Avicularia gaba , Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009 Avicularia gamba Bertani & Fukushima
Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009, Description of two new species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 and redescription of Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch 1842) (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) - three possibly threatened Brazi, Zootaxa 2223, pp. 25-47: 32-47
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|Avicularia gaba Avicularia gamba Bertani & Fukushima|
Avicularia gaba sp. nov.
(Figs 9─12; 16─17 Appendix III, Figs C 1─ C 6)
Diagnosis: The male resembles those of A. diversipes and A. sooretama sp. nov. by lacking a tibial apophysis on leg I. It is distinguished from that of A. diversipes by the embolus being 3.5 times longer than the tegulum, with a curvature of less than 180° (Figs 9─11) and by the absence of orange stripes on the metatarsi. The male can be distinguished from that of A. sooretama sp. nov. by the absence of a spiniform process on the cymbium. The female resembles those of A. sooretama sp. nov. by retaining the characteristic juvenile color pattern on the abdomen (Fig. C 2) and by the spermathecal shape (Fig. 12). It is distinguished by having spermathecae constricted at its base, slightly curved outwards and ending in rounded apex (Fig. 12). The male and female can be additionally distinguished from those of A. diversipes and A. sooretama sp. nov. by having leg I slightly longer than leg IV, rather than leg I slightly shorter than leg IV.
Etymology: The specific name is taken from the NGO "GAMBA - Grupo Ambientalista da Bahia", in recognition of their efforts in preserving Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants in the State of Bahia. The area in the RPPN Jequitibá where the new species was discovery is protected by GAMBA's initiative.
Material examined: Holotype male, Brazil, State of Bahia, Elisio Medrado, RPPN Jequitiba (12°52'3.20'' S, 39°28'9.09" W), R. Bertani, C.S. Fukushima and R.H. Nagahama, 7 October 2007, collected at night, found immature inside a retreat made with silk and leaves, matured in captivity on June 2009 ( MZSP 31115);GoogleMaps paratype female, same data and collectors ( MZSP 31116).GoogleMaps
Additional material examined: molts of live specimens maintained in laboratory.
Description: Holotype male. Carapace 7.3 long, 6.9 wide, chelicerae 2.1. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.3, 4.6, 7.8, 7.6, 4.0, 33.3. II: 8.5, 3.8, 7.1, 5.9, 3.8, 29.1. III: 7.0, 3.3, 5.9, 6.2, 3.3, 25.7. IV: 9.1, 3.9, 8.4, 8.4, 3.1, 32.9. Palp: 5.2, 3.1, 4.0, -, 1.6, 13.9. Midwidths: femora I–IV = 1.2, 1.3, 1.6, 1.5, palp= 1.0; patellae I–IV = 1.2, 1.2, 1.3, 1.3, palp= 1.0; tibiae I–IV = 1.0, 0.9, 1.0, 1.2, palp= 1.2; metatarsi I–IV = 0.8, 0.7, 0.8, 0.7; tarsi I–IV = 0.9, 0.8, 0.9, 0.9, palp= 1.2. Abdomen 8.2 long, 6.1 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 0.6 long, 0.4 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 1.3 basal, 0.9 middle, 1.5 distal; midwidths 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, respectively.
Carapace: length to width 1.1; cephalic area moderately raised, thoracic striae visible. Fovea: shallow, straight, 1.0 wide. Carapace covered by short, slender setae and some long scattered setae mainly in cephalic region.
Eyes: tubercle high, length 1.2, width 1.9. Clypeus absent. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior slightly recurved. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.52, ALE 0.58, PME 0.15, PLE 0.51, AME–AME 0.33, AME– ALE 0.27, AME–PME 0.08, ALE–ALE 1.27, ALE–PME 0.58, PME–PME 1.17, PME–PLE 0.03, PLE–PLE 1.50, ALE–PLE 0.23, AME–PLE 0.35. Ratio of eye group width to length, 2.0.
Maxillae: length to width: 1.76; lyra absent. Cuspules: ca. 100 spread over ventral inner heel. Labium: length 1.0, width 1.4, with ca. 90 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third center. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with two large sigilla.
Chelicerae: rastellum absent, basal segments with nine teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin.
Sternum length 3.9, width 3.3. Posterior angle sharp, but not separating coxae IV. Sigilla not visible.
Legs: legs formula: I=IV II III. Clavate trichobothria on distal 2/3 of tarsi I–IV. Leg coxae: with sparse soft setae; no stridulatory or modified setae. Tarsi I–II fully scopulate, III with sparse setae and IV divided by narrow row of setae. Metatarsi I–II scopulate for distal 4/5; III for distal 2/3; IV for distal 1/3; IV divided by row of setae. Scopula hairs longest at lateral areas of tarsi and metatarsi, giving a spatulate aspect to the articles. Spines absent on all legs and palps. Claws: ITC absent; STC without teeth. Tibial apophysis absent.
Urticating hairs: Type II on abdomen dorsum.
Palp. Embolus slender, long, with abrupt curve to retrolateral side on apical third (Figs 9─11). Cymbium: two subequal lobes, prolateral one triangular, without spiniform process on apex.
Color pattern: dark brown carapace bordered with light brown hairs; all legs and pedipalps dorsally dark brown. All appendages and carapace covered with light brown hairs with pinky sheen. All tarsi with central orange stripe. Sternum, labium, maxillae, coxae and legs ventrally brown. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi pinkish. Orange hairs and broad red stripe over central area on dorsal brownish abdomen (Fig. C 1).
Description: Paratype female. Carapace 7.5 long, 6.8 wide, chelicerae 3.9. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 6.2, 4.0, 5.1, 4.5, 2.8, 22.6. II: 5.6, 3.6, 4.4, 3.9, 2.8, 20.3. III: 4.8, 2.9, 3.6, 3.6, 2.5, 17.4. IV: 5.9, 3.4, 5.3, 4.8, 2.7, 22.1. Palp: 4.4, 2.7, 2.8, -, 3.2, 13.1. Midwidths: femora I–IV = 1.5, 1.4, 1.4, 1.4, palp= 1.2; patellae I–IV = 1.4, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5, palp= 1.2; tibiae I–IV = 1.4, 1.4, 1.3, 1.3, palp= 1.2; metatarsi I–IV = 1.2, 1.2, 1.1, 0.9; tarsi I–IV = 1.4, 1.3, 1.3, 1.3, palp= 1.4. Abdomen 9.3 long, 6.8 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.1 long, 0.5 wide, 0.3 apart; PLS, 1.5 basal, 0.9 middle, 1.5 distal; midwidths 1.1, 0.8, 0.6, respectively.
Carapace: length to width, 1.1; cephalic area moderately raised, thoracic striae visible. Fovea: shallow, straight, 1.1 wide.
As in male, except:
Eyes: tubercle length 1.2, width 2.1. Clypeus absent. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.55; ALE 0.47; PME 0.25; PLE 0.38; AME–AME 0.32; AME–ALE 0.21; AME–PME 0.14; ALE–ALE 1.24; ALE–PME 0.43; PME–PME 1.11; PME–PLE 0.05; PLE–PLE 1.44; ALE–PLE 0.33; AME–PLE 0.39. Ratio of eye group width to length, 1.7.
Maxillae length to width, 1.7. Labium: length 1.1, width 1.6, with ca. 100 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third at center.
Chelicerae: basal segments with nine teeth on right side and 10 on left side, both with some small teeth on promargin.
Sternum length 4.1, width 3.3.
Legs: Tarsi I–III fully scopulate, IV divided by three-wide row of setae. Metatarsi III scopulate for distal 1/2, IV for distal 1/4; IV divided by row of three setae.
Urticating hairs: Type II on abdomen dorsum.
Genitalia: Two large spermathecae constricted at their base, slightly curved outwards and ending in rounded apex (Fig. 12).
Color pattern: carapace brown bordered with light brown hairs; all legs and pedipalps dorsally brown; longer hairs light brown with pinky and blue sheen. All tarsi with U-shaped orange mark. Sternum, labium, maxillae, coxae and legs ventrally brown, longer hairs distally whitish. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi pinkish. Light brown abdomen covered with long red setae with pinky sheen dorsally. Dorsal abdominal pattern: Large central longitudinal black stripe with zigzag edges having three red spots. Posterior spot larger than two anterior; central longitudinal black stripe fused to with three well defined lateral back stripes on each side (Fig. C 2).
Color pattern ontogeny: The color pattern of spiderlings and small juveniles is very similar among individuals of A. gamba sp. nov, A. diversipes and A. sooretama sp. nov.. Spiderlings have in the abdomen dorsum a longitudinal dark green stripe with a central long spot of the same color of the lateral abdomen (light yellowish green). Three ill-defined transverse stripes connecting to the longitudinal stripe are evident (Fig. C 3). Slightly larger specimens have retained the metallic green pattern, but it is darker, mainly over the central carapace. Some lighter hairs can be seen over the lateral carapace, contrasting with the darker central area. In the abdomen dorsum, the central longitudinal stripe has zigzag edges, both longitudinal and transverse stripes become darker and the central spot inside it is yellow brown. The anterior part of the stripe bears two small spots (Fig. C 4). In larger stadia, the metallic green/blue general pattern is still evident. The carapace is the same color as the legs and with light brown hairs on the lateral edges and coxae. The abdominal longitudinal black stripe with zigzag edge contrasts with the three red spots within it. The transverse stripes are now black and conspicuous (Fig. C 5). In the adult female, the juvenile abdominal color pattern persists. The tarsi of all appendages have an orange U-shaped area; all legs and pedipalps have longer light brown hairs with pinkish and bluish sheen (Fig. C 2). The adult male has a dark brown carapace, all appendages and carapace with light brown hairs with pinky sheen, all tarsi with a central orange stripe and light brown abdomen with orange hairs and a broad vivid red longitudinal stripe over the dorsocentral area (Fig. C 1).
Distribution: Known only for type locality, Elísio Medrado, State of Bahia, Brazil (Fig. 17).
Order Araneae . Family Theraphosidae .
Common names: unknown.
Scientific synonyms: none.
Size (adult): ca. 10 cm / 3.9 in, with outstretched legs.
Coloration (adult): Carapace dark brown bordered with light brown hairs. Male: All appendages and carapace covered with light brown hairs with pinky sheen; orange hairs and a broad longitudinal central red stripe on brownish abdomen (Fig. C 1, white arrow). Female: All appendages dorsally brown and light brown hairs with pinky sheen; light brown abdomen with a longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges bearing three red spots; three well-defined dark stripes connected to the longitudinal stripe can be noted on each side (Fig. C 2, blue arrow).
Coloration (juvenile): Spiderlings have an overall metallic green color (Fig. C 3); abdomen with longitudinal darker green stripe with zigzag edges in which lies 3 light spots (two small and one central long spot); three ill-defined darker green transverse stripes connecting to the longitudinal stripe can be noted on each side (Fig. C 4, yellow arrow). Larger individuals have an abdominal longitudinal stripe with large black zigzag edge and three central orange spots (Fig. C 5, red arrow).
Distribution: Known only from a single locality, in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, State of Bahia (Fig. C 6, green area).
Wild population: Few individuals known in a very restricted area in a city near Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil.
Captive population: No data available.
Trade: No data available. However, as other tarantulas species, can be possibly traded in all stages alive (adults, juveniles, spiderlings and inside eggsacs) for the pet market.
Similar species: Regardless of its very distinctive appearance, it may be misidentified as another Avicularia species, especially in the case of juveniles of A. diversipes and A. sooretama. The abdomen with a central longitudinal black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies 3 red spots is a noted difference (Fig. C 5, red arrow). It can also be misidentified as a Iridopelma or Pachistopelma species.
Brazil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo
USA, Florida, Gainesville, University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Allyn Museum
Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brazil
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