Akamboja minimum

Roza, André Silva, Quintino, Hingrid Yara Souza, Mermudes, José Ricardo Miras & Silveira, Luiz Felipe Lima Da, 2017, Akamboja gen. nov., a new genus of railroad-worm beetle endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest, with five new species (Coleoptera: Phengodidae, Mastinocerinae), Zootaxa 4306 (4), pp. 501-523: 505-515

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4306.4.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:28CF30B0-3477-4DBD-8883-5FA903464C00

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/652DB749-EBE3-477C-8DD3-CA0B8767F10D

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:652DB749-EBE3-477C-8DD3-CA0B8767F10D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Akamboja minimum
status

sp. nov.

Akamboja minimum  sp. nov. Roza, Quintino, Mermudes & Silveira

( Figs 1–22View FIGURES 1 – 6View FIGURES 7 – 8View FIGURES 9 – 10View FIGURES 11 – 12View FIGURES 13 – 16View FIGURES 17 – 18View FIGURES 19 – 20View FIGURES 21 – 22 and 41View FIGURES 41 – 43)

Etymology. minimum  is an adjective, and means small in Latin. It is a reference to the small size of the species compared to the others of the genus. Name in apposition.

Diagnosis. Eyes occupying two thirds of head width, in lateral view ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 6). Apical maxillary palpomere 3.5x longer than subapical ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 6). Vertex occupying? of head in dorsal view ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 6). Elytron reaching the anterior margin of the third abdominal segment ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 6).

Description, male.

Measurements (n=31): Total length: 3.3–3.8 mm (aver. 3.6 mm). Head length: 0.5–0.6 mm (aver. 0.5 mm). Head width: 0.5–0.7 mm (aver. 0.6 mm). Pronotum length: 0.4–0.6 mm (aver. 0.5 mm). Pronotum maximum length: 0.4–0.6 (aver. 0.5 mm). Elytron length: 1.1–1.3 mm (aver. 1.2 mm). Elytron maximum width: 0.3–0.4 mm (aver. 0.3 mm). Elytral spot length: 0.2 mm.

Morphology: Eyes occupying two thirds of head width, in lateral view ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 6). Vertex occupying? of head in dorsal view ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1 – 6). Apical maxillary palpomere 3.5x longer than subapical ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 6). Head wider than long. Elytron 3.5 to 4x longer than wide ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 6), reaching the anterior margin of the third abdominal segment, apical spot occupying the apical sixth of the elytron ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 6).

Coloration. Body overall light brown. Pronotum dark to light brown. Elytron almost black to light brown, apex pale yellow, sometimes light brown. Wing venation black to light brown.

Immatures and females. Unknown

Biology and distribution. Akamboja minimun  sp. nov. seems to occur only during spring and summer. It inhabits low altitudinal areas of Teresópolis, on the Serra dos Órgãos, in the Serra do Mar mountain range, from 250 to 860 m. It is found on lower montane forest and partially the montane forest.

Remarks. This species resembles Akamboja monteirorum  sp. nov., but can be distinguished by its shorter size and elytron (the elytron of Akamboja minimum  sp. nov. reaches the anterior margin of the second abdominal segment, while in Akamboja monteirorum  sp. nov. it reaches the posterior margin of the third), bigger vertex (smaller in Akamboja monteirorum  sp. nov.) and its occurrence in low altitude (high altitude occurrence in Akamboja monteirorum  sp. nov.). Akamboja minimum  sp. nov. occurs in lower montane forest (below 800 m) and partially on the montane forest (beginning in 600 m), while Akamboja monteirorum  sp. nov. occurs only in montane forest (from 1280 m to 1442 m).

Type material. Holotype (male): BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro  . Teresópolis. Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos. PVE Pt. 4A, 22° 28’ 36.1” S, 42° 59’ 31.3” W, 563m, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ) Paratypes (all males): BRAZIL. Rio de JaneiroGoogleMaps  . Teresópolis. Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos. PVE Pt. 2A, 22° 31’ 0” S, 43° 0’ 23.6” W, 252m, 3 males, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); PVE Pt. 2B, 22° 30’ 2.1” S, 43° 0’ 22.2” W, 248m, 4 males, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); PVE Pt. 3A, 22° 29’ 40.8” S, 42° 59’ 53.9” W, 360m, 1 male, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); PVE Pt. 4A, 22° 28’ 36.1” S, 42° 59’ 31.3” W, 563m, 10 males, XII.2014, R.

Monteiro col. (DZRJ); idem, 2 males, III.2015, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); PVE Pt. 4B, 22° 28’ 35.1” S, 42° 59’ 29” W, 544m, 1 male, III.2015, R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ)GoogleMaps  ; PVE Pt. 5A, 22° 28’ 38.3” S, 42° 59’ 45.6” W, 699m, 2 males, XII. 2014, R. Monteiro col. ( MZSP)GoogleMaps  ; PVE Pt. 5B, 22° 28’ 37.6” S, 42° 59’ 45.5” W, 691m, 5 males, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ)GoogleMaps  ; idem, 2 males (MZSP); PVE Pt. 6B, 22° 28’ 11” S, 43° 0’ 5.3” W, 868m, 1 male, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. (dissected) ( DZRJ)GoogleMaps  . Rio de Janeiro. Parque Nacional da Tijuca, Malaise 2, 22°57.269’S, 43°17.923’W, 814m, 3 males, Silveira, Mermudes & Clarckson col ( DZRJ)GoogleMaps  .

Akamboja cleidae  sp. nov. Roza, Quintino, Mermudes & Silveira ( Figs 23–26View FIGURES 23 – 30 and 42View FIGURES 41 – 43)

Etymology. The name is in honor of the biologist Cleide Costa, a great researcher who largely contributed to the knowledge of bioluminescent beetles, including phengodids. Singular genitive, feminine.

Diagnosis. Eyes occupying half head width, in lateral view ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 23 – 30). Last maxillary palpomere 4.5x longer than the previous one ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 23 – 30).

Description, male.

Measurements (n=23): Total length: 4.2–4.8 mm (aver. 4.5 mm). Head length: 0.6–0.7 mm (aver. 0.65 mm). Head width: 0.6–0.7 mm (aver. 0.6 mm). Pronotum length: 0.5–0.6 mm (aver. 0.6 mm). Pronotum maximum length: 0.5–0.6 (aver. 0.6 mm). Elytron length: 1.5–1.9 mm (aver. 1.7 mm). Elytron maximum width: 0.3–0.4 mm (aver. 0.4 mm). Elytral spot length: 0.2–0.3 mm (aver. 0.25 mm).

Morphology: Eyes occupying half head width, in lateral view ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 23 – 30). Vertex occupying? of head in dorsal view ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 23 – 30). Last maxillary palpomere 4.5x longer than the previous one ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 23 – 30). Elytron 4– 5x longer than wide, reaching the second or third abdominal segment, elytral apical spot occupying the sixth to seventh part of the elytron ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 23 – 30).

Coloration. Body overall light brown. Pronotum dark to light brown. Elytron almost black to light brown, apex pale yellow, sometimes light brown. Wing venation black to light brown.

Immatures and females. Unknown

Biology and distribution. Akamboja cleidae  sp. nov. seems to occur only during spring and summer, except for one specimen collected during autumn. It inhabits high altitudinal areas of Teresópolis, on the Serra dos Órgãos, São José do Barreiro, on the Serra da Bocaina, Paranapiacaba  , on the Serra de Paranapiacaba (all part of the Serra do Mar mountain range) and Itatiaia, on the Itatiaia massif on Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, from 950 to 1850 m. It is found on montane forest, high montane forest and ombrophilous dense forest.

Remarks. This species occurs on both the Serra do Mar and the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain ranges, always on higher altitudes than both Akamboja minimum  sp. nov. and Akamboja monteirorum  sp. nov. (species that resemble Akamboja cleidae  sp. nov.), on montane and high montane forest. It presents significant differences between the specimens in each region. The specimens of Itatiaia and Bocaina  have larger body and longer elytron, about 1.2x the size of specimens from the Teresópolis’ sampling. In Teresópolis the species seems to occur from 900m to 1400m of altitude. At Itatiaia and Bocaina  it occurs on higher altitudes, beginning from 1400 and reaching almost 1900m. In addition, the populations have a disjunct distribution, isolated by an unsuitable environmental matrix consisting of lowland forests, whereas the populations herein recognized occur in montane forests. Wiens and Graham (2005) suggested that such distribution should be taken as an evidence of allopatric speciation and phylogenetic niche conservatism of climatic ranges.

However, evidence was not enough to recognize populations as two or three different species. Future studies should address the question of species identity and delimitation. It is also noteworthy that one specimen of Akamboja cleidae  sp. nov. has the branches of the antennomere IX of the left antenna separated, while the right one is fused. We interpret this as an atavic malformation.

Type material. Holotype (male): BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro. Teresópolis. Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos. PVE Pt. 10B, 22° 26’ 51” S, 43° 0’ 46.4” W, 1444 m, 1 male, XII.2014GoogleMaps  , R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ). Paratypes (all males): BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro. Teresópolis  . Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos. PENSA RIO Pt. 2, 22° 25’ 59,6” S, 44° 37’ 39,7” W, 1280 m, 2 males, 29.V.2013GoogleMaps  , R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); idem, 1 male, 26.X.2013, R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ); PENSA RIO Pt. 3, 22° 26’ 55,6” S, 43° 0’ 44,3” W, 1250m, 1 male, 31.VIII.2013GoogleMaps  , R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ); PVE Pt. 7A, 22° 27’ 29.1” S, 42° 59’ 11.4” W, 957m, 1 male, XII.2014, R.GoogleMaps 

Monteiro col. (DZRJ); PVE Pt. 9B, 22° 26’ 57.8” S, 43° 0’ 13.7” W, 1236 m, 2 males, XII.2014, R. Monteiro col. ( MZSP)GoogleMaps  ; Itatiaia. Parque Nacional de Itatiaia. PENSA RIO Pt  . 3, 22°25’42.6’’ S, 44°37’42,2’’ W, 1442 m, 2 males, 7.VII.2013, Monteiro e Macedo col. (MZSP); idem, 1 male, 16.I.2014, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); PENSA RIO Pt   .5, 22° 25’ 01,0” S, 44° 38’ 32,9” W, 1846 m, 6 males, 9.VIII.2013, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); idem, 1 male, 12.X.2013, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); idem, 2 males, 26.XII.2013, R. Monteiro col. (DZRJ); idem, 2 males, 12. II.2015, R. Monteiro col. ( DZRJ); São Paulo. São José do Barreiro. Parque Nacional da Serra da Bocaina    . Cachoeira do Lajeado , 22° 42’ 48,9” S, 44° 37’ 17,6” W, 1557 m, 1 male, 10–13.XII.2011, J. Nessimian & A. Oliveira col. ( DZRJ)GoogleMaps  ; Paranapiacaba. Rebio Alto da Serra Paranapiacaba. 23°46’38,4’’S, 46°18’45,3’’W, Malaise, 1 male, 13VIII –19.IX.2009, Lamas, Nihei e Eq. col ( DZRJ)GoogleMaps  ; Idem, 1 male (MZSP).

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Phengodidae

Genus

Akamboja