Diplura mapinguari , Pedroso, Denis Rafael, Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leao & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, 2018

Pedroso, Denis Rafael, Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce De Leao & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, 2018, Comments on the genus Diplura C. L. Koch, 1850, with description of two new species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Dipluridae), ZooKeys 771, pp. 57-71: 57

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scientific name

Diplura mapinguari

sp. n.

Diplura mapinguari  sp. n. Figures 1-10, 28, 29

Type material.

Holotype: BraZil: RONDÔNIA: Porto Velho, Parque Natural Municipal de Porto Velho, [no date], [no collector] (♂, MNRJ 04414). Paratypes: BRAZIL: RONDÔNIA: Guajará-Mirim, 18.i.2001, Eq. Butantan (♀, IBSP 12336); Porto Velho: Mutum, transecto 5, parcela 400m, 18.xi.2011, Candiani, D. (juvenile, MZSP 44043); Mutum, transecto 7, parcela 650m, 18.iv.2012, Indicatti, R. (juvenile, MZSP 47085); UHE Samuel, Reserva, 17-21.viii.1992, Pontes, G. (juvenile, MCTP 02217).

Etymology: The specific name is taken from the folklore of Amazonian Indian tribes. “Mapinguari” is a magical creature, a huge long-haired animal, with long arms and large claws.


Diplura mapinguari  sp. n. shares the same oblique continuous light stripes on the dorsum of the abdomen with other species ( D. lineata  , D. sanguinea  , and D. rodrigoi  sp. n.), but differs by having the stripes unequally spaced. The three median stripes of D. mapinguari  sp. n are wider, almost touching each other near the middle and merging with the ventral light background (Fig. 1). The male of D. mapinguari  sp. n. has the longest embolus in Diplura  , 2.5 × longer than the bulb (Fig. 5). Females also have an elongated receptaculum seminis, with a thin stalk, and only three lobes: the internal lobe is lateral and larger; the other two are a pair at the apex (Fig. 10).


Male (holotype, MNRJ 04414): Measurements: Body length 18.2; carapace length 8.8, carapace width 7.6; abdomen length 7.5, abdomen width 3.7. Leg formula 4123, total length: I 36.2, II 31.0, III 30.2, IV 38.7. Carapace: Clypeus tiny, with anterior margin bearing five thick setae, elongated and turned forward. Eye tubercle without thick setae at anterior margin, but with two thick setal insertions and many thin, common setae between the posterior eyes. AME separated from each other by 1/2 their diameter and almost as large as ALE. ALE much longer than wide, just a bit longer than AME. PME oval, around 1/2 the diameter of the AME. PLE longer than wide, a bit smaller than AME. PME and PLE contiguous. Anterior and posterior eye rows slightly recurved and with similar width. Chelicera with eleven promarginal teeth. Plectrum with seven thick and elongated setae. Sigillae ellyptical. Maxillae with 17-25 digitiform cuspules. Lyra (Fig. 9) formed by eleven elongated setae, clearly curved at their middle and slightly spatulated, the basalmost seta thinner and shorter than the others, which increase regularly in length up to the distal seta. Legs: Leg I (Figs 2, 3). Tibia I with a retrolateral distal spur, slightly curved, with thick end which bears a megaseta. In ventral view, spur placed transversally to the long axis of tibia, with its apex directed retrolaterally (Fig. 3). Megaseta (or megaspine) elongated, regularly curved and acute, directed retrolaterally. In ventral view, it is placed obliquely in relation to its base and is nearly as long as the spur. Metatarsus I relatively long and straight, with its basal third bearing a large retrolateral tubercle, elongated and pointed, slightly turned towards the distal portion of the article. There is a short cluster of many spiniform setae (clasper) between the two macrosetae at the mid-basal portion of the prolateral face of the article. Macrosetae: Leg I: femur d2-3-3-3 left, d2-2-1-2-3 right; patella d1 left; tibia p1-1-1, v1-1-1ap (apophysis) left; v1-2-1ap (apophysis) right; metatarsus p1-1-0, v1-1-1-2ap left, v1-1-2-2ap right; leg II: femur d1-2-3-3-2 left, d1-1-3-3-2 right, p0-1-1-1; patella p1-1; tibia p1-1, r1, v2-2-2ap; metatarsus p1-1-1, v1-1-2-1ap left, v1-1-2-2ap right; leg III: femur d3-3-2-2; patella p1-1, r1; tibia d1-1-1, p1-1-1, r1-1-1, v2-2-2ap; metatarsus d1-1-2-2, p1-1-1, r1-1-0; v2-2-1-2ap left, v2-1-1-1-2ap right; leg IV: femur d1-3-3-1-2 left, d1-3-2-3-1-2 right; patella p1-1, r1; tibia d0-1-0, p1-1, r1-1-1, v2-1-1-2ap; metatarsus d1-1-1-1-2, p1-1-1-0, r1-1-1-0, v2-2-2-2ap left v2-2-2-3ap right. Genitalia: Palpus (Fig. 4) not as short and incrassate as usual, approx. 3.6 × longer than wide and 2.6 × longer than the cymbium. Bulb (Figs 5-8) globose, wider than long, with thin and elongated embolus, approx. 2.5 × longer than the bulb. Embolus with relatively thin base, forming a 90o angle with the dorsal face of bulb, in retrolateral and prolateral views, tapering regularly towards the apex, with its distal third much thinner, curved and slightly twisted. In ventral and dorsal views (Figs 7, 8), there is a clear oblique placement of the embolus axis in relation to the bulb axis. In ventral view, sperm duct is wide at the beginning, with strong diminution of diameter at the base of the embolus, and then regularly tapering toward the apex (Fig. 7).

Female (paratype, IBSP 12336).

Measurements: Body length 28.1; carapace length 11.3, carapace 9.2; abdomen length 12.3, abdomen width 8.7. Leg formula 4123, total length: I 37.3, II 34.7, III 35.2, IV 44.8. Females resemble males, except by the following characteristics. Carapace: Clypeus length around 1/2 the diameter of AME, with anterior margin bearing four thick setae, elongated, and turned forward. Eye tubercle with three elongated setae at anterior margin and five setae between the posterior eyes. Chelicerae with 12 promarginal teeth. Maxilae with 26 cuspules. Lyra with 13 elongated setae, slightly curved medially. Genitalia: Receptaculum seminis (Fig. 10) paired, elongated, separated by a little less than its height, with thin and elongated stalk, bearing one large and elongated internal lobe and two distal lobes that are not as large as the basal one.

Color pattern.

Carapace reddish brown, with thoracic sulci a bit darker. Eye region black. In live juveniles, the carapace presents an almost black color and the colors of all body parts are more vivid (Fig. 1). Chelicerae, labium, sternum and coxae reddish brown. Legs mostly reddish brown, with darker femurs. Abdomen black, dorsum with five light transverse stripes, of different sizes and shapes (Fig. 1). First and last stripes shorter and thinner (disappearing in some specimens). Three median stripes wider and shorter, widest at their middle region, where they almost touch one another. Compared to the last median stripe, the two first median stripes are wider, longer and are connected to the venter. The carapace is covered with abundant light brown setae.


Known only from Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim, Rondônia state, Amazon area, northern Brazil (Fig. 29).