Conus fuerteventurensis Vera-Peláez & Martín González

Martín-González, Esther, Vera-Peláez, José Luis, Castillo, Carolina & Lozano-Francisco, M. Carmen, 2018, New fossil gastropod species (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the upper Miocene of the Canary Islands (Spain), Zootaxa 4422 (2), pp. 191-218: 211-213

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Conus fuerteventurensis Vera-Peláez & Martín González

sp. nov.

Conus fuerteventurensis Vera-Peláez & Martín González  sp. nov.

Figure 8 I, J, K View Figure

Type material. Holotype: complete, well-preserved shell of adult specimen (H: 27.3 mm; W: 18 mm; Hv: 24.9

mm; Ha: 23.1 mm), recorded in the collections as TFMCFO-6625/1. Paratype: shell of adult specimen, recorded as TFMCFO-6625/2 (H: 31.4 mm; W: 20 mm; Hv: 29.2 mm; Ha: 28.1 mm).

Type locality. Bajas Amarillas ( Fuerteventura , Canary Islands). UTM 28 R 593643 m E 3161892 m N  , 10 m asl. The level is composed of dark-gray poorly cemented, fossiliferous sandstones. Tortonian dating defined by the gastropod association described above. The paratype is also from Bajas Amarillas.

Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the name of the oldest of the Canary Islands: Fuerteventura.

Description. Medium-sized shell, conical, abapically straight. Protoconch eroded in the studied specimens. Spire moderately high and conical, consisting of four slightly convex whorls with a rounded profile, separated by a well-defined suture. Last whorl adapically rounded, narrowing at the base. Shoulder sloping and convex. Sculpture is characterized by the presence of two well-defined ridges surrounding the shell in adapical position. Growth lines opistocline on spire whorls and curving backward (prosocyrt/prosocline) on base as is visible on the last whorl. Aperture narrow, oblique, substraight, with the labrum slightly convex abapically. Anal channel well defined and deep. Columellar lip straight, with deep wide siphonal channel, slightly curved abaxially. Coloration pattern consists of reddish-to-brown spiral lines on a whitish or greyish background, alternating with rectangular spots. Spire has alternating reddish or brown rectangular spots on a whitish or greyish background.

Remarks. The genus Conus Linnaeus, 1758  is represented by over 650 recent species and includes at least 800 known fossil species ( Röckel et al. 1995). Such exceptional biodiversity makes this genus one of the most prolific among current marine invertebrates. Today, it is distributed primarily in warm seas, with very few species present in cold or temperate waters like the Mediterranean. The reasons for this extraordinary evolutionary radiation are still largely unknown. After comparing Conus fuerteventurensis  with various Conus  species from the European Neogene, this new species from Fuerteventura vaguely resembles Conus clavatus Lamarck, 1810  from the European Pliocene. However, Conus fuerteventurensis  sp. nov. differs from it in having a more elongated last whorl. On considering the upper Miocene, there is some similarity with Conus eschewegi Pereira  da Costa, 1866 from the Tortonian of Algarve ( Portugal), and the Mediterranean Paratethys, but this species has a more rounded profile and a lower spire. Among the Conus  species present in the Canary Islands and nearby biogeographic areas, the new species presents similarities with three: Conus guinaicus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792  has a higher spire, is narrower and more elongated, its aperture is wider and it has two well-developed abapical folds. The fossil species Conus fuerteventurensis  sp. nov. can be distinguished from C. genuanus Linnaeus, 1758  by its smaller size as well as by its blunt wide adapical fold that is unlike that of the extant species which is pointed. Conus ermineus Born, 1778  presents a higher spire, its aperture is adapically wider and it has some strong folds in the adaxial area of the base. Moreover, the rounded appearance and concave spire with smooth profile of this new species make it substantially different from the other fossil species found in the Miocene of the Canary Islands.

Distribution. Upper Miocene, Tortonian: Fuerteventura.