Aphis mizzou Lagos and Puttler,

Lagos, Doris M., Puttler, Benjamin, Voegtlin, David J. & Giordano, Rosanna, 2012, A new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Missouri on St. John’s Wort, Hypericum kalmianum, and re-description of Aphis hyperici Monell, Zootaxa 3478, pp. 81-92: 84-87

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.210015

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A72AF48B-9A51-4A76-B4E7-7169B3F1F9BF

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/BC5087D4-FFF5-FFBF-61F5-5921CDBCFDDF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Aphis mizzou Lagos and Puttler
status

sp.n.

Aphis mizzou Lagos and Puttler  sp.n.

Diagnosis. A. mizzou  is considered to be a new species because the antennae of both the apterous and alate viviparae are five-segmented and the ultimate rostral segment has no accessory setae. The dorsal abdomen has sclerites and the cuticle is strongly reticulate. The secondary sensoria of alatae are arranged in a single row. Both apterous and winged viviparous females are black in life.

Apterous viviparae (n= 18 specimens) ( Figure 1View FIGURE 1). Color in life: Head, thorax and abdomen black dusted with white wax. Femora black, and tibiae yellowish ( Figure 8View FIGURE 8 A). Color on slide and morphological characters: Head: Dark. Antennal tubercles undeveloped. Antenna five-segmented, shorter than body. Antennal segments: first, second, apical part of fourth and fifth dusky; the other segments pale. Secondary sensoria absent on all antennal segments. Rostrum extending to mesocoxae, ultimate rostral segment without accessory setae. Thorax: Coxae dark and trochanters dusky. Femora dark except at the base. Tibiae pale, darkening near distal tip. Tarsi dusky. Abdomen: Cauda dark, tongue-shaped, with 6–11 setae. Siphunculi dark, lightly imbricated, without flange. Marginal sclerites pale. Pre-siphuncular and post-siphuncular sclerites absent. Marginal tubercles present on abdominal segments I and VII, absent from II, III, and IV. Dorsum of abdomen with wide transverse sclerites on VII and VIII, short band on VI, and scattered smaller sclerites on other abdominal segments. Abdominal tergite VIII with 2 setae. Sub-genital plate dusky, complete, with 1–3 anterior setae. Cuticle strongly reticulated. For morphometric data see Table 2.

Alate viviparae (n= 20 specimens) ( Figure 2View FIGURE 2). Color in life: Head, thorax and abdomen black covered dusted with white wax. Wings yellowish, transparent. Femora black, and tibiae yellowish ( Figure 8View FIGURE 8 A). Color on slide and morphological characters: Head: Dark. Antennal tubercles undeveloped. Antenna five-segmented. shorter than body. All antennal segments dark. Antennal segments III and IV with secondary sensoria arranged in a single row. Rostrum does not reach the metacoxae, ultimate rostral segment without accessory setae. Thorax: Coxae and trochanters dark. Femora dark except at the base. Tibiae pale, darkening near distal tip. Tarsi dusky or dark. Abdomen: Cauda dark finger shaped, with 7–12 setae. Siphunculi dark, imbricated without flange. Marginal sclerites dark. Pre-siphuncular sclerite absent. Post-siphuncular sclerite dark. Marginal tubercles present on abdominal segments I and VII, and sometimes on II, III, and/or IV. Dorsal abdomen with transverse sclerites on VI, and VIII. Abdominal tergite VIII with 2 setae. Sub-genital plate dark, complete, with 2–4 setae on anterior part.

Holotype apterous viviparous female (specimen number 511,101). Body 1.78, URS 0.09, accessory setae absent, antennal segments: III 0.28, IV 0.11, B 0.10, Pt 0.12, LHIII 0.007, hind tibiae 0.62, HT 2 0.12, tubercle I 0.028, tubercle VII 0.030, siphunculi 0.08, cauda 0.20, with 8 setae, abdominal tergite VIII with 2 setae, subgenital plate with 2 setae on anterior margin.

Biology: Biological observations were first made on A. mizzou  in 2005. The new species was not observed again until 2008 and was subsequently found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. It was not found on other Hypericum  species growing on the campus of the University of Missouri, such as H. calycinum  and a hybrid species H. “Hidcote”.

Etymology: This species is named after the nickname for the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri, “ mizzou  ”.

Type material: Holotype: Apterous viviparous female, 511,101, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, 38.9073 °N – 92.2805 °W, Boone County, MO, 12.v. 2009, on Hypericum kalmianum, B. Puttler  , in Illinois Natural History Survey ( INHS) Insect Collection, Urbana.

Paratypes: 1 alate viviparae, 4 apterous viviparae, 510,273–510,274, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, 38.9073 °N – 92.2805 °W, Boone County, MO, 5.v. 2008, on H. kalmianum, B. Puttler  ; 1 alate vivipara, 5 apterous viviparous, 510354, 510355, 511,099 – 511,100, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, 38.9073 °N – 92.2805 °W, Boone County, MO, 12.v. 2009, on H. kalmianum, B. Puttler.  14 alate viviparae, 511,102–511,113, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, 38.9073 °N – 92.2805 °W, Boone County, MO, 20.iv. 2009, on H. kalmianum, B. Puttler  ; 9 alate viviparae, 7 apterous vivipara, 511,114–511,122, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, 38.9073 °N – 92.2805 °W, Boone County, MO, 20.v. 2009, on H. kalmianum, B. Puttler.  Paratypes are deposited at the INHS Insect Collection and W. R. Enns Entomology Museum, University of Missouri.

Discussion: All collections of this species have been made in early spring and initially it was thought that A. mizzou  might be the fundatrix morph of A. hyperici  . However the color, in life, of both aphids observed on the same host plant, H. kalmianum  , and at the same time in the field is different. Both species are dusted with wax but A. hyperici  has a reddish body color while A. mizzou  is black ( Figure 8View FIGURE 8). It also is found primarily on new terminal growth and stems rather than on the underside of leaves that is the usual feeding site for A. hyperici  . Further research needs to be focus on where this species spends the remainder of the year since its populations disappear from Hypericum  by early summer. In contrast A. hyperici  can be found on its host plant throughout the growing season.

Phylogenetic analysis: An analysis was performed using EF 1 -α sequences alone and combined with COI, to test the relationship of A. hypericiphaga  to A. hyperici  and A. mizzou  ( A. hypericiphaga  sequence was obtained from GenBank, accession number EU 358915View Materials). Pairwise distances for COI and EF 1 -α were calculated using the Kimura 2 Parameter distance model ( Kimura 1980) in PAUP 4.0b 10 ( Swofford 2001). PAUP was used to generate Neighbor-joining trees to graphically represent the distance between sequences.

A total of 50 sequences for COI and EF 1 -α were used in this study and are available in GenBank under the following accession numbers JQ 860251View Materials to JQ 860275View Materials for COI and JQ 860276View Materials to JQ 860298View Materials for EF 1 -α ( Table 1).

Using COI, pairwise sequence divergence between A. hyperici  and A. mizzou  is 3.2 %. Foottit et al. (2008) cite numerous examples with intraspecific sequence divergence of less than 2 % in Aphis  and other genera. Values of pairwise distances for the nuclear gene EF 1 -α are more conserved ( Table 3). Pairwise comparisons using this latter gene between the morphologically closely related species A. hyperici  and A. mizzou  is 0.8 %, and of these two species to A. hypericiphaga  is 2.9 % and 3.3 % respectively. Interestingly, A. hypericiphaga  appears to be more closely related to A. gossypii  (0.9 % EF 1 -α) than to the native American species included in this study ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 and 4View FIGURE 4). Graphical representation of the Kimura 2 parameter distances of concatenated genes for all taxa, with the exception of A. hypericiphaga  , indicates that A. hyperici  and A. mizzou  share the same clade as A. pulchella  and A. fabae  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

COI

University of Coimbra Botany Department

PAUP

Punjab Agricultural University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Aphidomorpha

Family

Aphididae

Genus

Aphis