Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis , Nazarov, Roman, Poyarkov, Nikolay A., Orlov, Nikolai L., Phung, Trung My, Nguyen, Tao Thien, Hoang, Duc Minh & Ziegler, Thomas, 2012

Nazarov, Roman, Poyarkov, Nikolay A., Orlov, Nikolai L., Phung, Trung My, Nguyen, Tao Thien, Hoang, Duc Minh & Ziegler, Thomas, 2012, Two new cryptic species of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from southern Vietnam, Zootaxa 3302, pp. 1-24: 14-21

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.209998

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/BC76E83A-2A6F-0A15-42A8-3E0C6B35FF6D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis
status

sp. nov.

Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov.

Holotype. Adult male ZMMUAbout ZMMU R- 13368 collected from the northern slope of Bidoup Mountain, environment of Klong Klanh (= Long La 1 nh) village, Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park, Da Chais commune, Lac Duong District, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam (12 ° 10 ´N, 108 ° 40 ´E), 1700 m elevation, coll. 04- 12.04.2004 by Nikolai Orlov ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6).

Paratypes. Adult male ZISPAbout ZISP 26325 (field number NLO 36041View Materials), the same collection data as for the holotype; two adult males ZMMUAbout ZMMU R- 13369 - 1, ZMMUAbout ZMMU R- 13369 - 2, three adult females ZMMUAbout ZMMU R- 13369 - 4, ZISPAbout ZISP 26326, VNMNAbout VNMN 3100 and two subadult females ZMMUAbout ZMMU R- 13369 - 3 R- 13369 - 5; collected by Nikolay Poyarkov between 6- 10.05. 2009 at an altitude of ca. 1600 m a.s.l. along the road to Nha Trang (723 road), 6 – 7 km from Klong Klanh, Da Nhim river valley in Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam.

Diagnosis. A medium-sized Cyrtodactylus  with a maximum SVL of 86.3 mm; body slender, limbs and digits moderately long, original tail thin and somewhat longer than body; two pairs of postmental scales, first pair in broad contact with one another, size of the second pair are about half of first pair ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 b); nostrils round, each surrounded by supranasal, rostral, first supralabial, and 2 – 3 small postnasals; dorsal tubercles enlarged, flattened roundish, smooth to weakly keeled, in 18 – 24 irregular longitudinal rows; lateral folds weakly developed, with enlarged tubercles; 38 – 43 ventral scales between lateral folds; 166 – 198 ventral scales between postmental scales and cloaca; subdigital lamellae below fourth finger 15 – 20 (mean 17.6), and below fourth toe 18 – 23 (mean 21.0); males with 4 – 6 precloacal pores in single ^-shaped series; precloacal groove absent; 8 – 10 enlarged femoral scales are present but femoral pores are lacking; enlarged subcaudals lacking; basal tail with segments; tail-base without large spurs; dorsal ground coloration light yellow with pattern consisting of 4 – 5 dark irregular transversal dorsal bands, usually with light borders; limbs with irregular transversal dark bands dorsally; neck band well developed, widened posteriorly; dorsal head surface light, without pattern or sometimes with pallid dark spots; tail with 7 – 9 dark transversal bands which fade on the ventral side.

Description of Holotype. SVL 77 mm, TailL 86 mm, HeadL 23.2, HeadW 15.9 mm, HeadH 8.6 mm, SnEye 9.0 mm, EyeEar 6.8 mm; proportions are as follows: SVL/HeadL 3.32, HeadL/HeadW 1.46, HeadL/HeadH 2.7, SnEye/EyeEar 1.32.

Rostral wider than high (RW 3.4 mm, RH 2.1 mm, RW/RH 1.48) with an inverse Y-shaped median suture ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 c); supralabials 8 / 9; small scales between orbit and the seventh supralabial 2 / 2; infralabials 8; left nostril surrounded by rostral anteriorly, first supralabial laterally and two nasals posteriorly; right nostril surrounded by rostral, first supralabial and two postnasals, supranasal not in contact with nostril; rostral about 8 times larger than supranasal; supranasals separated from each other by one intersupranasal, the same size or larger than supranasals; head scales granular, half as large as median snout scales; centre of dorsal head surface and temporal region with rounded, unkeeled tubercles, that are three times larger than the surrounding scales; mental triangular, showing the same width as rostral ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 b); two pairs of enlarged postmentals, trapezoidal, longer than wide, bordering mental; dorsal scales granular; dorsal tubercles round, smooth, weakly keeled, surrounded by 9 – 10 granular scales, tubercles forming 23 longitudinal irregular rows at midbody; ventral scales smooth, medial scales three times larger than the dorsal granules, 41 longitudinal rows at midbody; lateral folds weakly developed; dorsal limb surface with granular scales and smooth tubercles; five precloacal pores in an angle series; ten enlarged femoral scales on each side located in continuous series without gap between precloacal and femoral scales ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 d); femoral pores lacking; precloacal region with a patch of 8 enlarged scales; 1 / 2 enlarged postcloacal tubercles; tail base whorls covered by convex scales on dorsal surface, posterior part of tail with flattened and rounded scales; subcaudals not enlarged, flat, smooth, imbricate, about two times larger than scales on tail dorsum.

Coloration in alcohol: Dorsal head surface light grey with 9 irregular dark brown patches; nuchal band broadened posteriorly, dark brown, extending from the neck to the posterior corners of eyes; labials darker with light

1. The name of this village is written as “Long Lanh” in the Vietnam Administrative Atlas (Le, The, 2009).

spots; back light brownish with five irregular, dark brown transverse bands, consisting of separate spots; flanks greyish white; venter cream, the lower sides of toes and fingers grey; dorsal limbs and digits light with dark transversal spots; upper side of tail with 8 dark brown bands which are wider than the light bands in-between; ventral side of tail dark grey with white spots that are becoming darker posteriorly.

Variation of paratypes. For the variation of paratypes see Table 4 and Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 a. Sexual dimorphism is present, males are slightly smaller then females, precloacal pores are present in males only and males have more developed postcloacal spurs.

Comparisons with Vietnamese species. Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from C. badenensis Nguyen, Orlov & Darevsky  , C. bichnganae Ngo  , C. caovansungi Orlov, Nguyen, Nazarov, Ananjeva & Nguyen  , C. chauquangensis Hoang, Orlov, Ananjeva, Johns, Hoang & Dau  , C. condorensis (Smith)  , C. cucphuongensis Ngo & Chan  , C. eisenmanae Ngo  , C. grismeri Ngo  , C. hontreensis Ngo, Grismer & Grismer  , C. huongsonensis Luu, Nguyen, Do & Ziegler  , C. intermedius (Smith)  , C. martini Ngo  , C. nigriocularis Nguyen  , C. paradoxus (Darevsky & Szczerbak)  , C. phongnhakebangensis Ziegler, Rösler, Herrmann & Vu  , C. phuquocensis Ngo, Grismer & Grismer, C.  takouensis Ngo & Bauer  , C. roesleri Ziegler, Nazarov, Orlov, Nguyen, Vu, Dang, Dinh & Schmitz  , and C. yangbayensis Ngo & Chan  , by the absence of transversally enlarged subcaudals. Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from C. cryptus Heidrich, Rösler, Vu, Böhme & Ziegler  by having enlarged femoral scales and lower number of ventral scales (38 – 43 versus 47 – 50 in C. cryptus  ). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from C. huynhi Ngo & Bauer  by having a higher number of enlarged femoral scales (8 – 10 versus 3 – 5 in C. huynhi  ), and by lacking femoral pores (3 – 8 present in C. huynhi  ). The new species is most similar to the members of the C. irregularis  complex ( Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov., C. cattienensis Geissler, Nazarov, Orlov, Böhme, Phung, Nguyen & Ziegler  , C. cryptus Heidrich, Rösler, Vu, Böhme & Ziegler  , C. huynhi Ngo & Bauer  , C. irregularis Smith  , C. pseudoquadrivirgatus Rösler, Nguyen, Vu, Ngo & Ziegler  , and C. ziegleri Nazarov, Orlov, Nguyen & Ho  ). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov. in the dorsal pattern (posteriorly distinctly widened nuchal band versus thinner and sometimes medially divided nuchal band in Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov.); as well Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. has banded dorsal pattern versus blotched in Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov. Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. has elongate limbs (index SVL / fore and hind limbs 2.05 and 2.44, n= 6) compared to Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov. (2.26 and 2.65, n= 9). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. has a higher number of subdigital lamellae on fourth finger and toe (average value 17.6 and 21) compared with Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov. (15.9 and 18.3). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. has a relatively larger and more massive head (index SVL / Head L and SVL / Head W for C. bidoupimontis  is 3.46 and 5.2, n= 6) than Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov. (3.55 and 5.48, n= 8). In addition, the maximum known SVL in Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. slightly exceeds that of Cyrtodactylus bugiamapensis  sp. nov. (80 mm versus 76.8 mm). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from C. cattienensis  by its larger maximal body size (SVL 60.5 – 86.3 mm versus 49.9 – 70.0 mm) and a different dorsal pattern ( Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. usually has dorsal bands with light bordering, but C. cattienensis  never has light edge on dorsal pattern). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. has higher mean number of subdigital lamellae in the fourth toe and finger (17.6 and 21 versus 14.5 and 17 accordingly for C. cattienensis  ). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. also has a higher mean number of ventral scales (40.6 versus 37.4 in C. cattienensis  ).

Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from C. pseudoquadrivirgatus  by having enlarged femoral scales and continuous neck-band, the presence of enlarged femoral scales, and by its slightly smaller maximal size (SVL 60.5 – 86.3 mm versus 84.6 – 93 mm in C. pseudoquadrivirgatus  ). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from C. ziegleri  by its slightly smaller maximal body size (SVL 60.5–86.3 versus 84.0–93.0 mm), by the absence of femoral pores (1 – 3 on each side in C. ziegleri  ). Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. is most closely related to C. irregularis  s.str., from which it morphologically differs by the absence of large spurs on the tail-base (versus big, strongly keeled conical spurs in C. irregularis  ), by flattened roundish, smooth to weakly keeled dorsal tubercles versus triangular pyramidal keeled tubercles in C. irregularis  . Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. in addition has a pallid, unclear pattern on the dorsal head surface (versus distinct dark-brown irregular spots with light edging in C. irregularis  ), and more elongate limbs: index SVL / fore and hind limbs is 2.05 and 2.44 (n= 6) versus 2.24 and 2.55 (n= 7) in C. irregularis  .

Comparisons with congeners from surrounding countries of Southeast Asia. Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. differs from other congeners from surrounding countries of Southeast Asia by the following characters. By the absence of transversely enlarged subcaudal plates the new species may be distinguished from: C. aequalis Bauer  , C. annandalei Bauer  , C. aurensis Grismer  , C. baluensis (Mocquard)  , C. chanhomeae Bauer, Sumontha & Pauwels  , C. consobrinus (Peters)  , C. feae (Boulenger)  , C. intermedius (Smith)  , C. ingeri Hikida  , C. interdigitalis Ulber  , C. jarujini Ulber  , C. lomyenensis Ngo & Pauwels  , C. malayanus  (de Rooij), C. oldhami (Theobald, 1876)  , C. pageli Schneider, Nguyen, Schmitz, Kingsada, Auer & Ziegler  , C. peguensis (Boulenger)  , C. pulchellus Gray  , C. russelli Bauer  , C. slowinskii Bauer  , C. sumonthai Bauer, Pauwels & Chanhome  , and C. teyniei David, Nguyen, Schneider & Ziegler. By  the absence of a precloacal groove Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov differs from the following Southeast Asian species: C. annulatus (Taylor)  , C. aurensis Grismer  , C. cavernicolus Inger & King  , C. fumosus (Müller)  , C. marmoratus (Gray)  , C. papuensis (Brongersma)  , C. philippinicus Steindachner  , C. pubisulcus Inger  , C. pulchellus Gray  , C. rubidus (Blyth)  , C. sadleiri (Wells & Wellington)  , C. semenanjungensis Grismer & Leong  , and C. tiomanensis Das & Lim. From  C. agusanensis (Taylor)  , C. brevidactylus Bauer  , C. buchardi David, Teynié & Ohler  , C. chrysopylos Bauer  , C. gansi Bauer  , C. elok Dring  , C. matsuii Hikida  , C. sworderi (Smith)  , and C. yoshii Hikida  , the new species can be distinguished by the presence of enlarged femoral scales.

Etymology. The specific epithet is an adjective derived from the Vietnamese name of the type locality of the new species, Mount Bidoup and Latin root “mons” (nom.), “montis” (gen.) (“mountain”) commemorating the preference of the new species for higher altitudes and the evergreen forest of Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park. As common name we suggest Bidoup Bent–toed Gecko  (in English), and Thach sung ngon bi dup (in Vietnamese).

Habitat description. Specimens were collected in primary mountainous subtropical forest in the valley of Da Nhim River at altitudes of ca. 1550 – 1920 m above sea level ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8). The geckos were mostly found in areas of mixed subtropical forests with predominance of deciduous trees ( Fagaceae  , Lauraceae  ). The canopy is mostly formed by Castanopsis  , Lithocarpus  , Quercus  , Cinnamonum  and Litsea  trees with dense undergrowth and various herbaceous vegetation including many species of ferns. Animals were found during day time under the bark on dead standing tree trunks or at night on the trees approximately 1 – 4 m above the ground. The species seems to be quite abundant in this area.

Distribution. Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis  sp. nov. inhabits mountainous evergreen tropical forests in the north-eastern part of the Langbian plateau at altitudes between 1500 to 1920 m a.s.l. (see Fig. 1) So far, this species is reported from the Bidoup sector of Bidoup – Nui Ba National Park (Bidoup, Gia Rich and Hon Giao mountain systems; Da Chais and Da Nhim communes, Lac Duong District, Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam). The new species is also found in adjacent areas of Khan Hoa Province: Khanh Thuong, Giang Ly and Son Thai Communes, Khanh Vinh District, southern Vietnam.

Phylogenetic position. According to mtDNA data ( COIAbout COI partial sequence), C. bidoupimontis  belongs to a mountain species group of the C. irregularis  complex and is sister species to C. irregularis  sensu stricto (p -distance between the two species is 9.78 % of substitutions according to COIAbout COI partial sequences).

TABLE 4. Measurements and selected morphological characters of the type series of Cyrtodactylus bidoupimontis sp. nov.; f = female, m = male; sub = subadult.

Sex Holotype ZMMU R-13368 m ZISP 26325 m ZMMU R-13369-1 m ZMMU R-13369-2 m Paratypes ZMMU ZMMU R-13369-3 R-13369-4 f sub f ZISP 26326 f VNMH 3100 f ZMMU R-13369-5 f sub
SVL 77.0 74.0 78.2 79.0 60.5 80.0 86.3 80.5 59.7
TailL 86.0 75.0 * * 52.0 82.0 * 49.3* 43.7*
TrunkL 34.7 29.5 32.6 35.5 25.5 36.5 36.8 36.1 26.2
HeadL 23.2 21.2 22.7 22.0 18.5 22 25.4 22.7 18.3
HeadW 15.9 15.3 14.3 15.0 11.3 14.5 16.5 16.3 11.3
HeadH 8.6 8.3 8.7 8.5 7.2 8.6 10.3 10.3 6.5
SnEye 9.0 8.3 8.8 8.4 7.0 8.8 9.8 9.0 7
OrbD 4.0 3.8 4.6 4.4 3.6 4.6 4.7 4.3 3.3
EarL 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.3
EyeEar 6.8 6.0 6.8 6.5 5.7 6.2 8.2 7.2 6.0
LS 11.4 12.0 11.8 13.5 10.0 12.0 14.1 13.0 9.8
ForeaL 11.2 11.1 11.0 11.8 8.5 11.4 12.8 11.8 8.6
FemurL 14.6 15.0 14.7 16.2 11.8 14.2 16.6 16.0 11.8
Crus L 12.1 12.6 12.4 12.7 9.3 12.0 13.8 14.2 9.5
LD4A 8.0 8.4 8.5 8.2 7.0 8.6 9.7 8.6 6.0
LD4P 10.8 11.2 10.6 9.6 8.7 10.0 11.2 10.8 7.6
V 41 43 40 38 42 40 43 39 42
SLB 166 174 197 198 192 183 195 180 178
T u b L / TubW S L H / SAH LF4 23/40 85/76 20 22/36 81/73 18 22/40 99/79 18 18/41 104/89 17 20/44 24/42 94/90 91/74 18 15 22/46 82/78 17 20/40 96/90 18 20/37 104/90 18
LT4 22 22 23 20 21 18 20 21 20
PP 5 6 4 6 0 0 0 0 0
SL 9/8 11/11 9/8 8/10 10/10 9/10 10/10 10/10 9/10
IL 8/8 11/11 10/10 7/10 11/11 10/10 9/9 9/10 8/9
ZMMU

Zoological Museum, Moscow Lomonosov State University

ZISP

Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

VNMN

Vietnam National Museum of Nature

COI

University of Coimbra Botany Department