Paramasaris fernandae Silveira

Silveira, Orlando T., 2015, New species of pollen wasps Paramasaris fernandae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Masarinae) from a rain forest locality in Brazilian Amazonia, Zootaxa 3919 (2), pp. 396-400 : 396-399

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Paramasaris fernandae Silveira

sp. nov.

Paramasaris fernandae Silveira , sp. nov.

( Figs. 1 A View FIGURE 1. A ; 2 C–E)

Material examined. Holotype, ♀, Brazil, Pará, Serra Norte, Pedreira, 17 /vi/ 1985, M.F. Torres ( MPEG: 11006230)

Description. FEMALE. Body length (from head to apex of T 2): 8.0 mm; wing length: 5.6 mm; antenna distinctly widened at apex (club-shaped), fifth antennal article 1.12 × as wide as fourth, ninth 1.3 × as wide as sixth, tenth 1.31 × as wide as ninth, eleventh 1.38 × as wide as ninth, twelfth 1.27 × as wide as ninth; clypeus 1.15 × as long as wide, with margins of discal region laterally marked below by short carinae, apical emargination slightly wider than interantennal area; mandible with distinct gap between very large apical tooth and another much smaller subapical one; malar space quite narrow, 0.25 × width of interantennal area; POL near 1 × as long as OOL; preocular and preoccipital carinae confluent, complete from top to articulation of mandible; pronotum with two carinae (anterior and posterior), space between them at sides strongly striated; posterior carina continuous across central region in spite of weaker there; no pretegular carina; mesoscutum without notauli, with short inconspicuous indication of parapsidal line near posterior margin; mesepisternal sulcus as chain of relatively large (not so much conspicuous) circular foveae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A C; fv), covered by rather dense whitish pubescence, with mean diameter of 0.08 mm (0.04–0.11 mm; uppermost and central three foveae clearly larger than remaining ones); upper posterior region of mesopleuron bordered by strong furrow with transverse striae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A C; mf); scutellum with strong transverse furrow along anterior margin, crossed by longitudinal striae; metapleuron with strong vertical furrow with transverse striae, these more spaced below so that very deep fossulae are formed ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A C; fr); metanotum as narrow transverse sclerite with very strong sculpture, with two central short keels; propodeum strongly sculptured, with paired central longitudinal carinae, space between them crossed by transverse keels, both carinae and transverse elements a little higher posteriorly; dorso-lateral aspect of propodeum with very large and dense (often coalescent) areolae (0.06–0.09 mm), lateral posterior surface crossed by not very high but distinct oblique carinae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A D; obl), formed by aligned walls of adjacent areolae (whitish setae are denser adjacent to carinae), oblique carinae extending laterally to form the salient upper border of a lateral longitudinal groove whose ventral border is the folded basal region of propodeal valvula ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A E; pgrv); similar groove also present on ventral aspect of metapleuron ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A E; mgrv); T 1 2.55 × as long as maximum width at apex, its length 1.27 × height of mesopleuron, T 1 presenting basally a dorsal truncation, and distally a blunt posterior ridge projecting at sides, petiolar region laterally with rather blunt carina-like edges; S 1 very smooth and shining, basally with lateral blunt carina-like edges and a median sharper carina; T 2 1.34 × as long as wide, anterior subpetiolar region quite distinct and striate, main part of T 2 with distinct posterior median longitudinal ridge; S 6 with distal median triangular notch.

Sculpture: frons and vertex finely micropunctured with granulate aspect, with sparse and shallow mesopunctures, deeper and denser immediately above interantennal area; ventral half of clypeal disk quite shining, with sparse weak mesopunctures, center and upper part of disk reticulate and slightly more densely punctured, upper corners and lateral areas more densely sculptured and duller, with pale short decumbent pilosity; anterior surface of pronotum with dense fine micropunctation and deep well-marked mesopunctures (0.03–0.04 mm), lateral humeral region with smaller mesopunctures, antero-lateral region just preceding anterior carina smooth, unpunctured; mesoscutum sculpture similar to that of pronotum, mesopunctures separated by one to four puncture diameters, denser at sides; mesopleuron finely but evidently microsculptured, rather shining, covered with whitish setae, and presenting very sparse shallow and inconspicuous mesopunctures; T 1 anteriorly presenting large areolae similar to those of propodeum, rest of T 1 shining with moderately sparse micropunctures, and rather deep mesopunctures separated by up to three puncture diameters, eventually coalescent; T 2 with very fine regular and sparse micropunctures, space between shining; S 2 with extremely fine microsculpture, integument considerably shining.

Vestiture: eyes with sparse erect very short setae; head and thoracic segments above covered with short brown pubescence; propodeum and remaining mesosoma laterally with whitish setae.

Color: body black; antenna above; mandible articular region, posterior margin narrowly and large apical tooth; diffuse macula on apical region of clypeus; diffuse spot on tegula; legs (except for fore tibia and tarsus); extreme apical parts of T 1 and S 1; basal articular region of S 2 dark brown; antenna beneath; fore tibia and tarsus light brown; apex of fore femur; distal band on T 2, connected to a longitudinal median strip on tergal carina; distal median macula on T 3 and T 4 yellow. Wings fuscohyaline, marginal cell smoky, stigma and veins black, membrane adjacent to costal margin darker.

MALE unknown.

Etymology. The specific epithet is dedicated to Mrs. Maria Fernanda Torres, retired staff member of the Museu Goeldi, who collected the holotype.

Distribution. Brazil: Pará.

Remarks. The finding of a species of Paramasaris in eastern Pará state is possibly indicative of some hidden diversity of this genus in Amazonia as predicted by Hermes & Garcete-Barret (2009). It is possibly the only lineage of Neotropical masarines with representative species in rain forest areas, most other groups occurring mainly in more arid regions covered by open vegetation types, and in Patagonia (Carpenter 1988; Carpenter et al. 2006). Trimeria rubra Hermes & Melo, 2006 , was described from the state of Rondônia, but the collecting locality (Vilhena) is practically at the frontier with Mato Grosso, in a region under strong influence of the Brazilian central cerrados (as marginal vegetation mosaics), and just south of more typical Amazonian areas. While also occupying a marginal position in the Amazonian biome, the collecting locality of P. fernandae sp. nov. in Serra Norte, in Pará state, is originally mainly covered by rain forest, also presenting relatively small spots of savanna-like vegetation (hematitic canga) developing upon iron ore outcrops on some hill summits ( Porto & Silva 1989; Silva 1991). Specifically, the collecting site “Pedreira” is a rain forest location distant a few kilometers of nearest “canga” vegetation occurrences. The holotype was probably collected at a road margin in a forested area. In addition and very interestingly, P. fernandae sp. nov. is not closely related to other Paramasaris species occurring in cerrado areas or in southern Brazil ( P. richardsi , P. brasiliensis ), but to other two species known to occur only in northwestern South America, P. cupreus and P. fuscipennis (see below). Paramasaris wasps are clearly undersampled in Amazonia, being possibly bypassed in vespid inventories for their quite small size, and atypical unfolded anterior wings.

Carpenter (1989) in his phylogenetic study of the tribe Gayellini, cleared the relationships between the four species of Paramasaris (that he demonstrated should include Paragayella richardsii Giordani Soika). In Carpenter´s tree, P. cupreus and P. fuscipennis are sister groups, with support of four synapomorphies: paraglossae also lacking acroglossal buttons; female clypeus with a pair of short apical carinae; second pronotal carina more complete dorsally; longitudinal carina on T 2 well developed in female. Paramasaris fernandae sp. nov. presents all of these characters and is thus a member of that monophyletic group. The new species differs from both P. fuscipennis and P. cupreus by having circular foveae along the mesepisternal sulcus being distinctly smaller and more hidden under the whitish setae that covers the whole lateral aspect of the mesosoma ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A C). In the other species the foveae are larger (see Figs 1 View FIGURE 1. A B, 2 A for P. cupreus ). The first metasomal segment is also longer and slender in P. fernandae sp. nov., its length being 2.55 × as large as maximum apical width, while in the other two species this ratio is only 2.25 × ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1. A B, 2 B). Paramasaris fernandae sp. nov. is intermediate between those species in respect to condition of the oblique carinae on the dorsolateral surface of the propodeum. These carinae are more strongly developed in P. fuscipennis , with associated very dense whitish setae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A B). In P. fernandae sp. nov. they are fairly distinct and also associated to a lateral longitudinal furrow near the base of the propodeal valvula ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A E), a character not occurring in P. cupreus ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1. A B, 2 A) (not examined in P. fuscipennis ). While more similar in size to P. cupreus , the new species is also distinguishable from it by having only the fore tibia and tarsus tinged of light (testaceous) brown, and not the entire set of femur+tibia+tarsus lighter as in types of P. cupreus (compare Figs 1 A View FIGURE 1. A –B). Quite differently, ground color of the whole fore leg is darker brown in P. fuscipennis .

In the key for Paramasaris species ( Carpenter 1989), P. fernandae sp. nov. runs to couplet 3, which should be modified accordingly as follows:

3. Circular foveae along the mesepisternal sulcus smaller and more hidden under the whitish setae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A C); first metasomal segment longer and slender, its length 2.55 × as large as maximum apical width ( Fig. 1 A View FIGURE 1. A ); only fore tibia and tarsus tinged of light (testaceous) brown ( Fig. 1 A View FIGURE 1. A ). — Brazil............................................... P. fernandae sp. nov. - Circular foveae along the mesepisternal sulcus larger and distinct ( Fig. 2 A View FIGURE 2. A ); first metasomal segment shorter ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1. A B, 2 B), its length 2.25 × as large as maximum apical width; either fore femur also tinged of light brown ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1. A B), or the entire set femur+tibia+tarsus dark brown ......................................................................................................... 4 4. Propodeal central paired carinae higher than adjacent areolae; oblique carinae weaker mesepisternum with dorsal groove narrower, shallow. — Colombia, Peru...................................................................... P. cupreus Giordani Soika - Propodeal central paired carinae not higher than adjacent areolae; oblique carinae stronger ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2. A B); mesepisternum with dorsal groove broad, deep.— Colombia to Mexico......................................................... P. fuscipennis Cameron


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi