Garcinia fluviatilis Mouzinho & L. Marinho, 2022

Mouzinho, Thiago, Soares, Maria De Lourdes, Cabral, Fernanda Nunes & Marinho, Lucas Cardoso, 2022, Nomenclatural and taxonomic novelties in Garcinia (Clusiaceae) from Amazonian forest, Phytotaxa 548 (1), pp. 91-98 : 94-97

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.548.1.8

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6595879

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/C02B87F1-FFDB-FF8A-5E8A-3583FC33CACF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Garcinia fluviatilis Mouzinho & L. Marinho
status

sp. nov.

Garcinia fluviatilis Mouzinho & L. Marinho , sp. nov. ( Figs. 3–4 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 ).

Type:— BRAZIL. Amazonas: Mun. Careiro Castanho, Comunidade Sagrada família, 3°21’41.9’’S, 59°42’41.4’’W, 25 September 2021, fl. ♂, T.M. Mouzinho et al. 175 (holotype: INPA barcode INPA0124286; isotype: RB) GoogleMaps .

Diagnosis: — Garcinia fluviatilis is similar to G. macrophylla Martius (1841: 35) , but differs by the opaque (vs. glossy) leaf blades, hoodshaped structures on the base of petiole inconspicuous and oblong (vs. conspicuous and deltoid), obovate (vs. rounded-obovate) inner petals, berries with soft and yellow (vs. rigid and orange) epicarp, and flattened stigma with undefined lobes (vs. capitate and trilobed stigma) in fruit.

Description: —Trees up to 20 m tall, dioecious; branches cylindrical, smooth in vivo, striate in sicco; exudate yellow, in all parts of the plant. Petioles 6.5–23.8(–26.8) mm long, slightly striate horizontally; hood-shaped structures on the base of petiole inconspicuous in sicco, oblong. Leaf blades 7.6–26.7 × 3.8–9.5 cm, chartaceous, discolorous, opaque on both surfaces, elliptic-oblong to elliptic-ovate, the apex acuminate to attenuate, the base attenuate to acute, margins slightly revolute in sicco; midvein immersed adaxially and prominent abaxially; secondary veins> 25 pairs, arched and distally reticulate, reaching or not the margin in the apical area; intersecondary veins 2–3 per intercostal area; intramarginal vein inconspicuous; exudate canals inconspicuous. Staminate inflorescence axillary, fasciculate,> 20 flowers per fascicle, flowering scars protruding; bracteoles 2, conspicuous; pedicels 9.8–14.7 mm long, greenish. Staminate floral bud 2.1–4.3 × 2.4–4.1 mm, white-greenish, globose. Staminate flower with 2 sepals, deflexed, 1.2–1.8 × 1.7–3 mm, greenish, rounded, adaxially concave, carnose; petals 4, deflexed, the outer pair 2.9–4.7 × 2.4–3.8 mm, white-greenish, rounded, apex carnose, the inner pair 4.1–6.3 × 2.3–3.7 mm, white-greenish, obovate, membranaceous, exudate canals conspicuous; stamens ca. 33, heterodynamous, arranged in three series surrounding the nectariferous disc, filaments 2–4 mm long, hyaline, terete, anthers yellow, ferruginous when senescent, ellipsoid, dehiscence longitudinal, thecae 0.33–0.44 × 0.24–0.34 mm; nectariferous disc central, 2.2–3.5 mm diam., yellow to white-yellowish, depressed. Pistillate inflorescence axillary, fasciculate; ca. 15 flowers per fascicle, flowering scars protruding; bracteoles 2, conspicuous; pedicels 8.2–8.8 mm long. Pistillate floral bud 3.7–5.5 × 3.1–5.3 mm, whitegreenish, globose. Pistillate flowers with 2 sepals, deflexed, 1.7–2 × 2.2–3 mm, rounded, adaxially concave, carnose; petals 4, deflexed, the outer pair 4.5–4.9 × 3.9–4.5 mm, rounded, white-greenish, apex carnose, the inner pair 5.8–6.5 × 3.8–4.6 mm, rounded-obovate, white-greenish, membranaceous, exudate canals conspicuous; staminodes ca. 20, arranged in two series, filaments 2–3 mm long, hyaline, terete, anthers rudimentary, ferruginous when senescent, ellipsoid, thecae 0.38–0.43 × 0.21–0.28 mm; nectariferous disc annular, 1.7–2.3 mm diam., yellow; ovary 2–2.5 × 3–4 mm, green, globose, 3-carpellate, 3-locular, 1 ovule per locule; stigma discoid, sessile. Berries 17.8–37 × 14.8–34(–38) mm, globose, apex rounded, rarely rostrate, rostrum 2–3 mm long, green when immature, yellow when mature, epicarp smooth and soft; sepals, petals, stamens and stigmas persistent, stigmas <3 mm diam., flattened, lobes undefined. Seeds 2–3, 15.3–21 × 7.4–10.8 mm, ellipsoid to globose.

Additional examined specimens (Paratypes): — BRAZIL. Amazonas: Habitat in Brasiliae prov. do Alto Amazonas ad ostium fluminis Rio Negro , August 1851, fl. ♂, R. Spruce 1744 ( BM, K 000488557, K 000488558, M, P). Mun. Anori, Baixo Rio Purus, 06 December 2009, fr., B.G. Luize 258 ( INPA) ; ibid., Lago Muiuí, 04°11’48’’S, 62°06’33’’W, 01 August 2009, fr., B.G. Luize 100 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Autazes, Rio Murutinga , Comunidade Indígena de Murutinga , 30 September 2004, fl. ♂, C.G. Bacelar-Lima et al. 37 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Benjamin Constant, Ilha Aramaçá , 24 July 1973, fl. ♂, G.T. Prance et al. 16801 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Beruri, RDS Piagaçu-Purus, Comunidade Itapuru, 21 June 2017, ste., C.C. Machado 369 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 04°24’86’’S, 61°73’33’’W, 25 June 2017, ste., C.C. Machado 403 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., Comunidade Uixi, 22 March 2017, fr., C.C. Machado 241 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Careiro Castanho , Comunidade Sagrada família, 3°21’40.9’’S, 59°42’41.0’’W, 25 September 2021, fr./fl. ♀, T.M. Mouzinho et al. 176 ( INPA), GoogleMaps Mun. Codájas , Lago Badajós , 03°33’95’’S, 62°35’57’’W, 26 July 2011, fl. ♂, B.G. Luize 427 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 03°28’27’’S, 62°38’86’’W, 23 July 2011, fr., B.G. Luize 415 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Iranduba, Ilha da Machantaria , fr., L. Coêlho 2061 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 10 August 1984, fl. ♂, L. Coêlho 2057 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., Cacau Pereira, 03°15’27’’S, 60°08’13’’W, 12 May 2011, fr., I.L. Amaral et al. 3272 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Jutaí, Rio Jutaí , 24 November 1975, fr., L. Coêlho et al. 427 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Manacapuru , Sítio Santana , 24 January 2002, ste., V.F. Kinupp 2111 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 09 October 1972, ste., O. Pires et al. 243 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 20 March 1979, ste., D. Coêlho et al. s.n. ( INPA 81956). GoogleMaps Mun. Maués, Lago Aiapuá, 26 December 1986, ste., M.P. Grenard 2666 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Maraã , Rio Japurá , 05 November 1982, fr., I.L. Amaral et al. 337 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Manaquiri , Lago Janauacá , 03°28’S, 60°17’W, 16 July 1991, fr., S. Mori 21746 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Manaus , Ramal do Aleixo , 15 September 2012, fl. ♂, M.G. Ferreira MGF 3C ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 29 March 2017, fr., I.G. Gama 8 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 09 July 1981, fr., L.O.A. Teixeira et al. 68 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 06 August 2019, fr., B.S. Amorim 2090 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 19 August 1973, ste., P.L. Lisboa 15 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 09 September 1981, fr., L.O.A. Teixeira et al. 69 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 11 May 2012, fr., V.S. Guedes 1 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 09 September 1981, fl. ♂, L.O.A. Teixeira et al. 70 ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Nova Olinda do Norte, Comunidade Nossa Senhora dos Remédios , 03°61’67’’S, 58°92’37’’W, 17 September 2011, fr., G.P. Viana et al. ( INPA). GoogleMaps Mun. Tefé , Estação Ecológica Mamirauá , 02 May 2000, fr., L.C. Procópio et al. 249 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., 02°90’50’’S, 64°88’33’’W, 08 May 2000, fr., L.C. Procópio et al. 292 ( INPA) GoogleMaps ; ibid., Rio Japurá, 02°53’S, 64°52’W, 02 December 1982, fl. ♂, T. Plowman, et al. s.n. ( INPA 125836). GoogleMaps Pará: Mun. Santarém , 02°26’09’’S, 54°36’32’’W, 11 June 2013, ste., S.C. Cavalcante 15 ( INPA) GoogleMaps . COLOMBIA. Amazonas: Mun. Leticia , 04 July 1969, fr., S. McDaniel 11792 ( F image) .

Etymology: —The epithet refers to the distribution of the species, which is associated with large Amazonian rivers.

Distribution and habitat: — Colombia and Brazil. In Brazil, Garcinia fluviatilis is found in the states of Amazonas and Pará in flooded forests ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ), along the Amazon, Jutaí and Japurá river basins.

Morphological Notes: —Specimens of Garcinia fluviatilis had been identified as G. macrophylla (see the differences in diagnosis), G. brasiliensis and G. gardneriana . Garcinia fluviatilis differs from G. brasiliensis by the chartaceous leaf blades (vs. coriaceous in G. brasiliensis ),> 25 pairs of secondary veins (vs. ≤ 20 pairs) and 2–3 pairs of intersecondary veins per intercostal area (vs. 1–2 pairs) ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ). The flowers of G. fluviatilis bear obovate inner petals ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 ) (vs. rounded in G. brasiliensis ), flattened stigma with undefined lobes on the fruit (vs. discoid and trilobed in G. brasiliensis ).

Garcinia fluviatilis differs from G. gardneriana also by having> 25 pairs of secondary veins (vs. <25 pairs in G. gardneriana ) and 2–3 pairs of intersecondary veins per intercostal area (vs. 1–2 pairs). The flowers of G. fluviatilis bear ellipsoid anthers (vs. globose in G. gardneriana ), globose ( Fig. 4J View FIGURE 4 ) (vs. ovoid) berries with undefined lobes on the fruit stigma (vs. trilobed). Other relevant characteristics are given in Table 1 View TABLE 1 .

INPA

Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazoonia, Colecao Sistematica da Entomologia

MGF

Germany, Tutzing, Museum G. Frey