Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni

Jones, Danny R. & Eversole, Arnold G., 2015, Two new crayfishes of the genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Northern Alabama and South Central Tennessee, U. S. A., Zootaxa 4058 (2), pp. 151-174 : 160-167

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4058.2.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E0E06CDA-7F91-4C1C-BFFC-3EDA72204888

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6112963

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/BF326C58-5A20-3305-FF6A-D7FD7214BD3B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni
status

New Species

Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni , New Species

Figs. 9 View FIGURE 9 , 10, Table 3 View TABLE 3

Cambarus longulus longirostris .— James, 1966: 10 –11 [in part], 12 [in part], 17, fig. 2 a, 2 b. Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) girardianus — Hobbs, 1981: 147 [in part].

Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) sp.— Cooper and Hobbs, 1980: 7.

Diagnosis. Body and eyes pigmented. Rostrum lacking marginal spines or tubercles, with large corneous spine on ventral keel; margins thickened and gently tapering; concave dorsally; terminating in equilateral acumen; RL constituting 12.0– 19.1 % (x = 16.1 %, n = 166, SD = 0.01) of TCL. Acumen more convergent than rostrum and terminating in small dorsally directed corneous tubercle; length constituting 33.3–52.2 % (x = 42.0%, n = 164, SD = 0.04) of RL. Carapace subovate in dorsal view and compressed dorsoventrally. Areola length constituting 32.5– 40.3 % (x = 36.3 %, n = 165, SD = 0.01) of TCL and 39.2–45.8 % (x = 43.3 %, n = 165, SD = 0.01) of PCL. Areola 2.7–4.3 (x = 3.4, n = 164, SD = 0.33) times as long as wide, punctate, with 9–13 (mode = 10, n = 81) punctations across midlength. PCL 81.3 –88.0% (x = 83.9 %, n = 165, SD = 0.011) of TCL. Postorbital ridge terminating cephalically in small, corneous, anterodorsally directed tubercle, reduced or absent in abraded, late intermolt individuals. Cervical spine reduced to small depressed tubercle. Hepatic spine absent; branchiostegal spine reduced to diminutive corneous tubercle. Suborbital angle acute or subacute, bearing corneous tubercle on apex. Antennal scale widest at or near midlength, 2.2–2.8 (x = 2.5, n = 81, SD = 0.13) times as long as wide, lateral margin thickened and terminating distally in long corneous spine; mesial margin of lamella subparallel to lateral margin, gently angling to distal margin. Basis of antennal peduncle with minute distolateral corneous tubercle; ischium of peduncle without ventral spine or tubercle. Cephalomedian lobe of epistome subtriangular; epistomal zygoma moderately arched. Chela with widely gaping fingers, with conspicuous tuft of dense setae dorsally and ventrally along opposable base of fixed finger reaching distal third, and sparse setation along base of opposable margin of dactyl; lateral margin of propodus rounded and without costa, lacking impression at base of fixed finger; dorsal and ventral surfaces of fingers without longitudinal ridges. Opposable margins of fixed finger and dactyl with rounded corneous tubercles; third tubercle from base of dactyl usually ventral to rest of tubercle row; distal end of fixed finger with heavy subconical tubercle ventral to tubercle row. Chela with single row of 6–9 (mode = 8, n = 82) tubercles along mesial margin of palm forming defined, subcristiform ridge, without part of second row dorsolaterally. Palm of chela 1.4–1.7 (x = 1.5, n = 149, SD = 0.07) times as wide as deep and 1.1–1.6 (x = 1.3, n = 149, SD = 0.12) times as wide as length of mesial margin. Fixed finger and dactyl relatively short, dactyl 1.0– 1.4 (x = 1.2, n = 148, SD = 0.05) times length of mesial margin of palm. Hook on ischium of third pereopod of males, large and overreaching basioischial articulation in form I males, weakly developed and not overreaching articulation in form II males, hook opposed by small tubercle on basis. Coxa of fourth pereopod of males with caudomesial boss. Pleura of third through fifth abdominal segments with weakly oblique cephaloventral margin, angular caudoventrally, ventrally subtruncate and rounded.

First pleopods of form I male (based on holotype) symmetrical and either contiguous or separated basally; distal half of appendage angled cephalically to proximal half at angle of about 17 degrees; both terminal elements moderately short but extending past greatest width of appendage; central projection corneous, bladelike, not tapering, recurved at about 130 degrees to distal portion of appendage, with distinct subapical notch directed proximally; mesial process inflated, membranous, with inflated tip disposed at about right angle to shaft of appendage and slightly laterally; caudomesial face of pleopods smoothly rounded, lacking flattened, shelf-like margin. First pleopod of form II male (based on morphotype) differs from that of form I male in the following respects: pleopods separated basally; central projection bulbous and not corneous, lacking subapical notch; juvenile suture present on basal third of appendage. Annulus ventralis (based on allotype) 1.3–1.6 times as wide as long (x = 1.5, n = 35, SD = 0.08), shallowly embedded and barely moveable, asymmetrical, caudodextral wall convex, caudosinistral wall subangular; cephalic area less sclerotized than caudal area; cephalic area with short, welldefined, parallel ridges flanking short deep longitudinal trough; sinus originating under caudal end of sinistral ridge, following reverse S-shaped course before terminating on end of midcaudal wall; sinistrally directed tongue arising from dextral half of annulus and deeply inserted into sinus. Postannular sclerite semicircular, about 1.8 times as wide as long, one–third as long as annulus, and half as wide as annulus. First pleopod uniramous and reaching fossa of annulus ventralis when abdomen flexed.

Holotypic Male, Form I. Carapace dorsoventrally compressed ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 i), 1.4 times wider than deep, subovate in dorsal view ( Fig. 10), Areola 3.8 times as long as broad, constituting 37.1 % of TCL (43. 7 % of PCL); densely punctate with 12 punctations across narrowest part. Rostrum ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 m) with gently convergent, thickened margins extending along acumen to apex; reaching midlength of ultimate podomere of antennular peduncle; dorsal surface of rostrum shallowly concave, with punctations coalescing in basal region, forming irregular transverse striae. Ventral keel of rostrum with strong corneous spine ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 k). Subrostral ridge strong and visible in lateral aspect along length of rostrum to base of acumen, then coalescing with rostral ridges and continuing to apex. Postorbital ridge short with shallow groove dorsolaterally, right ridge terminating cephalically in small corneous tubercle, left ridge without tubercle. Suborbital angle subacute, small corneous tubercle on apex; branchiostegal spine minute, tuberculiform. Cervical spine represented by small, depressed tubercle ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 i). Carapace densely punctate dorsally and laterally, granulate caudolaterally. Abdomen length 90.7 % of TCL; abdomen width 80.0% of carapace width; pleura ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 j) subangular caudoventrally, weakly oblique cephaloventrally, with subtruncate ventral margins. Cephalic section of telson with 2 spines in each caudolateral corner (mesial spines moveable); transverse suture clearly defined. Mesial ramus of uropod broadly rounded caudad and with poorly defined submedian ridge bearing weak premarginal spine, spine present on distolateral corner. Lateral ramus of uropod with rounded lobe caudad; poorly defined submedian ridge on proximal podomere, transverse suture well defined, distal margin of proximal podomere of left lateral ramus with 10 spines, right lateral ramus with 12 spines, each ramus with additional smaller tubercles, in addition to these, margin of each podomere with large moveable spine in notch mesial to spine in distolateral corner.

Cephalomedian lobe of epistome ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 n) subtriangular with weakly elevated (ventrally) margins, surface flat; main body with conspicuous deep fovea; epistomal zygoma arched and flanked cephalolaterally by deep linear pits. Ventral surface of proximal podomere of antennular peduncle with small, acute tubercle at base of distal fourth. Antennal peduncle with minute lateral spine on basis, remaining podomeres lacking spines; flagellum broken but reaching cephalic margin of third abdominal tergum; antennal scale ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 h) 2.3 times as long as wide, broadest at about midlength, distal spine strong and reaching proximal third of ultimate podomere of antennular peduncle. Ventral surface of ischium of third maxilliped with dense, longitudinal band of stiff setae.

Right chela ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 e) 2.0 times as long as broad, mesial margin of palm occupying 34.5 % of its length. Mesial surface of palm with single row of 8 tubercles; dorsal and ventral surfaces with large, deep, sparsely placed punctations, lateral surface rounded with no costa. Fingers widely gaping, proximal two-thirds of opposable surface of fixed finger with conspicuous tuft of setae on dorsal and ventral surfaces; neither finger with median longitudinal ridge on dorsal or ventral surface, each with conspicuous deep punctations; opposable margin of fixed finger with row of 8 corneous tubercles extending from base almost to end, seventh from base ventral to tubercle row, row of minute denticles present on same level as tubercle row, running from corneous tip of finger to fifth tubercle from base, from there represented by 1–2 denticles between tubercles along distal half of finger; opposable margin of dactyl with row of 9 corneous tubercles extending from base to end of dactyl, third tubercle from base displaced ventrally, denticles forming single row on same level as tubercles, running from tip of dactyl to eighth tubercle from base, from there represented by 1–2 denticles between tubercles along distal third of dactyl. Lateral surface of fixed finger and mesial surface of dactyl punctate.

Carpus of cheliped with oblique furrow dorsally, flanked by sparse punctations; mesial surface with stout, curved spine, with smaller rounded tubercle proximally; ventral surface with few punctations and without tubercles on distal margin. Merus with two squamous premarginal tubercles dorsally; ventrolateral row represented by 2 heavy corneous spines and ventromesial row consisting of 6 large corneous tubercles. Ventromesial margin of ischium with 3 corneous tubercles.

Hook on ischium of third pereopod ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 l) overreaching basioischial articulation and opposed by tubercle on basis. Coxa of fourth pereopod with transverse ridgelike caudomesial boss disposed vertically; coxa of fifth pereopod without boss, ventral membrane sparsely setiferous. First pleopods ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 a, b, f) reaching coxae of third pereopods, symmetrical, and with gap between their bases. (See “Diagnosis” for description.)

Allotypic Female. Excluding secondary sexual characteristics, differing from holotypic male in the following respects: antennal flagellum broken, reaching caudal margin of third abdominal tergite. Antennal scale 2.6 times as long as wide, distal spine strong and reaching midlength of ultimate podomere of antennular peduncle, suborbital angle acute. Rostrum reaching proximal base of ultimate podomere of antennular peduncle. Areola 4.2 times as long as broad, constituting 36.8 % of TCL (41.7 % of PCL); densely punctate with 10 punctations across narrowest part. Abdomen length 97.7 % of TCL; abdomen width 88.8 % of carapace width. Cephalic section of telson with 2 spines in both caudolateral corners (mesial spines moveable). Distal margin of proximal podomere of left lateral ramus with 8 spines, that of right lateral ramus with 10. Right chela 1.9 times as long as broad, mesial margin of palm occupying 34.5 % of its length. Mesial surface of palm with single row of 6 tubercles. Merus with one squamous premarginal tubercle dorsally.

Annulus ventralis ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 g) 1.3 times as wide as long, postannular sclerite semicircular, 1.8 times as wide as long, width constituting 56.2 % of annulus width. First pleopods uniramous and reaching midlength of annulus ventralis.

Morphotypic Male, Form II. Differing from holotype in the following respects: antennal flagellum reaching midlength of second abdominal tergite; antennal scale 2.6 times as long as wide, distal spine reaching base of ultimate podomere of antennular peduncle, suborbital angle acute. Areola 3.8 times as long as broad, constituting 37.6 % of TCL (44.2 % of PCL), with 11 punctations across narrowest part. Abdomen length 101.0% of TCL; abdomen width 82.0% of carapace width. Distal margin of proximal podomere of right lateral ramus of uropod with 13 spines, that of left lateral ramus with 9, both rami with two large moveable spines in distolateral notch.

Mesial margin of palm of right chela occupying 34.9 % of its length, mesial surface of palm with single row of 7 low tubercles, distal tubercles marked only by punctations. Fingers widely gaping; no tubercles on opposable margin of dactyl ventral to any other tubercles on margin.

Ventrolateral row of merus of cheliped represented by 2 small corneous tubercles and ventromesial row consisting of 7 corneous tubercles. Ventromesial margin of ischium with 2 tubercles. Hook on ischium of third pereopod short, not overreaching basioischial articulation, opposed by tubercle on basis. Coxa of fourth pereopod with weakly developed caudomesial boss. First pleopods ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 c, d) reaching coxae of third pereopods, symmetrical, and with gap between their bases.

Color notes. Base color of carapace orange, or orange tinged with tan or olive, branchiostegites overlain with black pigmentation in some individuals ( Fig. 10), caudal saddle extending anteriorly along lateral carapace from black caudal flange of carapace and in some individuals reaching as far anterior as caudal margin of cervical groove; mandibular adductor regions with dark orange or brown splotches, median gastric area orange becoming brown anteriorly, rostral ridges orange or yellowish orange, floor of rostrum darker orange or brown, orbital and postorbital ridges orange or brown, hepatic region dark orange or brown, and orbital region light orange. First abdominal tergum orange and in some individuals either the cephalic or caudal portion is marked with darker pigment, remaining terga orange, cephalic portion of pleura of second tergite white; proximal podomere of telson orange, distal podomere dark orange or brown, uropods greenish blue, uropods and telson bearing orange spines. Ischia of last two walking legs and merus and carpus of each walking leg orange dorsally and laterally, carpus and distal end of merus darker orange or brown, propodus and dactylus of each walking leg olive or bluish olive. Proximal half of merus of cheliped cream or light orange with distal one-third orange and olive, carpus with base color orange and dorsal groove olive. Base color of chelae palm orange or olivaceous orange dorsally, overlain with pattern of olive splotches, mesial margin of palm darker orange or brown, tubercles of mesial palm orange, dactylus and finger of propodus olive and white or cream distally, ridge adjacent to proximal articular condyle of dactylus yellowish orange, setae at base of fixed finger white.

Types. The holotype, allotype, and morphotype (38513, 38514, and 38515 respectively) are deposited in the crustacean collection at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History ( CMNH), as is the paratypic series, comprising collections 1–14 listed below.

Type locality. Cox Creek upstream and downstream of Alabama State Route 17 crossing, 0.12 km north of junction with Alabama State Route 133, Florence, Lauderdale County, Alabama, 34.8436 degrees north latitude, - 87.6744 degrees west longitude North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 1927).

Range and specimens examined. This crayfish is endemic to southern flowing tributaries of the westward flowing Tennessee River in Lauderdale County in Alabama and Giles, Lawrence, and Wayne counties in Tennessee.

The material examined comprises 258 specimens from the following localities ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ). ALABAMA. Lauderdale County: (1) Type-locality, Cox Creek upstream and downstream of Alabama State Route 17 crossing, 0.12 km north of junction with Alabama State Route 133, Florence, 10 ♂ I, CMNH 38516, 1♂ II, 7 ♀, 1 j♀, 22 Oct. 2005, D. R. Jones ( DRJ), G. A. Schuster ( GAS); CMNH 38517, 4♂ I, 1 ♂ II, 7 j♂, 1 ♀OV, 3 ♀, 2 j♀, 3 Apr. 2006, DRJ. (2) Cowpen Creek @ County Road (CR) 8 crossing, ca. 7.3 air km (akm) SW Greenhill, CMNH 38518, 10♂ I, 1 ♂ II, 3 j♂, 6 ♀, 20 Jan. 2002, DRJ, R. C. Harrington (RCH). (3) Threet Creek @ CR 5 crossing, NE Threet, CMNH 38519, 2♂ I, 3 ♀, 2 j♀, 20 Jan. 2002, DRJ, RCH. (4) Indian Creek @ CR 61 crossing ca. 4 akm E Blackburn, CMNH 38520, 9♂ I, 2 j♂, 3 j♀, 3 Apr. 2006, DRJ. (5) Middle Cypress Creek @ State Route (SR) 157 crossing ca. 0.85 akm SE Cloverdale, CMNH 38521, 3♂ I, 1 j♂, 3 ♀OV, 3 j♀, 3 Apr. 2006, DRJ. TENNESSEE. Giles County: (6) Puncheon Branch @ Sugar Creek Road and Puncheon Branch Road crossing, ca. 4 akm SW Minor Hill, CMNH 38522, 6♂ I, 3 ♂ II, 1 ♀OV, 2 ♀, 5 Apr. 2006, DRJ. Lawrence County: (7) Shoal Creek @ US 64 crossing, ca. 2.5 akm W Lawrenceburg, CMNH 38523, 9♂ II, 5 j♂, 3 ♀OV, 10 ♀, 3 j♀, 12 Apr. 2003, DRJ, M. M. Spacil (MMS). Wayne County: (8) Butler Creek @ Swanegan Branch, ca. 7.5 akm NW Iron City, CMNH 38524, 4♂ II, 2 j♂, 10 ♀, 5 j♀, 19 Jan 2002, DRJ, RCH. (9) Cooper Branch @ Barkley Branch Road crossing, ca. 1.5 akm W Cypress Inn, CMNH 38525, 4♂ I, 19 Jan. 2002, DRJ, RCH. (10) Middle Cypress Creek @ CR 227 crossing, ca. 6 akm W Fairview, CMNH 38526, 3♂ I, 2 ♀, 19 Jan. 2002, DRJ, RCH. (11) Unnamed tributary to Butler Creek @ SR 227 crossing, ca. 4.8 akm W Iron City, CMNH-38527, 2♂ I, 1 ♂ II, 9 j♂, 5 ♀, 4 j♀, 19 Jan 2002, DRJ, RCH. (12) Butler Creek @ SR 227 crossing, ca. 4.8 akm NW Iron City, CMNH 38528, 19♂ I, 13 ♂ II, 3 j♂, 3 ♀OV, 13 ♀, 4 j♀, 12 Apr. 2003, DRJ, MMS. (13) Cypress Creek @ Spain Road crossing, ca. 7 akm SW McGlamerys Stand, CMNH 38529, 6♂ I, 8 ♂ II, 2 ♀, 12 Apr. 2003, DRJ, MMS. (14) Factory Creek @ Factory Creek Road crossing ca. 10.5 akm S Highland, CMNH 38530, 5♂ I, 1 j♂, 4 Apr. 2006, DRJ.

Variations. The specimens examined exhibited little variation. The most noticeable differences were in pigmentation where the caudal saddle was well defined or very faint, extended anteriorly along the lateral carapace or scarcely at all, and the overall background color was orange or an olivaceous orange. Setae at the base of the fingers of the chelae were present in the majority of specimens but absent in some. The chelae of form I males were normally subtriangular or subovate but in some specimens were subrectangular. In some specimens structure and orientation of the annulus ventralis was a mirror image of the description in the diagnosis. None of these variations were associated with geography.

Size. The largest specimen available was a form I male with a TCL of 32.4 mm (PCL = 27.9 mm). The smallest form I male available had a TCL of 18.5 mm (PCL = 15.5 mm). The largest form II male in the collections had a TCL of 23.1 mm (PCL = 19.2 mm), and the largest female in the collections had a TCL of 30 mm (PCL = 25.5 mm).

Life history notes. Collections were available for only three months of the year: January, April, and October. Form I males were found in collections in each of those months, but ovigerous females (n = 9) were found only in April.

Ecological notes. Similar to other members of the subgenus, this crayfish has an affinity for moderately to swiftly flowing water. It was usually found beneath cobble and small boulders in riffles and runs with clean gravel or sand bottoms. At gravel bottomed sites lacking cobble or small boulder sized stones, this crayfish was absent or scarce, being replaced instead by Orconectes species, especially Orconectes compressus ( Faxon, 1885) . It was also absent or scarce at sites with bedrock bottoms, even in the presence of suitable cobble\boulder habitat. Ovigerous females were often found beneath stones in pools, and molting adults were found beneath stones in shallow areas near the stream margins.

Relationships. Morphologically this crayfish has affinities with C. longirostris and C. diupalma . It differs from both of these species in pigmentation pattern, in possessing a ventral rostral spine, and by the well-developed, nearly cristiform, row of tubercles on the mesial margin of the palm of the chela. It differs from C. longirostris in having chelae with narrower gape width and longer and wider palms, by the non-tapering central projection of the form I male gonopod, and in lacking a light tan ellipsoidal area on the caudodorsal margin of the carapace. Cambarus andersoni further differs from C. diupalma in lacking a shoulder on the caudomesial face of the form I male gonopod, and in having ventrally rounded, subtruncate pleura rather than ventrally angular and acute pleura. The species clearly belongs to the group of Hiaticambarus comprising what Hobbs (1981) considered to be the more derived members: C. coosawattae Hobbs, 1981 , C. chasmodactylus James, 1966 , C. elkensis Jezerinac and Stocker, 1993 , C. longirostris , C. longulus , and C. manningi . However, given the morphological data considered, and in the absence of genetic analyses, it is not possible to accurately assess the position or relationships of C. andersoni within this species group.

Crayfish associates. Cambarus (H.) andersoni has been collected with the following crayfish species: C. (H.) girardianus , C. (Depressicambarus) graysoni Faxon, 1914 , C. (D.) striatus Hay, 1902 , Orconectes (Gremicambarus) alabamensis ( Faxon, 1884) , O. (G.) compressus , O. (Procericambarus) forceps ( Faxon, 1884) , and O. (P.) spinosus Bundy, 1877 .

Conservation status. Using the methodology used by Taylor et al. (2007), the following conservation status rankings are given for this crayfish: V (vulnerable), American Fisheries Society status; G 2, global heritage ranking; and S 1, state heritage rankings for Alabama and Tennessee. Criteria for these listings are restricted range and the potential for the destruction, modification, of reduction of this species’ habitat and range.

Etymology. This crayfish is named for Sherman Anderson, personal friend of the senior author.

Suggested vernacular name. The suggested vernacular name for this crayfish is the Florence Crayfish in reference to the type locality and the great relative abundance of this crayfish in the Florence, Alabama, area.

TABLE 3. Standard measurements (mm) of type specimens of Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni.

  Holotype Allotype Morphotype
Carapace      
Total length 26.9 26.0 20.2
Postorbital length 22.9 23.0 17.2
Width 15.0 14.3 11.1
Depth 10.7 10.7 8.1
Areola length 10.0 9.6 7.6
Areola width 2.6 2.3 2.0
Rostrum length 4.0 3.0 3.0
Rostrum width 3.9 3.1 2.9
Gonopod length 6.4 N\A 5.0
Annulus ventralis length N\A 2.1 N\A
Annulus ventralis width N\A 2.8 N\A
Antennal Scale      
Length 4.3 4.3 3.3
Width 1.6 1.6 1.3
Abdomen      
Length 24.4 25.4 20.4
Width 12.0 12.7 9.1
Chela      
Lateral margin length 24.8 19.4 15.2
Mesial palm length 8.6 6.7 5.3
Palm width 12.1 10.1 7.7
Dactyl length 14.5 11.7 8.7
CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

GAS

Georgia Southern University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Decapoda

Family

Cambaridae

Genus

Cambarus

Loc

Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni

Jones, Danny R. & Eversole, Arnold G. 2015
2015
Loc

Cambarus

Cooper 1980: 7
1980
Loc

Cambarus longulus longirostris

Hobbs 1981: 147
James 1966: 10
1966