodes  can easily be differentiated from syntopic members of the paloma  species group ( mareki  sp. n., paloma  , parvum  sp. n., prenticei  sp. n., saguaro  sp. n., and superstitionense  sp. n.) by their greater extent of metatarsal scopulation on legs III and IV and their much larger size. The most significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma chalcodes  from its syntopic species are M3 and extent of metatarsus IV scopulation. Male Aphonopelma chalcodes  can be distinguished by possessing a larger PTl/M3 (≥0.65; 0.65-0.76) than Aphonopelma gabeli  (≤0.64; 0.58-0.64); by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (42%-74%) than Aphonopelma catalina  (22%-36%), Aphonopelma chiricahua  (33%-40%), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (20%-36%); and by possessing a smaller F1/M3 (≤1.31; 1.13-1.31) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≥1.57; 1.57-1.68), Aphonopelma chiricahua  (≥1.40; 1.40-1.75), Aphonopelma madera  (≥1.51; 1.51-1.69), Aphonopelma marxi  (≥1.58; 1.58-1.87), and Aphonopelma peloncillo  sp. n. (≥1.33; 1.33-1.49). The most significant measurement that distinguishes female Aphonopelma chalcodes  from its syntopic species is extent of metatarsus IV scopulation. Female Aphonopelma chalcodes  can be distinguished by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (56%-81%) than Aphonopelma catalina  (37%-46%), Aphonopelma chiricahua  (27% ± (only 1 specimen)), Aphonopelma gabeli  (39%-53%), Aphonopelma madera  (29%-35%), Aphonopelma marxi  (33%-51%), Aphonopelma peloncillo  (32%-39%), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (29%-37%).

Redescription of male exemplar

(APH_0954; Fig. 31). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Black and faded brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 16.33 mm long, 15.71 mm wide; Hirsute; densely clothed with light brown iridescent pubescence mostly appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER procurved, PER recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus very slightly extends forward on a curve - mostly straight; LBl 2.15, LBw 2.76; sternum hirsute, clothed with shorter black/dark brown, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in a mix of short/medium length black or faded black pubescence, femurs are darker. Metatarsus I slightly curved. F1 16.51; F1w 3.99; P1 7.12; T1 14.12; M1 13.37; A1 8.19; F3 13.73; F3w 4.15; P3 5.67; T3 10.59; M3 13.16; A3 7.95; F4 16.44; F4w 3.78; P4 6.16; T4 13.74; M4 16.84; A4 8.55; femur III is slightly swollen. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 81.3%; leg IV (SC4) = 76.4%. Three ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; four ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered/thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and three spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 9.54, PTw 3.15. When extended, embolus tapers and curves rapidly to the retrolateral side near apex; transition area from bulb to embolus is longer and wider than other species in the iodius  group, no keels.

Variation (13).Cl 14.43-21.07 (16.98 ± 0.51), Cw 13.23-18.32 (15.675 ± 0.45), LBl 1.44-2.6 (2.07 ± 0.08), LBw 1.69-2.91 (2.401 ± 0.08), F1 14.56-19.13 (16.687 ± 0.38), F1w 3.65-5.05 (4.119 ± 0.12), P1 6.0-8.11 (6.852 ± 0.16), T1 13.29-15.65 (14.136 ± 0.19), M1 12.08-15.77 (13.313 ± 0.3), A1 7.49-9.02 (8.219 ± 0.14), L1 length 53.99-67.39 (59.208 ± 1.09), F3 12.86-15.58 (14.193 ± 0.25), F3w 3.97-5.5 (4.369 ± 0.13), P3 5.08-6.86 (5.769 ± 0.15), T3 10.26-12.33 (11.244 ± 0.21), M3 12.46-14.84 (13.615 ± 0.24), A3 7.16-9.09 (8.096 ± 0.15), L3 length 48.04-58.45 (52.917 ± 0.92), F4 15.25-18.59 (16.683 ± 0.3), F4w 3.53-5.09 (4.012 ± 0.12), P4 5.09-7.09 (6.138 ± 0.15), T4 12.11-15.53 (13.848 ± 0.28), M4 14.9-20.1 (17.587 ± 0.39), A4 8.03-10.05 (8.951 ± 0.17), L4 length 56.11-70.85 (63.208 ± 1.17), PTl 8.835-11.026 (9.601 ± 0.19), PTw 2.79-3.48 (3.065 ± 0.06), SC3 ratio 0.651-0.86 (0.773 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.428-0.764 (0.647 ± 0.03), Coxa I setae = tapered, F3 condition = normal/slightly swollen.

Redescription of female exemplar

(APH_0887; Figs 32-34). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded brown/black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 20.37 mm long, 18.10 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with light brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER slightly recurved; large chelicerae, clypeus mostly straight; LBl 2.45, LBw 3.01; sternum very hirsute, clothed with dark brown setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972); ventral side with shorter black/dark brown setae. Spermathecae: Paired and separate with wide bases, tapering and slightly curving medially towards capitate bulbs, with secondary medial bulges. Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in medium and long light brown pubescence, femurs much darker. F1 14.74; F1w 4.24; P1 6.40; T1 10.41; M1 8.93; A1 7.36; F3 12.95; F3w 4.27; P3 5.67; T3 9.23; M3 9.96; A3 7.32; F4 15.91; F4w 4.55; P4 6.66; T4 12.45; M4 13.79; A4 7.72. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 89.7%; leg IV (SC4) = 64.8%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; six ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered/thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and six spinose setae on the prolateral tibia.

Variation (10).Cl 13.49-21.79 (18.548 ± 0.72), Cw 11.72-19.71 (16.589 ± 0.68), LBl 1.90-2.61 (2.375 ± 0.07), LBw 2.21-3.02 (2.773 ± 0.1), F1 11.39-16.37 (14.684 ± 0.42), F1w 3.34-4.76 (4.397 ± 0.14), P1 5.03-7.26 (6.554 ± 0.21), T1 9.03-12.42 (11.224 ± 0.31), M1 6.81-11.81 (9.35 ± 0.41), A1 5.68-7.39 (7.012 ± 0.16), L1 length 37.94-55.02 (48.824 ± 1.42), F3 9.38-13.96 (12.093 ± 0.38), F3w 3.15-4.58 (4.028 ± 0.13), P3 3.92-6.25 (5.575 ± 0.21), T3 6.78-9.67 (8.581 ± 0.25), M3 7.83- 11.6 (9.925 ± 0.34), A3 5.89-7.32 (7.035 ± 0.14), L3 length 33.8-48.7 (43.209 ± 1.2), F4 12.15-16.3 (14.699 ± 0.36), F4w 3.11-4.73 (4.134 ± 0.14), P4 4.25-6.98 (6.134 ± 0.24), T4 9.59-12.45 (11.334 ± 0.25), M4 11.16-15.35 (13.498 ± 0.37), A4 6.51-8.28 (7.676 ± 0.15), L4 length 43.66-57.92 (53.341 ± 1.24), SC3 ratio 0.728-0.926 (0.843 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.566-0.812 (0.682 ± 0.03), Coxa I setae = medium tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figures 33-34.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Cochise: 0.6 miles E of Portal, 31.913718 -109.130089 4, 4700ft., [AUMS_2676, 28/3/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; 1.4 miles NW Portal Rd on FR 42B (San Simon Rd); 31.926949 -109.169118 1, 5126ft., [APH_1229, 7/8/10, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; 10 miles east of Dos Cabezas, 31.93051 -109.794753 5, 4281ft., [APH_2062, 4/8/71, 1♂, A. Jung, AMNH]; 2.4 miles NW Portal Rd on FR 42B (San Simon Rd); 31.932782 -109.183094 1, 5293ft., [APH_1230, 7/8/10, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; 2.6 miles NW Airport Rd on Muleshoe Ranch Rd, 32.259698 -110.103465 1, 4967ft., [APH_0710, 19/7/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 5 miles north of Douglas, 31.427339 -109.545202 5, 4163ft., [APH_2069, 18/8/1964, 2♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; 5 miles south of Apache, 31.631987 -109.093064 5, 4528ft., [APH_2074, 22/7/1964, 2♂, W.J. Gertsch and J.A. Woods, AMNH]; 5.1 miles NW AZ/NM state line on Portal Rd, 31.91264458 -109.1192604 2, 4620ft., [APH_0386, 31/7/2008, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Airport Rd, W of Wilcox, 32.23908 -109.975427 1, 4424ft., [APH_0709, 19/7/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; along Montezuma Canyon Rd, 31.385646 -110.406385 1, 5650ft., [APH_1485, 2 /8/12, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Austin Deskewies, AUMNH]; along Ramsey Canyon Rd, 31.460005 -110.295399 1, 5171ft., [APH_1225, 6/8/10, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; Benson, 31.967008 -110.29502 5, 3589ft., [APH_2579, 8/1/54, 1♂, George Bredt, AMNH]; Cochise Cemetery (along Hwy-191); 32.093827 -109.910145 1, 4180ft., [APH_0619-621, 11/7/09, 2♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Courtland Rd, near Jct. Ghost Town Trail, 31.758972 -109.796338 1, 4596ft., [APH_0715, 20/7/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Oro Rd, just NE of Hwy-80, 31.402388 -109.773026 1, 4277ft., [APH_0686, 17/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Portal, 31.913703 -109.14145 5, 4770ft., [APH_2057, 22/7/1976, 1♀, Mark Russel, AMNH]; [APH_2058, 1/9/64, 1♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2060, 7/1/67, 1♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2066, 27/8/1970, 1♀, 1♂, Chamberlin, AMNH]; [APH_2067-2068, 10/7/68, 2♂, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2078, 8/1/65, 1♀, W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; Rucker Canyon Rd, 31.784784 -109.557742 1, 4575ft., [APH_0713-0714, 20/7/2009, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; S of Sierra Vista at mouth of Ramsey Canyon, 31.463612 -110.291459 5, 5095ft., [AUMS_2396, 14/7/1993, 1♂, V. Roth, AUMNH]; Sulphur Canyon, near Portal , 31.892604 -109.167082 5, 5860ft., [APH_2059, 26/7/1955, 1♀, Guy Miller, AMNH]; Truman Rd, just off Hwy-82, 31.700137 - 110.296948 1, 4242ft., [APH_0687-0690, 17/7/2009, 1♀, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Coconino: Flagstaff, 35.200524 -111.639452 6, 6929ft., [APH_2586, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Mayer, just S of Prescott, 34.395374 -112.237457 5, 4488ft., [AUMS_2390, 6/20/09, 1♂, Tom Roberts, AUMNH]; Schnebly Hill Road NE of Sedona, 34.887682 -111.703022 5, 5810ft., [APH_2497, 6/8/77, 1♂, Barbara and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; [APH_2483, 6/8/77, 1♂, Barbara and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Gila: 0.55 miles N Strawberry on Hwy-87, 34.41409752 -111.4912396 4, 6046ft., [APH_0388, 2/8/08, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.75 miles E AZ-87 on Control Rd, 34.360317 -111.41347 1, 5555ft., [APH_0505-0508, 20/5/2009, 2♀, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 1.1 miles NW AZ-87 on Barnhardt Trail Rd (FR 419); 34.09815 -111.36165 2, 3200ft., [APH_0344, 10/5/08, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; 1.4 miles E US-87 on Conrol Rd, 34.35949 -111.40302 2, 5430ft., [APH_0346, 10/5/08, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; 10 miles NW of Globe, 33.527502 -110.694934 5, 4337ft., [APH_2064, 10/9/62, 1♂, Roth and Roth, AMNH]; 8 miles S of Young-dirt road Hwy 288, 33.997859 -110.953748 5, 6170ft., [AUMS_2319, 6/8/92, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; along Control Rd, east of Hwy-87, 34.3602 -111.415521 1, 5855ft., [APH_1531-1532, 4/10/12, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Along Houston-Mesa Rd, 34.29263192 -111.2868479 4, 5168ft., [APH_0387, 2/8/08, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Apache Trail, 33.532562 -110.92045 6, 3711ft., [APH_2456, 25/3/1936, 1♂, Edith M. Patel, AMNH]; Mazatzal Mountains, Tonto National Forest, El Oso Rd, 33.74139 -111.35831 1, 5900ft., [APH_0191, 6/9/07, 1♀, Lorenzo Prendini, Jeremy Huff, AUMNH]; Payson, .41 miles E of Nf-200, 34.203644 -110.980578 1, 5297ft., [APH_3127, 9/8/13, 1♂, Tyler P. McKee, AUMNH]; Salt River Canyon, 33.619952 -110.921017 5, 2503ft., [APH_2065, 6/1/56, 1♂, W.D. Allison, AMNH]; Tonto National Forest, near jct. FR-449 off Hwy-188, 33.61465 -111.034975 1, 2474ft., [APH_1301-1303, 26/7/2011, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Graham: 11.2 miles W Hwy-191 on Hwy-266, 32.582263 -109.852113 1, 5592ft., [APH_1235, 8/8/10, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; 3.6 miles SW Hwy-191 along Swift Trail (Hwy-366); 32.6896 -109.754556 1, 3950ft., [APH_1509, 7/9/12, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; along Ash Creek Rd, 32.51432 -110.077472 1, 4450ft., [APH_1234, 8/8/10, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; along High Creek Rd, 32.570316 -110.048141 1, 4557ft., [APH_1232, 8/8/10, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; along Sunset Loop Rd, 32.512166 -110.159031 1, 4747ft., [APH_1233, 8/8/10, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; Bonita-Klondyke Rd, W of Bonita, 32.600171 -109.983213 1, 4571ft., [APH_0695-0697, 18/7/2009, 3♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; crossing Sunset Rd, 32.506667 -110.180056 1, 4711ft., [APH_0391, 24/7/2008, 1♂, Kari, Hunter McWest, AUMNH]; Lower Canyon of Mount Graham, 32.64023 -109.931671 6, 5281ft., [APH_2071, 15/7/1956, 1♂, V. Roth and W.J. Gertsch, AMNH]; [APH_2583, 15/7/1956, 1♂, W. Gertsch and V. Roth, AMNH]; W Ash Creek Rd, 32.513833 -110.05858 1, 4420ft., [APH_0392, 24/7/2008, 1♂, Kari, Hunter McWest, AUMNH]; Greenlee: 14 miles west of Clifton, 33.06165 -109.44632 5, 3921ft., [APH_2493, 28/7/1962, 2♂, G. Bradt, AMNH]; Groom: Bradshaw Mountains near Prescott in pine forest, 34.385392 -112.368863 6, 6440ft., [APH_2486, 15/9/1964, 1♂, Lowe, Soule, Wright, AMNH]; La Paz: 6.9 miles N US-60 on Alamo Rd (near Base of Harcuvar Mtns N of Wenden); 33.92479 -113.54419 1, 2285ft., [APH_0340-0341, 9/5/08, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Alano Road, 34.08542 -113.5515 4, 1982ft., [APH_0038, 12/8/06, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Bill Williams River NWA, E of Parker Dam (Buckskin Mtns); 34.29172 -114.08915 1, 560ft., [APH_1003, 8/5/10, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; S of Hwy-72 on Bouse-Quartzsite Rd, 33.86255 -114.02868 1, 1130ft., [APH_0450, 17/11/2008, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_0451, 30/11/2008, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; Maricopa: Palomas Plain, 2.5 miles N of Sentinel, 32.886722 -113.238144 5, 667ft., [AUMS_2604, 11/8/90, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Palomas Plain, 3 miles N of Sentinel, 32.90163 -113.212893 5, 662ft., [AUMS_2647, 22/11/1992, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Rio Verde, 1 mile S of Forest Rd and Rio Verde Dr. jct, off Forest Rd, 33.727441 -111.670456 4, 1586ft., [AUMS_2673, 13/5/1991, 1♀, Chris Baptista, AUMNH]; Sentinel, 1.5 miles N of I-8, 32.879995 -113.223031 5, 663ft., [AUMS_2620, 7/1/92, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; 1.35 miles N McDowell Rd on Usery Pass Rd, 33.480479 -111.624831 1, 1989ft., [APH_1497, 5/9/12, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 3.0 miles N I-8 (Sentinel) on Agua Caliente Rd, 32.890757 -113.24223 1, 656ft., [APH_0428, 16/11/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 4.65 miles N I-8 (Sentinel) on Agua Caliente Rd, 32.90721 -113.262703 1, 592ft., [APH_0429, 16/11/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; about 9-10 miles E AZ-87 on NF-143, 33.7285 -111.43288 4, 3719ft., [APH_0134, 15/6/2007, 1♀, Austin Spears, AUMNH]; [APH_0135, 15/6/2007, 1 juv, Gilbert Quintana, AUMNH]; along Apache Trail, 33.606639 -111.19778 1, 2372ft., [APH_1492-1496, 4/9/12, 4♂, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1502-1505, 6/9/12, 2♀, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; east of Tortilla Flat off of Hwy 88, 33.5336 -111.37225 1, 1376ft., [APH_0954, 6/8/14, 1♂, Ben Allen, AUMNH]; in the Tonto National Forest, off Road 78 that splits from Apache Trail (88); E of Apache Junction, 33.4701 -111.47296 1, 2082ft., [APH_3199, 15/11/2013, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Mazatzal Mountains, Four Peaks, Cline Cabin Rd./F.R. 143, 33.71667 -111.45509 4, 3080ft., [APH_0298, 6/10/07, 1 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Mesa, 33.414255 -111.831101 5, 1220ft., [APH_2591, unknown, 1♂, Michael Soleglad, AMNH]; [APH_2595, unknown, 1♂, Michael Soleglad, AMNH]; N of Gila Bend along Hwy-85, 0.6 miles E of Hwy, 33.043715 -112.633476 1, 807ft., [APH_0419, 15/11/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; N side of Cline Cabin Rd, 33.72875 -111.43244 4, 3750ft., [APH_0360, 17/4/2008, 1♀, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Palomas Plain, Sentinel, 32.861687 -113.21082 5, 683ft., [AUMS_2323, 18/7/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Phoenix, Usery Pass Rd off N Bush Hwy, 33.5468 -111.645 1, 1346ft., [APH_0887, 6/8/14, 1♀, Ben Allen, AUMNH]; Phoe nix, 33.460362 -112.039455 6, 1119ft., [APH_2075, unknown, 1♀, unknown, AMNH]; South Mountain Park, 33.35257 -112.072563 6, 1332ft., [APH_2501, 21/11/1965, 1♂, S. C. Williams, AMNH]; South of Geronimo Head Mountain, 33.498275 -111.387253 6, 2933ft., [APH_2070, 21/12/1963, 1♂, Chamberlin, AMNH]; Sunflower, Sycamore Creek Rd., 33.88512 -111.47874 4, 3526ft., [APH_0300-301, 6/10/07, 2 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; E/NE of Pyramid Peak, E of New River Rd., 33.921335 -112.101997 5, 2184ft., [AUMS_2631, 18/11/2003, 1♂, C. Shipley, AUMNH]; New River, 33.915059 -112.136776 5, 2022ft., [AUMS_2687, 8/1/98, 1♂, Tom Roberts, AUMNH]; 6 miles N AZ-74 on New River Rd (near Lake Pleasant); 33.86502 -112.18967 1, 1799ft., [APH_0007, 5/10/01, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Darrin Vernier, AUMNH]; [APH_0046, 5/10/01, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Darrin Vernier, AUMNH]; 6.0 miles N AZ-74 on New River Rd (near Lake Pleasant); 33.86307 -112.19106 1, 1773ft., [APH_0127-0130, 13/6/2007, 1♀, 1♂, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_0142-0143, 13/6/2007, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 6.6 miles W jct. US-93 on US-60, 33.956369 -112.840469 1, 2582ft., [APH_0498-0501, 18/5/2009, 1♀, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; New River, ~0.5 miles W I-17 on AZ-74, 33.79765 -112.14307 4, 1655ft., [APH_0164-0165, unknown, 1♂, 1♀, Brandon Anderson, AUMNH]; Wickenburg, about 2.84 miles south of Interstate 60, 33.922158 -112.903511 1, 2700ft., [APH_3128, 1/9/13, 1♀, Tyler P. McKee, AUMNH]; Maricopa/Yavapai: between Prescott and Phoenix, 34.052118 -112.147482 7, 2047ft., [APH_2076, 31/12/1933, 1♂, McCanly, AMNH]; Mohave: 0.9 miles S I-40 on Hwy-93, 35.14879 -113.689479 1, 3646ft., [APH_1221-1222, 2/8/10, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 7.4 miles NE Hwy-93 on CR-25 in Dolan Springs, 35.60418 -114.253563 1, 3638ft., [APH_1309, 28/7/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Bullhead City, ~2 miles S Hwy-68, 35.16973 -114.53414 4, 1003ft., [APH_0048, 22/8/2001, 1♀, Tom and Tracy Vezie, AUMNH]; Cool Spring on Oatman Rd, off Rt. 66 (Black Mtns); 35.02957 -114.31629 1, 2772ft., [APH_0999-1001, 6/5/10, 3♀, Chris A. Hamilton, Rick West, AUMNH]; just N I-40 on Silver Springs Rd, 35.161716 -113.564676 1, 3927ft., [APH_1305, 28/7/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; NW of Oatman on Rt. 10, 35.07184 -114.43861 1, 2191ft., [APH_0310-0312, 11/10/07, 3♂, Rick C. West, AUMNH]; Oatman Rd., Black Mountains, 35.009671 -114.389097 6, 2420ft., [AUMS_2682, 27/3/1988, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Oatman, N of town off Rt. 66 (Black Mtns); 35.03484 -114.39156 1, 2772ft., [APH_1002, 7/5/10, 1♀, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Navajo: Hwy 60 (77); N of Carrizo, mile marker 324, 34.070957 -110.193557 5, 5609ft., [AUMS_2477, 31/8/1986, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Pima: 0.18 miles S Hwy-86 on Hwy-386, 32.02419162 -111.5769608 2, 3251ft., [APH_0739, 23/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.2 miles W SR-83 on Sahuarita Rd, 31.963159 -110.675585 1, 3679ft., [APH_0616, 9/7/09, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 0.75 miles S Ball Rd in Why along Hwy-85, 32.252063 -112.7449 1, 1787ft., [APH_0425, 15/11/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrix son, AUMNH]; 1.02 miles S Hwy-86 on Hwy-386, 32.01220214 -111.5747721 2, 3372ft., [APH_0738, 23/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 1.75 miles N Sahuarita Rd on Houghton Rd, 31.987937 -110.772369 1, 3201ft., [APH_0617, 9/7/09, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 10560 E Wildfire Drive, Tucson, 32.2213 -110.76858 2, 2757ft., [APH_0014, 8/2/14, 1♂, Alex Binford, AUMNH]; 2 miles N AZ-86 (W Ajo Hwy) on Sandario Rd, near jct. with Dusty Mesquite Trail, 32.14446246 -111.2177859 2, 2350ft., [APH_0370, 24/7/2008, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 5 miles west on St.289 from Jef.289 and US 89- north of Nogales, 31.426474 -111.008278 5, 3665ft., [APH_2526, 20/7/1966, 1♂, E. Brown and J. Cole, AMNH]; along Hwy-86, 32.1992 -112.43633 5, 1980ft., [APH_0174, 8/7/14, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0176, 8/7/14, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0740-0742, 23/8/2009, 3♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; along Hwy-86, W of San Pedro, 32.03889549 -111.5014244 4, 2943ft., [APH_0737, 22/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; along Kitt Peak Rd, 31.97428845 -111.604144 4, 4625ft., [APH_0371-0372, 24/7/2008, 2♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0374-0375, 25/7/2008, 2♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; along Madera Canyon Rd, 31.836971 -110.946796 1, 3083ft., [APH_1344-1345, 4/8/11, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; along SR-83, 31.896859 -110.665638 1, 4045ft., [APH_0611-0615, 9/7/09, 5♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; AZ-86, 0.06 miles SW jct Indian Rt 30, 31.99315318 -111.7053503 2, 2924ft., [APH_0373, 25/7/2008, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Batamote Rd, 31.729183 -111.161558 1, 3387ft., [APH_0610, 9/7/09, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Bates Well Rd., 2 miles N of OPCN monument (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument); 32.226852 -112.890815 5, 1545ft., [AUMS_3329, 10/9/90, 1♂, W. Icenogle and G. Lowe, AUMNH]; Catalina Mountains, Bug Spring Trail, 32.341135 -110.714921 1, 3624ft., [APH_0603-0604, 9/7/09, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, Paul Marek, Charity Hall, AUMNH]; Catalina State Park, campground, 32.4238 -110.9233 2, 2700ft., [APH_1487, 2/8/12, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Austin Deskewies, AUMNH]; Catalina State Park, trailhead parking lot and nature trail, 32.425002 -110.909336 1, 2635ft., [APH_0598-0600, 8/7/09, 1♀, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_0602, 8/7/09, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Fish Canyon Rd, 31.742778 -110.707871 1, 4888ft., [APH_0691-0693, 17/7/2009, 1♀, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; NFWL Campsite, Cabeza Prieta Game Refuge, 32.232313 -113.608052 5, 932ft., [APH_2585, 7/1/76, 1♀, B. Woodward and R. Jones, AMNH]; Organ Pipe National Monument, 32.016369 -112.858922 5, 1988ft., [APH_2498, 5/22/09, 1♂, Vogt, AMNH]; Quail Creek-Veterans Municipal Park, 31.898272 -110.964712 1, 2794ft., [APH_0605-0609, 9/7/09, 5♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Redington, 32.42157 -110.5037 5, 2890ft., [APH_2072, 25/5/1970, 1♀, Mary Smallhouse, AMNH]; Sabino Canyon, Tucson, 32.315852 -110.81935 5, 2782ft., [APH_2474, 11/9/35, 1♂, W.J. Baerg, AMNH]; [APH_2588, 9/1/35, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Saguaro National Park, eastern portion of park, off Cactus Forest Loop Dr. at Cactus Forest south hiking trail, 32.171204 -110.730429 1, 3061ft., [APH_3174-3175, 12/11/13, 1♂, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; San Vicente, 33.336256 -111.831893 5, 1220ft., [APH_2061, 19/8/1957, 2♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; Santa Catalina Mountains, 32.44193 -110.860732 6, 3806ft., [APH_2073, 8/7/16, 1♂, T.E. Luty, AMNH]; Santa Catalina Mountains, Catalina Hwy, 32.337262 -110.6959 5, 4501ft., [AUMS_3282, 26/8/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; SE of Ajo, mile marker 46, 32.357132 -112.826569 5, 1710ft., [AUMS_2605, 27/8/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; SW of Ajo, Little Ajo Mountain, Darby Well Road, 32.35451 -112.886495 4, 2090ft., [APH_0309, 15/10/2005, 1♂, Lennart Pettersson, Dave Kandiyeli, Sheri Monk, AUMNH]; Tucson, 32.221743 -110.926479 6, 2470ft., [APH_2088, 27/7/1936, 1♀, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; [APH_2089, 7/1/35, 1♀, P. Stichler, AMNH]; [APH_2063, 23/8/1973, 1♂, A. Jung, AMNH]; [APH_2205, 9/1/35, 1♂, W.J. Baerg, AMNH]; Tucson area, near Catalina State Park, N side of Tangerine Rd and E of Tangerine Crossing, E of Marana, 32.424545 -111.03393 1, 2731ft., [APH_3173, 12/11/13, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Ajo, SE on Hwy 85, 32.35653 -112.826776 5, 1711ft., [AUMS_2384, 27/8/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; near Sahuarita off I19 (Hwy 89); 32.002043 -110.981937 5, 2702ft., [AUMS_2324, 15/10/1992, 1♂, Barney Tomberlin, AUMNH]; Papago Indian Reservation, Hwy 86, 7.2 miles W of Indian Rte 15, 32.176101 -112.232872 4, 2418ft., [AUMS_2382, 18/11/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Pinal: 0.1 miles S Apache Trail on Mountain View Rd, 33.445508 -111.502834 1, 1935ft., [APH_0503, 19/5/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 1.5 miles S US-60 on Mineral Mountain Rd, 33.242909 -111.270678 1, 2067ft., [APH_0502, 19/5/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 2.4 miles E Hwy-79 on Cottonwood Canyon Rd, 33.187604 -111.313416 1, 1901ft., [APH_1304, 26/7/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; 3.4 miles SE AZ-77 on SR-76, near San Manuel, 32.628709 -110.648951 1, 3392ft., [APH_0596, 8/7/09, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 7 miles south of Oracle-Santa Catalina Mountains, 32.531565 -110.773332 5, 4678ft., [APH_2529, 25/7/1949, 2♂, unknown, AMNH]; in desert NW jct of Hwy-8 4and Amarillo Valley Rd (3.2 miles NW I-8); 32.856009 -112.085251 1, 1517ft., [APH_0420, 15/11/2008, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Paul Marek, Charity Hall, Kojun, AUMNH]; near Cogburn Ostrich Ranch, 32.64396 -111.39235 4, 1840ft., [APH_0369, 5/4/08, 1 juv, Shasta Michaels, AUMNH]; off Florence-Kelvin Hwy, BLM land E of Florence, 32.99965 -111.26476 1, 1970ft., [APH_3196, 15/11/2013, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; off Hwy 79 around 1/2 way between 77 split and Florence at Tom Mix Rest Area, 32.82084 -111.20621 1, 2333ft., [APH_3192, 15/11/2013, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; off Hwy 79 around 1/2 way between 77 split and Florence at Tom Mix Rest Area, 32.820504 -111.20632 1, 2370ft., [APH_3193, 15/11/2013, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; OHV trail area, near Kearny, 33.065521 -110.888678 1, 2163ft., [APH_0595, 8/7/09, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Jon Davenport, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Oracle, 32.610602 - 110.771115 5, 4537ft., [APH_2593, 11/7/40, 1♂, Gertsch and Hook, AMNH]; Picacho, just off Camino Adelante Dr, 32.71453 -111.4975 2, 1612ft., [APH_0716, 7/9/14, 1♀, Warren Burke, AUMNH]; Robert Engstrom’s property, 0.2 miles S East Cactus Forest Rd on North Coolidge Airport Rd, 32.97029 -111.42175 2, 1541ft., [APH_0198, 14/6/2007, 1♂, Robert Engstrom, AUMNH]; Superior, Boyce Thompson Arboretum, 33.279265 -111.160952 2, 2440ft., [APH_1370, 3/9/11, 1♂, Benjamin Curtis, Mason McWest, AUMNH]; W of Chuck’s Corner off S. Amarillo Valley Rd, off Hwy 84, N of I-8, 32.8572 -112.08641 1, 1517ft., [APH_3167, 11/11/13, 1♂, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_3169, 11/11/13, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Chris A. Hamilton, AUMNH]; Santa Cruz: 0.65 miles W Mount Hopkins Rd on Forest Service Rd 184, 31.69646 -111.00164 2, 3512ft., [APH_0175, 8/7/14, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.95 miles W Mount Hopkins Rd on Forest Service Rd 184, 31.69671 -111.00641 2, 3497ft., [APH_0173, 8/7/14, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; along Duquesne Rd, 31.363711 -110.792456 1, 4146ft., [APH_1340, 4/8/11, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; along Duquesne Rd (FR-61]; 31.347952 -110.509098 1, 5057ft., [APH_1339, 4/8/11, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; along FR-61, 31.34832 -110.508551 1, 5088ft., [APH_1224, 6/8/10, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; along Montosa Canyon Rd (FR-184); 31.701063 -111.039066 1, 3181ft., [APH_1341, 4/8/11, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Along Mt Hopkins Rd, 31.67354048 -110.9229983 4, 5047ft., [APH_0383-0384, 28/7/2008, 2♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0730, 20/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Along Ruby Rd, 31.43198526 -111.188291 4, 4018ft., [APH_0376, 26/7/2008, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0377-0379, 27/7/2008, 3♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0380-0381, 28/7/2008, 2♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Coronado National Forest, along FR-61, 31.343749 -110.485365 1, 5083ft., [APH_1195-1196, 28/7/2010, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Coronado National Forest, Pena Blanca Lake, Hwy 289, 31.39225 -111.13153 1, 4290ft., [APH_0193, 5/9/07, 1♂, Lorenzo Prendini, Jeremy Huff, AUMNH]; Harshaw Rd, 31.531637 -110.718517 4, 4187ft., [APH_0389, unknown, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; [APH_0694, 17/7/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Oro Blanco Mountains-12 miles from Nogales, 31.333796 -111.023962 5, 4472ft., [APH_2492, 7/1/37, 3♂, Steckler, AMNH]; Ruby Road, 31.3948 -111.13614 4, 4487ft., [APH_0037, 6/8/06, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; Ruby Road near Pena Lake, 31.400702 -111.090398 5, 3871ft., [APH_2487, 19/7/1962, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Ruby Road-10 miles northwest of Nogales, 31.402097 -111.027724 5, 3865ft., [APH_2505, 8/1/62, 1♂, W.J. Gerstch, AMNH]; Yavapai: 0.2 miles E I-17 on Dugas Rd, 34.39945 -112.07044 1, 3800ft., [APH_0131-0132, 13/6/2007, 1♂, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 0.8 miles E I-17, 0.9 miles S Stoneman Lake Road [near Exit 306]; 34.76055 -111.64488 1, 5472ft., [APH_0049, 3/10/01, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Darrin Vernier, AUMNH]; 3.4 miles SE AZ-71 on US-93, 34.09027 -112.90285 1, 2717ft., [APH_0133, 15/6/2007, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Shasta Michaels, AUM NH]; Beaver Creek Trail at trailhead, 40.4 miles S of jct I-40 and I-17 on 17, 34.674376 -111.713738 5, 3875ft., [AUMS_2339, 31/3/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Beaver Creek, E of I-17, E of interstate, N of Hwy 260, 34.671522 -111.724763 5, 3920ft., [AUMS_3264, 31/3/1990, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Black Canyon City, 0.85 miles E I-17 on South Mud Springs Rd, 34.073 -112.13204 4, 2044ft., [APH_0168-0170, unknown, 1♀, 2♂, Brandon Anderson, AUMNH]; Bumble Bee Ranch Rd. (Bumble Bee, AZ Ghost Town off Co. Rd. 59); 34.152931 -112.156127 5, 2640ft., [AUMS_2325, 10/8/90, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Bumblebee Ranch Rd (Crown King Rd); 1.5 miles E of Crown King, 34.217448 -112.307279 5, 5477ft., [AUMS_2692, 30/8/1990, 2♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Bumblebee Ranch Road, 34.227934 -112.154007 5, 2800ft., [AUMS_2383, 30/8/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2320, 11/8/90, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2338, 12/8/90, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3272, 16/8/1994, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3324, 11/8/90, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3339, 10/8/90, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2379, 16/8/1994, 1♂, Enza Prentice, AUMNH]; Constellation, 34.064896 -112.585608 5, 3446ft., [AUMS_2366, 8/1/91, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Cordes Lake Development, Cordes jct, SE of Mayer, 34.307807 -112.103491 5, 3701ft., [AUMS_3342, 21/8/1998, 1♂, Stephen Roy, AUMNH]; Dugas Road, approx. 2.0 miles W I-17 on Orme Ranch Road, 34.42758 -112.07979 4, 3914ft., [APH_0013, 24/3/2002, 1♂, John Bell, AUMNH]; N of Village of Oak Creek, Courthouse Butte/Big Park Trail, 34.79569 -111.758817 1, 4233ft., [APH_1543, 22/10/2012, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; near Deer Pass Crossing on Oak Creek about 8 miles southeast Sedona, 34.838954 -111.721245 5, 6411ft., [APH_2485, 15/6/1977, 1♂, M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Prescott, 34.53923 -112.468695 5, 5387ft., [APH_2504, 28/7/1948, 1♂, C. and P. Vaurie, AMNH]; Yarnell, 34.221331 -112.747488 5, 4806ft., [APH_2587, 4/9/61, 1♂, Roth and Roth, AMNH]; Yuma: Rd. 36 E off I-8, S side of I-8, E field, 32.679615 -114.015636 5, 358ft., [AUMS_2362, 12/8/90, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Rd. 36 E, south, W side of rd., 32.645663 -114.02637 5, 449ft., [AUMS_2363, 16/11/1986, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Hidalgo: Rodeo, 31.835372 -109.03117 5, 4131ft., [APH_2090, 20/1/1969, 1♀, V. Roth, AMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma chalcodes  is widely distributed across the southern two-thirds of Arizona south of the Grand Canyon, bound to the west by the Colorado River and barely making its way into southwestern New Mexico (Fig. 35). The species is undoubtedly widespread throughout northern Sonora, Mexico as well. This species inhabits a large diversity of habitats including the following Level III Ecoregions: Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, Arizona/New Mexico Plateau, Madrean Archipelago, and the Sonoran Basin and Range (Fig. 1G). Aphonopelma chalcodes  can be found in syntopy with a number of species across its distribution including: Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma madera  , Aphonopelma mareki  , Aphonopelma marxi  , Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  , Aphonopelma prenticei  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , Aphonopelma superstitionense  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the summer (generally July–September), particularly during the summer monsoon season. Additional information about the natural history of this species can be found in Smith (1995).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma chalcodes  is the most widespread and abundant tarantula species in Arizona. The species is secure.

Remarks.

Aphonopelma chalcodes  is herein considered a member of the problematic iodius  species group. Morphological and molecular data confirm that Aphonopelma chalcodes  is the sister lineage to the remaining species in the group ( Aphonopelma iodius  , Aphonopelma eutylenum  , and Aphonopelma johnnycashi  ). There are no major morphological features that can be used to distinguish Aphonopelma chalcodes  from these species so we must rely on molecular data and distributional information ( Aphonopelma chalcodes  is largely restricted to Arizona south of the Grand Canyon). Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma chalcodes  possess a larger M1/A1 (≥1.51; 1.51-1.79) than Aphonopelma johnnycashi  (≤1.43; 1.29-1.43). Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma chalcodes  possess a smaller F1/M1 (≤1.68; 1.38-1.68) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≥1.71; 1.71-1.83), Aphonopelma chiricahua  (1.84 ± (only 1 specimen)), Aphonopelma madera  (≥1.73; 1.73; 1.73-2.15), and Aphonopelma marxi  (≥1.77; 1.77-1.88); by possessing a smaller P1/M1 (≤0.75; 0.61-0.75) than Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≥0.75; 0.75-0.85). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace and three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), male and female Aphonopelma chalcodes  do not separate from the other species in the iodius  species group. Male Aphonopelma chalcodes  separate from syntopic species Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma marxi  in two-dimensional morphospace as well as all syntopic miniature tarantulas ( Aphonopelma mareki  , Aphonopelma paloma  , Aphonopelma parvum  , Aphonopelma prenticei  , Aphonopelma saguaro  , and Aphonopelma superstitionense  ), but do not separate from Aphonopelma gabeli  or Aphonopelma peloncillo  ; when three-dimensional morphospace is evaluated, Aphonopelma chalcodes  separates from all of their syntopic species. Female Aphonopelma chalcodes  separate from their syntopic species Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma marxi  in traditional two-dimensional morphospace as well as all syntopic miniature tarantulas, but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  or Aphonopelma vorhiesi  ; when three-dimensional morphospace is evaluated, Aphonopelma chalcodes  separates from Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma madera  , Aphonopelma marxi  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  , but not Aphonopelma catalina  or Aphonopelma gabeli  . PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥95% of the variation in all analyses. We examined the holotypes and freshly collected topotypic material of Aphonopelma apacheum  , Aphonopelma minchi  , Aphonopelma schmidti  , and Aphonopelma stahnkei  . Our morphological and molecular analyses fail to recognize these four species as separate, independently evolving lineages. As a consequence, we consider Aphonopelma apacheum  , Aphonopelma minchi  , Aphonopelma schmidti  , and Aphonopelma stahnkei  junior synonyms of Aphonopelma chalcodes  .

Mitochondrial DNA (CO1) identifies Aphonopelma chalcodes  as a polyphyletic group with some samples more closely related to specimens of Aphonopelma iodius  (Fig. 7); these latter samples of Aphonopelma chalcodes  were previously considered a putative cryptic species by Hamilton et al. (2014). The mtDNA also identifies Aphonopelma vorhiesi  as the sister lineage to Aphonopelma chalcodes  . The AE nuclear DNA on the other hand shows that Aphonopelma chalcodes  is a single lineage that is sister to the rest of the iodius  species group. Again, these results highlight how CO1 is not effective at accurately delimiting species boundaries within this group.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma chalcodes Chamberlin, 1940

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Aphonopelma chalcodes

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma chalcodes

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma apacheum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma apacheum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma minchi

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma schmidti

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma stahnkei

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Rhechostica chalcodes

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica apacheum

Simon 1892

1892