Spiroberotha tocantinensis, Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Krolow, Tiago Kütter, 2016

Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Krolow, Tiago Kütter, 2016, A new species of Spiroberotha Adams 1989 (Neuroptera: Berothidae) and the first record of the genus in Brazil, Zootaxa 4093 (1), pp. 127-134: 128-131

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Spiroberotha tocantinensis

n. sp.

Spiroberotha tocantinensis   n. sp.

(Fig: 2–6)

Diagnosis. Wings weakly falcate. Forewing with one radial and one or two outer gradate crossveins. Male ectoproct with a hooklike projection on the tip. Male gonocoxite X (mediuncus) spirally coiled. Male sternites VIII and IX with lateral projections bearing large sclerotized setae at the apex, one at the eighth and two at the ninth (different from S. fernandezi   and S. sanctarosae   with two and one setae on both projections respectively). Female gonocoxite VIII extending downwards, subtriangular, with posterior margin rounded and bearing two elongate lateral tubercles (different from the other two species, with lateral tubercles shorter).

Description. Face barely extending below the eyes. Frons pale yellow with a light brown transversal stripe in the medial region that curves up to meet the antennal scape in each extremity. Clypeus transversely elongated with two large brown spots separated by a small pale yellow area. Clypeus spots bearing elongated setae. Labrum pale yellow except by the distal margin, light brown laterally. Mouth parts yellow with brown spots. In lateral view, area behind the eyes brown. Vertex yellow. Scape elongated, as long as the pedicel and the basal five flagellomeres combined, mostly pale yellow but with the anterior face light brown, covered with elongated setae anteriorly. Pedicel almost as long as wide, pale yellow. Flagellum moniliform, with flagellomeres about two times broader than long, pale yellow. Tip of flagellum broken in all specimens (Fig: 2).

Thorax, dorsal view, mostly yellow with lateral areas brown and with a thin medial longitudinal dark line that extends from the anterior margin of the pronotum until the apex of the metascutellum. Pronotum subquadrate, with the lateral areas extending downward, and covered with setae mainly on the brown areas. Cervical sclerites brown and covered with elongated setae. Pterothorax with sutures between scutum, prescutum and scutellum black; pleural region brownish with the mesothorax slightly darker than metathorax. Mesepisternum covered with white setae anteriorly.

Legs: forecoxa elongated, about as long and wide as femur and tibia; mid and hindcoxa about half long as femur and tibia but wider than both. Forecoxa yellow with few brown areas; mid and hindcoxa brownish but midcoxa slightly darker. Trochanter and femur yellow with small brown spots on the inferior surface. Tibia yellow with scattered brown spots. Tarsi yellow except by the darker distal apex of the tarsomeres. Legs covered with white and black setae. Tarsomere tips with two large and robust setae.

Wings (Fig: 3) weakly falcate with posterior margin almost straight. Forewing: membrane mostly amber, with dorsal area transparent except by the brownish infuscate pterostigma. Membrane surrounding the crossveins with brown marks. Veins pale yellow with brown punctuations, except by the crossveins, completely brown. Costal crossveins alternating between forked and simple ones. Sc and R fused on the pterostigma, with one basal crossvein. Three or four RS longitudinal veins. One radial crossvein. Six aligned inner gradate crossveins and 1-2 outer gradate. Hindwing: membrane mostly transparent except by the pterostigma and the apex of the subcostal cell, brownish infuscate. Veins pale yellow, except by gradate and the costal crossveins, brown. Costal area reduced, with simple crossveins. Two radial and three outer gradate crossveins.

Abdominal tergites pale yellow laterally and brownish infuscate medially. Sternites pale yellow and scattered with brown dots bearing white setae. Terminalia pale.

Male terminalia ( Fig 4 – 5 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 ): ectoproct + tergite IX with the callus cerci weakly developed but bearing trichobothria; posterior margin with a hooklike projection at the tip, projection inward curved (Fig: 4). Sternite VIII with a thin projection on each posteroventral corner, each projection with tip slightly curved dorsally, and bearing one strong setae on the tip (Fig: 4). Sternite IX with a pair of projections on posterior margin, each projection straight with two strong setae on the tip (Fig: 4). Gonocoxites IX with upcurved hooks at the posterior margin, medial region slightly curved, and anterior region forming a right angle and extending up to the apex of the projections at the sternite IX (Fig: 5). Gonocoxite X (mediuncus) spirally coiled (Fig: 5).

Female terminalia (Fig: 6): Gonocoxite VIII extending downwards, subtriangular, with posterior margin rounded and bearing two elongate lateral tubercles with tip rounded, located near apex. Ectoproct + tergite IX with the callus cerci weakly developed but bearing trichobothria and with the ventral margin expanded downward with tip rounded and bearing some long setae. Gonocoxite IX with posterior margin rounded and set with black setae, and ventral margin bearing hypocaudae. Hypocaudae very long covered with elongate pale setae, mainly on the internal face.

Etymology. Species was named after the Tocantins state, where the type specimens were collected.

Type locality. All specimens were collected at the same place, a ranch located on the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil ( Fig 1 View FIGURE 1 ). The ranch is located in an area of typical Cerrado, which is characterized by the presence of trees that are short, inclined, tortuous and with irregular ramifications; presence of some small bushes; and is constantly affected by fire (ICMBio 2014). One male was collected in June, a male and a female in July, and another male in August; months included within Tocantins dry season, that usually extends from April/May to September/October.

Type material. Holotype: Brasil, TO, Palmas, Taquaruçu, fazenda encantada, 10 ° 15 ’2,3’’S; 48 °0,7’33,6’’W. 22 ~ 29.VI. 2012. Arm. Malaise. Krolow. T. K. & Lima, H. I. L. col (♂, INPA). Paratypes: same as holotype, except by 20 ~ 27.VII. 2012 (1 ♂, 1 ♀, INPA); same as holotype, except by 24 ~ 31.VIII. 2012 (1 ♂, TAMU).