Soyedina carolinensis ( Claassen, 1923 )

Grubbs, Scott A. & Baumann, Richard W., 2019, Soyedina Ricker, 1952 (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) in the eastern Nearctic: review of species concepts, proposed morphology-based species groups, and description of a new species from North Caroli, Zootaxa 4658 (2), pp. 223-250: 231-233

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4658.2.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A4D55B3B-9BE9-4918-89C6-8049F5895CF2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B66387BE-F373-B362-FF38-17FCFC03FD88

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Soyedina carolinensis ( Claassen, 1923 )
status

 

Soyedina carolinensis ( Claassen, 1923) 

Carolina Forestfly

http://lsid.speciesfile.org/urn:lsid: Plecoptera  .speciesfile.org:TaxonName:606 5

( Figs. 25–34View FIGURES 25–30View FIGURES 31–34, 80View FIGURE 80)

Nemoura carolinensis Claassen 1923:287  . Holotype ♂ (MCZC), Morganton , (Burke Co.), North Carolina, USA

Nemoura carolinensis Needham & Claassen, 1925:215 

Nemoura (Soyedina) washingtoni carolinensis Ricker, 1952:53 

Soyedina carolinensis Illies, 1966:249 

Soyedina carolinensis Stark, 2017:187 

Distribution. USA: DE, MD, NC, PA, TN, VA, WV ( DeWalt et al. 2019).

Material examined. USA, Maryland, Frederick Co., spring seep Raven Rock Run , 17 March 1990, R.M. Duffield, 1 pharate male, 10 larvae ( CHNC)  ; Fishing Creek , 15 March 1991, R.M. Duffield, 1 male, 1 female ( CHNC)  ; tributary to Steep Creek , 39.56006, -77.48271, 9 March 1997, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 2 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  . North Carolina, Buncombe Co., stream, Tanbark ( Ridge ) Tunnel , Blue Ridge Parkway , 5 March 1991, R.W. Baumann & S.M. Clark, 2 males ( BYU)  ; spring into Ox Creek, Blue Ridge Parkway , 35.67078, -82.47066, 18 April 2009, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Graham Co., spring seeps, FS 81, Nantahala National Forest , 35.34784, -83.99531, 1 March 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; seep into Sand Creek, FS 81F, Nantahala National Forest , 35.36208, -83.99576, 2 March 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Haywood Co., Haywood Co., GRSM ATBI Plot , Purchase Knob , (malaise trap), 35.59004, -83.06024, 7–27 March 2002, P.F. Super & J. Lowe, 3 males, 9 females ( BYU)GoogleMaps  ; Big East Fork, Pigeon River , 14 March 2006, J. Robinson, 1 male, 2 females ( BYU)  ; tributary to Laurel Creek, Pisgah National Forest , 35.75263, -83.09060, 1 March 2008, S.A. Grubbs, 7 males, 3 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; tributary to Laurel Creek, Pisgah National Forest , 35.75255, -83.08755, 1 March 2008, S.A. Grubbs, 4 males, 4 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; tributary to Flat Branch, Pisgah National Forest , 35.74612, -83.07928, 1 March 2008, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 1 female ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Cold Springs Creek, FR 148, Pisgah National Forest , 35.77850, -82.95590, 2 March 2008, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; same but 18 April 2009, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 1 female ( WKUC)  ; tributary to Hemphill Creek , 35.57690, -83.07230, 2 March 2008, S.A. Grubbs, 14 males, 6 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Jackson Co., 3 mi. SW Cashiers, Whiteside Mountain , 9 May 1997, C.R. Nelson, 1 male ( BYU)  ; Macon Co., Rattlesnake Springs, Nantahala National Forest , 35.17060, -83.57741, 18 March 1982, J. Weaver, R. Holzenthal, 2 males ( BPSC)GoogleMaps  ; same but 1–18 May 1983, J. Weaver & R. Holzenthal, 31 males, 93 females ( BYU)  ; same but 23 March 2002, S.A. Grubbs, 6 males, 8 females ( WKUC)  ; tributary to Jarrett Creek, Nantahala National Forest , 35.15903, -83.62873, 23 March 2002, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 5 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; same but 8 March 2004, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 1 female ( WKUC)  ; Robin Branch, Nantahala National Forest , 35.16832, -83.58465, B.P. Stark, 19 May 1983, 1 male ( BYU)GoogleMaps  ; same but K.W. Stewart , 1 March 1986, 1 male, 1 female ( BYU)  ; same but 28 February 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 1 male, 1 female ( WKUC)  ; same but 15 March 2009, B.P. Stark, 3 males, 3 pharate males, 1 female ( BPSC)  ; upper Ball Creek, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory , 12 March 1983, A.D. Huryn, 1 male ( ADHC)  ; same but 7–20 April 1984, A.D. Huryn, 1 male ( BYU 1824View Materials)  ; Kit Springs Branch, FS 711, Nantahala National Forest , 35.20191, -83.58354, 29 February 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Sassafras Branch, FS 711, Nantahala National Forest , 35.20230, -83.59406, 29 February 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; seep into Split Whiteoak Branch , FS 711, 35.20458, - 83.58046, 29 February 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 1 male ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; tributary to Split Whiteoak Branch, FS 711, Nantahala National Forest , 35.20640, -83.59059, 29 February 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 3 males, 2 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Blue Valley Overlook, Hwy 106, 12 March 1995, B.P. Stark, R. Simmons & R. Frederick, 3 males ( BYU)  ; same but 14 March 2006, B.P. Stark, 4 males ( BPSC)  ; Swain Co., tributary to Connelly Creek, Nantahala National Forest , 35.35226, -83.35175, 23 March 2002, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 5 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Yancey Co., Big Crabtree Creek, FR 5511, Pisgah National Forest , 35.79264, -82.17388, 24 March 2002, S.A. Grubbs, 2 males, 7 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  . Pennsylvania, Chester Co., East Branch, White Clay Creek , 0.6 mi. W London Grove, 24 February 1980, D.H. Funk, 2 males, 1 female ( BYU)  ; same but March 6 1980, D.H. Funk, 7 males, 2 females ( BYU)  ; tributary, White Clay Creek, Stroud Laboratory , 26 April 1964, J.K. Gelhaus & D P. Koenig, 11 males, 22 females ( BYU)  ; [Philadelphia Co.], Philadelphia , 24 April 1910, G.M. Greene, 1 male (removed from pin) ( USNM)  . Tennessee, Carter Co., Twin Springs, Cherokee National Forest , 36.12128, -82.08654, 10 April 2002, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 1 female ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Sevier Co., Middle Prong Little Pigeon River, Great Smoky Mountains National Park , 22–23 April 1978, C.H. Nelson, 2 males, 3 females ( CHNC)  ; Ramsay Prong Little Pigeon River, Great Smoky Mountains National Park , 22–23 April 1978, C.H. Nelson, 2 males, 2 females ( CHNC)  ; Gatlinburg, Great Smoky Mountains National Park , 28 April 1978, F.F. Sherberger, 1 male, 1 female ( BYU)  ; Cades Cove, 3.5 mi. E Cabin Mill, Great Smoky Mountains National Park , 25 March 1980, B.P. Stark, K.W. Stewart & J. Feminella, 4 males, 4 females ( BYU)  ; Rocky Spur Branch, Great Smoky Mountains National Park , 35.68027, -83.46450, 25 March 1999, B.C. Kondratieff, 3 males, 3 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Road Prong, Great Smoky Mountains National Park , 35.60975, -83.44918, 15 April 2014, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 1 female ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  . Virginia, Bedford Co., Hemp Mill Branch, Sheep Creek , 37.40222, -79.65056, 25 February 1980, C.F. Burgoon & C.E. Dunn, 2 males ( BYU)GoogleMaps  ; Floyd Co., Tory Creek, Hwy 58, west of Meadows of Dan , 36.72798, -80.47042, 11 March 1991, R.W. Baumann & R.F. Kirchner, 6 males ( BYU, WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Grayson Co., spring on top of Straight Mountain , Rt. 603, 22 April 1979, B.C. Kondratieff, 1 male, 1 female ( BYU 1941View Materials)  ; unnamed spring, Rt. 603, near Lewis Fork Bridge , 18 February 1990, R.F. Kirchner & K.W. Stewart, 8 males, 4 females ( BYU)  ; seep into Lewis Fork, Jefferson National Forest , 36.66883, -81.53128, 13 April 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 5 males, 2 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; same but 36.67208, -81.52467, 13 April 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 2 males, 2 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; same but 36.66790, -81.53016, 13 April 2008, A.L. Sheldon, 2 males ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Madison Co., Rapidan River, Criglersville , 27 March 1938, B.D. Burks, 2 males, ( INHS Plecoptera  7755)  ; Rapidan River, Rapidan Camp, R.M. Duffield , 30 April 1988, 1 male ( CHNC)  ; spring into Hogcamp Brook, Dark Hollow Falls Trail, Shenandoah National Park , 38.51867, -78.42349, 15 May 1995, S.A. Grubbs, 1 male, 4 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  ; Washington Co., spring, FR 90, Mount Rogers National Recreation Area , 36.65629, -81.70547, 22 March 2002, S.A. Grubbs, 2 males, 2 females ( WKUC)GoogleMaps  . West Virginia, Randolph Co., Marsh Fork of Buckhannon River, Route 47 near Pickens , 38.66300, -80.23180, 24 March 1992, S.M. Clark, 13 males, 23 females ( BYU)GoogleMaps  .

Remarks. The adult male was described and illustrated in Claassen (1923) and subsequently in Needham & Claassen (1925, with the same image of the male in lateral view; their plate 38, fig. 7). Ricker (1952) demoted S. carolinensis  as a subspecies of S. washingtoni  (both as subgenera of Nemoura  ), noting that he found the two taxa as nearly indistinguishable. Full species status, however, was re-elevated by Illies (1966). The combination of the asymmetric dorsal ( Figs. 25–27, 30View FIGURES 25–30) and ventral sclerites ( Figs. 25–26View FIGURES 25–30), plus the inner epiproct member that is flanged and directed laterally with the flange lip approximately same width apically ( Figs. 25–27View FIGURES 25–30), aligns this species closely with S. merritti  and S. washingtoni  . We view S. carolinensis  as a valid, albeit variable, species that is distinct from S. washingtoni  . Although the outer paraproct lobe of S. carolinensis  is variable in form (see below), for S. washingtoni  it is consistently quadrate or subquadrate across its range ( Figs. 49–50View FIGURES 43–50).

The outer paraproct lobe of S. carolinensis  varies in form. For example, early-emergent populations (i.e. late winter–early spring) from east Tennessee and western North Carolina have an outer lobe that has a narrow profile in apical ½ with anterior and posterior margins ca. parallel and without a basoposterior expansion ( Fig. 31View FIGURES 31–34). This is a very common phenotype. A slight variation in this theme is present on populations from central West Virginia ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 31–34). In contrast, populations from higher-elevation streams and seeps in southwestern Virginia and east Tennessee have an outer paraproct lobe that is more sickle-shaped and with a distinct anteriorly-directed spur compared to other phenotypes ( Fig. 33View FIGURES 31–34). Populations further northward along the Blue Ridge and upper Piedmont provinces into central Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania have an outer lobe that is different along the anterior and posterior margins, and has a more bulbous basoposterior portion ( Fig. 34View FIGURES 31–34). Because of this, we contend that morphology alone cannot effectively address the question regarding of if there are evolutionarily independent units of S. carolinensis  that represent undescribed species. Although the larva is undescribed, Stark (2017) noted one cercal feature that is distinct from that of S. vallicularia  .

Soyedina carolinensis  is known from the southern Appalachian Mountain region northeastward to the Piedmont Uplands of southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware ( Fig. 80View FIGURE 80).

MD

Museum Donaueschingen

BYU

Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum

GRSM

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Plecoptera

Family

Nemouridae

Genus

Soyedina

Loc

Soyedina carolinensis ( Claassen, 1923 )

Grubbs, Scott A. & Baumann, Richard W. 2019
2019
Loc

Soyedina carolinensis

Stark 2017: 187
2017
Loc

Soyedina carolinensis

Illies 1966: 249
1966
Loc

Nemoura (Soyedina) washingtoni carolinensis

Ricker 1952: 53
1952
Loc

Nemoura carolinensis

Needham & Claassen 1925: 215
1925
Loc

Nemoura carolinensis

Claassen 1923: 287
1923