Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844

Lima, Flávio C. T., 2017, A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae), Zootaxa 4222 (1), pp. 1-189: 142-158

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Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844
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Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844 

( Figs. 84–98View FIGURE 84View FIGURE 85View FIGURE 86View FIGURE 87View FIGURE 88View FIGURE 89View FIGURE 90View FIGURE 91View FIGURE 92View FIGURE 93View FIGURE 94View FIGURE 95View FIGURE 96View FIGURE 97View FIGURE 98)

Chalceus labrosus Jardine, in Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841: 212  –213, pl. 13, fig. 1 (Type locality, “river Paduiri”); Lima, 2003: 178 (listed; as a species inquirendae in Brycon  ; type locality incorrectly stated as situated in Guyana).

Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844: 90  (Type locality, “In Guiana et Surinam”); Müller & Troschel, 1845: 29, pl. 6, fig. 1 (redescription); Müller & Troschel in Schomburgk, 1848: 635 (“allen flüssen von Britisch-Guiana”; common name); Günther, 1864: 334 –335 (Guyana; Essequibo River; Suriname); Goeldi, 1898: 483 (common name, rio Capim, Brazil); Eigenmann, 1912: 371 –372 (Guyana: Essequibo River at Rockstone; Potaro River at Tukeit); Fowler, 1914: 250 (Rupununi River, Guyana); Cockerell, 1915: 100, pl. 26, fig. 6 (scale morphology; Guyana); Steindachner, 1917: 36 –37 (Albina, Suriname; Brasil, Roraima: Rio Surumú, Serra do Mello; Rio Branco, Bem Querer; Boa Vista; Serra Grande; Conceição; Amazonas: mouth of rio Negro); Géry, 1964: 450 (diagnosis in key); Lowe-McConnell, 1964: 115, 118, 120, 127, 132 (Rupununi and Ireng rivers, Guyana; natural history); Richter & Nijssen, 1980: 123, 125 (Brokopondo reservoir, Suriname River, Suriname; occurrence; abundance, common name); Howes, 1982: 26 –29, fig. 18 (Guyana: Essequibo River; Tukeit; upper Cuyuni River; Rupununi district; Suriname: Nickerie district); Vari, 1983: 12, 16, figs. 3, 13, 14 (branchial arches morphology); Lasso, 1992: 11, 22, fig. 2 (río Suapure, Serranía de Los Pijiguaos, Venezuela); Planquette et al., 1996: 226 –227, fig. (French Guiana, Maroni and Mana rivers); Hardman et al., 2002: 234 (Essequibo and lower Potaro Rivers, Guyana); Mol, 2002: 71 (Kwitaro and Rewa Rivers, Rupununi, Guyana); Lima, 2003: 176 (synonymic list; primary type material; distribution; common names; maximum size); Hoeinghaus et al., 2003: 383 (Río Cinaruco, Rio Orinoco basin, Venezuela); Arrington & Winemiller, 2003: 449, 456 (Río Cinaruco, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; sandbank use); Watkins et al., 2004: 46 (Burro-Burro, Siparuni and Essequibo Rivers, Iwokrama forest, Guyana); Layman et al., 2005: 2532 (Río Cinaruco, Río Orinoco basin, Venezuela; trophic position in relation to size); Bejarano et al., 2006: 362, 365, 367–368 (Río Mesay, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia: abundance); Blanco-Parra & Bejarano-Rodríguez, 2006: 856 –857 (Río Mesay, Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia: diet, reproduction); Mol et al., 2006: 114 (Coppename and Rechter River, Suriname); Mol et al., 2007: 355, 365 (Suriname River, Brokopondo reservoir, Suriname; abundance before and after impoundment); Agostinho et al., 2007: 126 –127 (Lajeado Dam, rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil; density in fish ladder); Agostinho et al., 2007: 163 –165 (Lajeado Dam, rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil; presence in the fish ladder); Silva et al., 2007: 487 (Rio das Mortes, rio Araguaia basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil); Ferreira et al., 2007: 125 (picture; rio Branco, Roraima); Albrecht et al., 2009: 181 –191 (Serra da Mesa dam, upper rio Tocantins basin, Brazil; weight-length relationships, reproduction, diet, persistence in the reservoir); Melo et al., 2009: 424 (Rio das Mortes, rio Araguaia basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil); Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2009: 221, 227 (lower rio Xingu: biological parameters, estimated biomass); Antunes et al., 2010: 676, 679–628 (Lajeado Dam, rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil; nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis); Lima & Ribeiro, 2011: 149 (as an example of “Shield” distribution pattern); Venere & Garutti, 2011: 64 (Brazil, Mato Grosso, Parque Estadual da Serra Azul, rio Araguaia basin; short description, photo); Mol et al., 2012: 270 (Suriname: occurrence in Corantijn, Nickerie, Coppename, Saramacca, Suriname, and Marowijne rivers); Mol, 2012: 23, 283–285 (ocurrence in Suriname, local name, photos); Bartolette et al., 2012: 61 (Brazil, Goiás, Serra da Mesa dam); Albrecht et al., 2012: 203, 205 (Brazil, Goiás, Serra da Mesa dam; trophic analysis); Rubio et al., 2012: 173 –182 (Mato Grosso, rio Guaporé: population structure, female maturity, size, age); Pelicice & Agostinho, 2012: 711 (Brazil Tocantins, Peixe Angical dam fish ladder); Lima et al., 2013: 228 –229 (Brazil, Rondônia, rio Madeira basin; distribution in the rio Madeira basin, short description, photo); Correa  & Winemiller, 2014: 214, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221 (Colombia, Depto.Vaupés, Río Apaporis: seasonal variation in diet, diet breadth and overlap with other frugivore fishes); Matos et al., 2016: 2016: 1–6 (diet, impact of artificial food supply in wild specimens; Brazil, rio Teles Pires basin). [Doubtful records: Gilbert & Roberts, 1971: 26 (Ecuador, Amazon basin); Saul, 1975: 103 (Ecuador, Napo, Río Conejo, Río Putumayo basin)].

Brycon schomburgkii Müller & Troschel, 1844: 91  (Type locality, “In Guiana”); Müller & Troschel, 1845: 29, pl. 6, fig. 2 (redescription); Müller & Troschel in Schomburgk, 1848: 635 (lower Essequibo River); Eigenmann, 1912: 372 (synonymization with B. falcatus  ).

Brycon hilarii  (not Valenciennes, 1850): Valenciennes (in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1850): 248 (part; “l’Amazone”; syntypes of Chalceus hilarii  ); Castelnau, 1855: 68, pl. 36, fig. 1 (Brazil. Goiás, “Salinas”); Géry & Mahnert, 1992: 815 (part; paralectotypes from “Salinas”); Lima, 2003: 176 (type material; referred as putative specimens of Brycon falcatus  ).

Brycon brevicauda Günther, 1864: 335  (Type locality, “Rio Jocintins, River Capin”); Boulenger, 1897a: 297 (Brazil, Pará, Ilha de Marajó); Goeldi, 1898: 483 (common name; upper rio Tapajós basin); Géry, 1964: 448, 450, pl. 2, fig. a (Ilha do Bananal, rio Araguaia; diagnosis); Costi et al., 1977: 53, fig. 23 (Pará, at the confluence of rio Araguaia and rio Tocantins); Santos et al., 1984: 41 –42, photo (Pará, rio Tocantins); Lowe-McConnell, 1991: (Mato Grosso, Xavantina: rio das Mortes, rio Araguaia basin; “Sangadina stream”; rio Suiá-Missú, rio Xingu basin); Tejerina-Garro et al., 1998: 402 (Goiás, São Miguel do Araguaia, floodplain lakes; relative abundance); Bergleiter, 1999: 23, 29, 48, 74–75, 113–114, 149 (pl. 10) (Lower rio Xingu, between Porto de Moz and Souzel; diet, feeding habits, social behavior, visual communication); Lima, 2003: 176 (type material; as a synonym of Brycon falcatus  ); Iglesias-Rios, 2012: 326 (Brazil, Goiás, Serra da Mesa dam: impacts of damming).

Brycon bicolor Pellegrin, 1909a: 12  –13 (Type locality, “Orénoque”); Howes, 1982: 11, 13–14, fig.8 (syntypes, redescription); Taphorn, 1992: 80 –81, 128–130, figs. (Río Apure basin, Venezuela; description, ecology, biology); Royero et al., 1992: 49 (Rio Atabapo, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela); Machado-Allison et al., 1993: 66, 69 (Rio Aguaro and Rio Guariquito, Estado Guarico, rio Orinoco basin, Venezuela); Lima, 2003: 175 (type material; as a possible synonym of Brycon melanopterus  ).

Brycon stübelli Steindachner, 1882a: 176  (Type locality, “Amazonenstome”; brief description); Steindachner, 1882b: 13, pl. 1, fig. 1 (full description; type locality specified as “Rio Amazonas (Iquitos)”). [not Amaral Campos, 1950: 142]

Characinus amazonicus  (not Agassiz, in Spix & Agassiz): Magalhães, 1931: 141 –142 (Lower Amazon basin; Goiás; natural history, common name).

Brycon matrinchao Fowler, 1941: 192  –194, fig. 102 (Type locality, “Rio Parnahyba, Therezina, Piauhy”); Géry, 1964: 450 (diagnosis in key).

Brycon melanopterus: Myers & Weitzman, 1960: 99  , 101–102 (Los Micos, Cordillera Macarena, 3°20´S 73°56´W, Río Guaviare, rio Orenoco basin, Colombia); Lima et al., 2005: 164 (Rio Tiquié, upper rio Negro basin, Brazil; description, natural history, figure, common indigenous names).

Brycon stuebeli: Géry, 1964: 450  (diagnosis in key).

Brycon stubelii: Howes, 1982: 45  (comments).

Brycon cf. falcatus: Goulding et al., 1988: 124  (Middle and lower rio Negro basin; occurrence).

Brycon  sp. ( aff. bicolor  ): Géry & Mahnert, 1992: 800 –802 (Rio Aripuanã, Ilha do Castanhal).

Brycon  sp. ( B. falcatus  group): Toledo-Piza, 2002: 116 –117 (drawing by A.R. Wallace; “ Rio Uaupés”; common name).

Brycon carpophagus  (not Valenciennes): Mérona et al., 2001: 387, 391 (Rio Tocantins, Tucuruí; diet before and after river impoundment).

Brycon stuebelli: Zarske, 2003: 16  , fig. 7 (holotype, MTDF 380); Lima, 2003: 176 (type material; as a synonym of Brycon falcatus  ).

Brycon falcatus  group: Phillip et al., 2013: 8, 16 ( Trinidad southern coast; occurrence as a vagrant species).

Diagnosis. Brycon falcatus  can be distinguished from all remaining cis-andean Brycon  species, with the exception of B. gouldingi  , by typically possessing a V- or crescent-shaped dark blotch on caudal peduncle and caudal fin. Brycon falcatus  can be distinguished from B. gouldingi  by possessing possessing dark, longitudinal stripes formed by pigmentation concentrated on the mid-distal portion of scales (vs. dark, wavy longitudinal stripes formed by dark pigment concentrated on upper and lower scale margins), paired fins typically clear (vs. paired fins black), and lower lateral line scale counts (47–69, modally 57, vs. 66–82, modally 74). Brycon falcatus  is morphologically more similar to B. melanopterus  , and an unequivocal diagnosis between both species based only on external morphological characters is not possible due to the great polymorphism in color pattern observed in the species. However, typically, Brycon falcatus  does not present an oblique dark solid stripe, presenting instead a V or crescent-shaped blotch on caudal fin (vs. black pigmentation restricted to the upper caudal-fin lobe in B. melanopterus  ). In addition, Brycon falcatus  is typically a higher bodied fish, with higher vertebrae counts. See the item “Comparisons” under Brycon melanopterus  , and the item “Variation”, below, for thorough account on the subject.

Description. Morphometric data are presented in Tables 21–22; some meristic data (lateral line counts and scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line) in Tables 23–24. Middle- to large-sized species, largest examined specimen 434.7 mm SL. Body moderately slender to high. Largest body height slightly ahead of dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal body profile slightly convex from upper lip margin to vertical through anterior naris, straight to moderately convex from latter point to basis of supraoccipital process, moderately to pronouncedly convex from latter point to dorsal-fin origin, straight along dorsal-fin basis, and straight to slightly convex from dorsal-fin basis to adipose-fin origin. Dorsal profile of caudal peduncle slightly concave. Ventral profile slightly to pronouncedly convex from lower lip to pelvic-fin insertion, straight to slightly convex from this point to anal-fin origin and approximately straight along anal-fin base. Ventral profile of caudal peduncle slightly concave.

Head profile slightly acute anteriorly, snout obtuse, mouth terminal. Jaws approximately isognathous to slightly anisognathous, outer row of premaxillary teeth partially exposed when mouth is closed. Maxillary moderately long, extending posteriorly to anterior third of pupil. Adipose eyelid well developed. Premaxillary teeth in three rows; teeth of third row largest.

Five (2), 6 (5), 7 (29), 8 (65), 9 (118), 10 (99), 11 (53), 12 (8), or 13 (1) relatively small tricuspidate teeth in outer series. Three (30), 4 (229), 5 (107), 6 (6), or 7 (1) tri- to pentacuspidate teeth in second, inner premaxillary row, plus 2 (2), 3 (150), 4 (218), or 5 (7) tricuspidate teeth between the first and third rows. Two teeth in third premaxillary row, medial teeth largest, symphyseal teeth smaller, slightly tilted towards each other, both pentacuspidate. Maxillary margins approximately parallel, straight in profile. Fifteen to 28 maxillary teeth, slightly smaller than teeth of first premaxillary row, anterior teeth tricuspidate, posterior teeth unicuspidate. Dentary with 7 (7), 8 (34), 9 (72), 10 (61), 11 (26), 12 (9), 13 (3), 14 (1), or 15 (1) teeth in main series. Anterior four dentary teeth assymetrical, considerably larger and bulkier than remaining teeth, pentacuspidate, each with central cusp distinctly larger than remaining cusps. Remaining dentary teeth progressivelly smaller, penta- to unicuspidate. Inner (lingual) series consisting of a small, single unicuspid symphyseal tooth, situated immediately posterior to symphyseal dentary teeth of main series, plus row of 13–21 small, aciculated, unicuspidate teeth, originating on lingual crest of dentary replacement trench at the level of fourth to seventh main series dentary teeth. Symphyseal teeth may be lacking in larger (> 350 mm SL) specimens.

Scales cycloid. Lateral line complete, from supracleithrum to caudal-fin base. Forty-seven (1), 48 (1), 49 (1), 50 (3), 51 (11), 52 (25), 53 (57), 54 (59), 55 (77), 56 (90), 57 (104), 58 (93), 59 (57), 60 (49), 61 (27), 62 (14), 63 (8), 64 (16), 67 (1), or 69 (1) scales in lateral line series. Laterosensory tube simple in specimens smaller than 100 mm SL, ramified in specimens larger than 100 mm SL. Tubules ramification increasing in complexity along ontogeny, specimens up to 150 mm SL with tubules with two or three branches, three to six branches in specimens between 150–250 mm SL, and with more than 10 branches and developing a dendritic pattern of ramification, with tubules often overlapping each other in larger (> 270 mm SL) specimens. Horizontal scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line eight (1), 9 (21), 10 (115), 11 (122), 12 (103), 13 (29), or 14 (3). Horizontal scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin 4 (21), 5 (156), 6 (169), 7 (27), or 8 (1). Circumpeduncular scales 15 (1), 16 (27), 17 (75), 18 (125), 19 (67), 20 (51), 21 (32), or 22 (6).

Dorsal-fin rays ii, 9. Dorsal fin origin slightly ahead, or about at middle of SL. First dorsal-fin pterygiophore inserting behind neural spine of 11th (2), 12th (1), or 13th(1) vertebra. Anal-fin rays iii (not including first, small unbranched ray only visible in cs specimens), 18 (1), 19 (4), 20 (11), 21 (41), 22 (90), 23 (93), 24 (82), 25 (45), or 26 (6). First anal-fin pterygiophore inserting behind haemal spine of 22th (4), or 23th (1) vertebrae. Anal-fin rays decreasing only slightly in size towards anal-fin end. Anal fin displaying several (c. 5–12 per fin-ray main branch) small hooks on posterior main branch of branched rays 2–11, associated with dense, gelatinous tissue in 5 examined specimens ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP 3845, 2, 196.2– 198.9 mm SL, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 16448, 1, 196.5 mm SL mm SL, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91493, 1, 226.0 mm SL, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94990, 1, 230.0 mm SL). A single hook per ray segment. Sheath of scales covering basis of anal-fin rays composed of four scale rows, lower scale row formed by 21–25 rectangular scales. Pectoral-fin rays 11 (3), 12 (76), 13 (229), or 14 (58). Pelvic-fin rays typically i, 7 (364), rarely i, 6 (4), or i, 8 (4). Main caudal-fin rays 10/9. Caudal fin forked, lobes slightly emarginated. Laterosensory tube extending over interradial membrane between upper and lower caudal-fin lobes to the distal portion of fin. Laterosensory tube on caudal fin with dorsally and ventrally oriented side branches across its length. Small distal projection in the area of the laterosensory tube present in specimens with relatively intact caudal fin.

Four branchiostegal rays, three on anterior ceratohyal and one on posterior ceratohyal. First branchial arch with 12 (14), 13 (24), 14 (40), 15 (32), 16 (22), or 17 (2) lower, 1 at angle, and 11 (1), 12 (15), 13 (38), 14 (51), 15 (20), 16 (6), or 17 (2) upper gill rakers. Vertebrae 39 (1), 40 (1), 41 (7), 42 (5), 43 (2), or 44 (1). Supraneurals 8(2), or 9 (2).

Coloration in alcohol. Top of head, snout, supraorbital, and sixth infraorbital light-grey to light-brown. Dorsal portion of body light-grey to dark-brown. Second, third, fourth, and fifth infraorbitals, opercle and cleithrum silvery in specimens retaining guanine, light-brown in specimens that lost this pigment due to a long storage in formalin. Dentary, maxillary, gular area, and lower portion of body light-brown. Lateral portion of body silvery in specimens retaining guanine, light brown in specimens that lost this pigment due to a long storage in formalin. Humeral blotch present, slightly to moderately conspicuous, approximately rounded in shape, situated immediately above lateral line, its anterior margin at level of second, extending longitudinally to posterior margin of fourth to fifth lateral line scales, and vertically one and half scales high. Scales on lateral portions of body with dark pigmentation concentrated on their central portion, forming dark, straight longitudinal stripes, more conspicuous dorsally. Dark, solid, oblique dark stripe extending along anal-fin scales sheath and anal-fin basis in almost all specimens (see item “Variation”, below). Caudal peduncle blotch wide, extending across upper and lower caudalfin rays typically as a V- or crescent-shaped dark blotch, though with a great degree of variation in the development of the pigmentantion in the lower caudal-fin lobe (see item “Variation”, below). Dorsal, anal, pectoral, and pelvicfin rays with a variable amount of interradial dark pigmentantion but typically clear. Adipose-fin light- to darkgrey, with scattered dark spots in large specimens from the upper rio Tapajós basin.

Color in life. Description based on pictures of several specimens collected at the lower rio Japurá (Lago Amanã), upper rio Madeira, upper rio Tapajós, upper rio Xingu ( Fig. 90View FIGURE 90), and rio Tocantins in Amazon basin, Río Inirida, Orinoco basin, and Kuribrong River, Essequibo basin, plus published pictures of living specimens ( Géry, 1977: 321, upper and lower; Planquette et al., 1996: 227; Ferreira et al., 2007: 125). Top of head and snout light- to dark-grey. Dorsum plumbeous. Lateral surfaces of head and body silvery. Humeral blotch relatively inconspicuous. Dark stripe extending along anal-fin basis and dark, V-shaped caudal peduncle/caudal-fin blotch very conspicuous. Distal border of caudal fin yellowish to reddish. Adipose fin yellowish grey. Remaining fins translucent, dorsal fin with some yellowish pigmentation.

Variation. Brycon falcatus  is one of the most widespread cis-andean Brycon  species, and perharps not unexpextedly, a great degree of variation in body shape and color pattern is observed across its range. Specific features that show a great degree of variation are body height, caudal-fin pigmentation, scale counts, maximum body size, and, to a lesser extent than the previous features, anal-fin pigmentation. Each of these features is treated sequentially below.

Body height varies considerably in specimens of Brycon falcatus  , to an extent unequalled among cis-andean Brycon  species. Specimens range from being relatively elongated ( Fig. 89View FIGURE 89) to high-bodied ( Figs. 86View FIGURE 86, 88View FIGURE 88, 92View FIGURE 92). However, there is no consistent geographical variation in this character, and most river systems present specimens ranging from both extremes in body shape. Probably, most of the observed variation in this trait is simply a result of phenotypic plasticity.

Caudal-fin pigmentation is the most significant trait to vary among Brycon falcatus  populations, and, contrary to body height, exhibits a clear geographical pattern. Brycon falcatus  populations from the Guianas, rio Branco, rio Capim, rio Tocantins, and rio Xingu basins possess the characteristic V- or crescent-shaped caudal-fin blotch, with the extent of dark pigmentation approximately symmetrical in both lobes ( Figs. 86–87View FIGURE 86View FIGURE 87). However, moving westwards into the Brazilian and Guyanese shields, dark pigmentantion on the lower caudal-fin lobe tend to decrease clinally in intensity. Specimens from the rio Tapajós and rio Madeira basins range from possessing an almost symmetrical dark pigmentation in both fin lobes ( Figs. 88View FIGURE 88, 92View FIGURE 92) to a considerably less pigmented lower caudal-fin lobe. Specimens from the middle and lower rio Negro and middle and middle rio Orinoco basin possess a clearly asymmetrically pigmented caudal fin, with the dark pigmentation much more intense and extensive in the upper, than in the lower caudal-fin lobe ( Figs. 93–95View FIGURE 93View FIGURE 94View FIGURE 95). Moving westward into western Amazon, the apparently scattered populations of Brycon falcatus  occurring in that vast area possess an even more asymmetrically pigmented caudal-fin, with the lower lobe almost ( Fig. 96View FIGURE 96) or completely ( Fig. 97View FIGURE 97) unpigmented, the latter condition found in specimens from Iquitos area, the most westward known locality for the species. Oddly, specimens from the upper rio Negro (above São Gabriel rapids) and upper rio Orinoco (above its junction with the Río Guaviare) basins present a similar color pattern to the specimens from Iquitos area, presenting no dark pigmentation at all at the lower caudal-fin lobe and the upper caudal-fin lobe pigmentation almost continuous with the anal-fin dark stripe ( Fig. 98View FIGURE 98). Specimens from the Iquitos area and upper rio Negro and upper Río Orinoco basins are thus very similar in color pattern to B. melanopterus  , though B. falcatus  is typically a higher-bodied species, with lower vertebral counts (see item “Comparisons” of B. melanopterus  ). See item “Putative examples of mimicry involving Brycon  ”, below, for a possible explanation for this similarity.

Scale counts vary considerably among distinct populations of Brycon falcatus  , with specimens from the Guianas clearly presenting lower counts when compared with specimens from the Orinoco and Amazon basins (see Tables 23 and 24). The lower scale counts presented by Guyanese specimens when compared with specimens from rio Capim and rio Tocantins basins were the main reason supporting the recognition of Brycon brevicauda  as a valid species (e.g., Géry, 1964: 450; Howes, 1982: 14). However, the examination of large series of specimens undertook during the present study demonstrated a continuous variation in scale counts among the several populations of Brycon falcatus  , thus failing to confirm the presumed distinctness of B. brevicauda  based on this character ( Tables 23 and 24).

Another trait which shows a clear geographical component in Brycon falcatus  is the maximum length reached by different populations. Typically, Brycon falcatus  is a middle-sized species, generally does not exceeding 300 mm SL (e.g., the maximum size of 350 mm TL reported by Rubio et al., 2012, based on the examination of 279 specimens collected at the rio Guaporé). However, extensive examination of both preserved and unpreserved specimens of Brycon falcatus  from the rio Teles Pires and rio Juruena in the upper rio Tapajós basin, and from the upper rio Xingu basin showed that individuals belonging to these populations often grow considerably above this upper limit. Maximum recorded sizes from specimens from these areas are, respectively, 435.0 and 401.0 mm SL, and specimens ranging between 300–400 mm SL are common. To complicate further the issue, in the upper rio Tapajós area apparently both morphotypes (“ large-sized” and “middle-sized”) co-exist (J.M. Mendes and H.F. Mendes, pers. comm.). The “large-sized” population from the upper rio Xingu is slightly different from the one from the upper rio Tapajós in being on average smaller-sized and by not possessing the dotted adipose fin present in the latter.

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69

Guyana and Suriname

Orinoco 4 1 1 1 Negro 6 2 1

Branco 4 2

Tocantins and Capim 11 12 11 8 2 2 5 Xingu 7 4 2 1 

Tapajós 16 10 10 6 2 6 2 Madeira 2 2 1 3 1 Western Amazon 1 1 1 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Guyana and Suriname 1 22 33 

Orinoco 10 7 1 6 Negro 14 24 1

Branco 12 18

Tocantins and Capim 12 44 4 Xingu 8 11 21 8 Tapajós 2 28 23 25 7 Madeira 8 16 11

Western Amazon 4 11 1 2 Brycon falcatus  typically possess a conspicuous dark stripe along the basis of anal-fin, the intensity of which, however, varies considerably among populations and even within specimens collected in the same general area. Some specimens from the upper portion of the rio Araguaia in central Brazil ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18628, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62490, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 48113, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 52391) entirely lack the dark stripe. At the other extreme are the specimens from the upper Río Orinoco and upper rio Negro, which possess a very well-developed dark stripe that extends from the origin of the pelvic fin to the caudal peduncle, much as the stripe found in Brycon melanopterus  (see above). It is interesting to notice that specimens collected in the rio Arinos at the upper rio Tapajós basin (e.g., MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56785, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 60423, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 61056) possess a well-developed dark stripe, while specimens collected in the same area but kept for some time in fish ponds ( MZUSPAbout MZUSP 61132, MZUSPAbout MZUSP 61133) lack entirely the dark stripe. This suggests that the expression and the intensity of the dark stripe might vary as a response of some physiological factor.

Finally, a considerable molecular divergence among samples the species from the Río Orinoco in Venezuela, rio Negro in Brazil and upper rio Xingu was detected by Abe et al. (2014). Abe et al. (2014: 12) considered that populations of Brycon falcatus  from the Río Orinoco and Río Negro basins were separated by the development of the Vaupes arch. However, Brycon falcatus  possess a continuous distribution across the upper rio Negro and upper Río Orinoco afforded by the Río Casiquiare, from where the species is known (see Fig. 99View FIGURE 99), and consequently the genetic divergence between these samples cannot be ascribed to a supposed vicariant event that in fact did not isolated these populations. A much larger sampling is necessary to understand phylogeographical patterns and the possible existence of cryptic species within the populations herein assigned to Brycon falcatus  . Until such work is done, it is deemed more parsimonious to consider all these populations as belonging to a single species.

Common names. Brazil: “matrinchã”; “ piabanha  ” ( Santos et al., 1984: 41); “voadeira”, “avoadeira”, “matrinchã-pequena”; “jatuarana-miri” (Wallace, in Toledo-Piza, 2002: 116); “miõ wi” (Tukano language, upper rio Negro basin; Lima et al., 2005: 164); “wenawe” (Tuyuka language, upper rio Negro basin; Lima et al., 2005: 164); French Guiana: “moloko blanc”, “maloko”, “mbooko”, “molokoimo” ( Planquette et al., 1996); Suriname: “moroko” ( Richter & Nijssen, 1980: 123; Mol et al., 2007: 115); Guyana: “kurumi” ( Müller & Troschel, 1845: 29); Venezuela: “palambra”, “bócon” ( Taphorn, 1992: 128).

Distribution. Widespread in rivers draining the Brazilian and Guyana shields in the Amazon, Orinoco, and guyanese river systems, and also on scattered localities in western Amazon ( Fig. 99View FIGURE 99). Brycon falcatus  is recorded only from clear or dark water rivers and never occur at white/murky-water rivers. Records from the rio Madeira basin are all from shield-draining, clear- to black-water tributaries such as rio Guaporé/Itenez, rio Jamari, rio Aripuanã, and rio Roosevelt. Likewise, records in the western Amazon came from black-water systems as the Lago Amanã near the mouth of rio Japurá in Brazil or the Río Nanay near Iquitos, Peru. From guyanese river systems, we have examined material from the Essequibo, Corantijn, and Maroni/ Marowijne Rivers in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, but the species is also reported from the Suriname River (e.g., Richter & Nijssen, 1980; Mol et al., 2007; Mol et al., 2012), Coppename River ( Mol et al., 2006; Mol et al., 2012), Nickerie River (Mol et al., 2012) and Saramacca River (Mol et al., 2012) in Suriname, and Mana River ( Planquette et al., 1996: 226–227) in French Guiana. The present westernmost record for Brycon falcatus  is Iquitos and records from more westward localities (e.g., Ecuador; Gilbert & Roberts, 1971; Saul, 1975) need to be re-examined. Recorded as a vagrant species in a river from southern Trinidad ( Phillip et al., 2013: 16; see item “Biogeography”, below).

Ecological notes. As noticed above, Brycon falcatus  inhabits exclusively clear- or black-water rivers. Like its congeners, Brycon falcatus  is a highly mobile fish and utilizes a great variety of habitats, ranging from river channels, flooded forest, floodplain lakes, to small tributaries. The species undertake massive spawning upstream migrations in the rio Culuene, upper rio Xingu basin, during September/November (pers. obs.), but spawning migrations in the rio Araguaia basin appear to be much more discrete and local (J.B. Nunes, pers. comm.). Specimens associated in small groups of up to 3 individuals were observed while snorkelling in clear-water tributaries of the upper rio Arinos, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso during the late wet season (pers. obs.). Lowe Mc-Connel (1964: 118, 120) noticed downstream migration of the species in the Ireng River (upper Rio Branco basin, Guyana) during the early dry season, and specimens with ripening gonads in the Rupununi River in April (early wet season). At the rio Guaporé (Mato Grosso, Brazil), mature females were collected at the beginning of the rainy season, between October and December ( Rubio et al., 2012). Scale rings indicated a maximum age of five years in specimens from the rio Guaporé ( Rubio et al., 2012). A female with 30 cm SL from the rio Culuene collected early October possessed mature gonads (pers. obs.). Migratory schools in the rio Culuene were observed being attacked by Hydrolycus armatus  specimens, and some dying Brycon falcatus  were found with deep parallel cuts which very likely were inflicted by this large predatory characin (pers. obs.). An osprey, Pandion haliaetus  , was observed with a Brycon falcatus  specimen under its talons at the Kuribrong River, Guyana (pers. obs.).

Detailed studies on the diet of Brycon falcatus  are Borges (1986), who studied specimens from the middle and lower rio Negro basin in Brazil, and Albrecht et al. (2009), studying specimens from the upper rio Tocantins basin in central Brazil. Borges (1986) found mainly vegetal itens (fruits and seeds) in stomach contents of specimens collected during the rainy season, while during the dry season, arthropods were the main dietary item. Leaves, flowers, and fishes were moderately consumed in both seasons. Fruits commonly found in stomach contents were Ocotea  sp. ( Lauraceae  ), Tococa  sp. ( Melastomataceae  ), and Macrolobium acacifolium  ( Fabaceae  ). Albrecht et al. (2009) also found seeds and fruits to be the most important dietary item for the species, followed by ants, coleopterans, fish and terrestrial vertebrates. Correa  & Winemiller (2014) reported that the species switched from fruits and seeds to terrestrial invertebrates as its main dietary item from rainy season to dry season in a site at the lower Río Caquetá basin (= Rio Japurá in Brazil) in Colombia, although later than the syntopic B. melanopterus  . Matos et al. (2016) recorded invertebrates (mostly insects and Decapoda), fishes, flowers, seeds and fruits as the main itens ingested by Brycon falcatus  at the rio Teles Pires basin, and that specimens living in river stretches where an artificial food supply (soybeans and corn) was provided presented a better condition (i.e., more abdominal fat) than specimens living in river stretches where no artificial food supply was provided.

Remarks. Jardine, in Jardine & Schomburgk (1841: 212–213) described Chalceus labrosus  from the “river Paduiri” (= Rio Padauari), a locality which lies in the middle rio Negro basin, Amazonas, Brazil, an area visited by Schomburgk in March 1839 ( Schomburgk, 1840). No type material is known for this nominal species. Though poor, the description and plate of Chalceus labrosus  clearly correspond to the same species latter described by Müller & Troschel as Brycon falcatus  . Jardine, in Jardine & Schomburgk (1841: 212–213) mentions the three series of teeth in the premaxillary (“three rows on the roof of the mouth”), the dark stripe at the basis of anal fin (“a broad black mark running from the centre of its anterior edge for one-third of its length”), and the crescent-shaped blotch at the caudal fin (“a dark bluish black bar running across, parallel to the fork”). The name Chalceus labrosus  was never used as a valid species after its original description, while Brycon falcatus  has been continuously used in the ichthyological literature during the last 160 years, by well more than 25 authors (see synonymic list, above). We consider thus that Chalceus labrosus  fulfills the necessary requisites to be considered as a nomen oblitum (Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1999), and, as such, as not having precedence over Brycon falcatus  , which is herein considered a nomen protectum.

Müller & Troschel (1844: 90) briefly described Brycon falcatus  , based on an unspecified number of syntypes collected at Guiana and Suriname by Schomburgk and Dieppering. A little later, the same authors ( Müller & Troschel, 1845: 29, pl. 6, fig. 1) described the species in detail and provided a good illustration of it. Though the type specimens were not examined in the present study, the good description and illustration by Müller & Troschel (1845) leaves no doubt as to the identity of the species. Günther (1864: 335) identified three specimens from BMNH collected by Schomburgk as belonging to the type series, which probably prompted Eschmeyer (1998: 58) in considering this lot (BMNH 1969.12.12:1-3) as being part of the syntypical series of B. falcatus  . However, as remarked earlier by Howes (1982: 26), only the specimens deposited at the ZMB were cited in the original description ( Müller & Troschel, 1845: 29) and as such are the only specimens that should be considered as having typical status ( Lima, 2003: 176). In the same papers where Brycon falcatus  was described, Müller & Troschel (1844: 91; 1845: 29–30, pl. 6, fig. 2) described Brycon schomburgkii  from Guyana. Müller & Troschel (1845) diagnosed the species from Brycon falcatus  only by the possession of a longer inner row of dentary teeth, almost reaching the inner symphyseal teeth. However, there is a reasonable degree of intraspecific variation in the extension of the second dentary teeth row in Brycon  species, and the variation described by Müller & Troschel (1845) fits within this variation. Eigenmann (1912: 372), who examined the type specimens of both Brycon falcatus  and B. schomburgkii  , remarked that “the later is undoubtedly the young of the former”, thus considering B. schomburgkii  a synonym of B. falcatus  , an opinion with which we concur.

Valenciennes (in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1850: 246–248), when describing Chalceus hilarii  , mentioned that part of the syntypical series was collected “dans l’Amazone” by Castelnau. Castelnau (1855: 68) noticed that these specimens were actually collected at Salinas, located at the rio Araguaia basin in Goiás state, Brazil ( Papavero, 1971: 152). Bertin (1948: 14–15) listed three syntypes for Chalceus hilarii  , two of which (MNHN 9893, MNHN 9894) were collected by Castelnau at the “Fl[euve]. Amazone”. Géry & Mahnert (1992: 815) selected the specimen MNHN A.8616 as the lectotype of Brycon hilarii  (see item “Remarks” of B. hilarii  ). Consequently, the specimens MNHN 9893 and MNHN 9894 became paralectotypes of the species. Géry & Mahnert (1992) mentioned that these specimens were collected at Salinas, but incorrectly surmised that this locality was located at the rio Jequitinhonha (a river basin not visited by Castelnau). Due to the poor state of preservation of the paralectotypes, Géry & Mahnert (1992) were unsure whether they were in fact conspecific with the lectotype or not. The examination of one of these paralectotypes (MNHN A.9894) demonstrated, as should be expected by its provenance, that it refers not to Brycon hilarii  , but, actually, to B. falcatus  .

Günther (1864: 335) described Brycon brevicauda  based on three syntypes, BMNH 1864.4.20: 13, from “ Rio Jocintins” (presumably a mispelling of rio Tocantins), and BMNH 1849.4.8: 42; 49, from rio Capim, Brazil. Géry (1964: 450) provided an identification key for what he supposed to be a group of species similar to Brycon falcatus  , identifiable by possessing a V-shaped caudal-fin blotch. In that key, Brycon brevicauda  was diagnosed from B. falcatus  by possessing higher lateral-line and vertical scale counts, lower anal-fin counts, a smaller body depth, by lacking the dark stripe at the anal-fin basis and, possibly, by lacking the inner dentary symphyseal teeth. Howes (1982: 14) also considered Brycon brevicauda  as being a valid species, distinct from Brycon falcatus  in scale counts, body depth, premaxillary teeth counts, and dentary teeth shape. The examination of large samples from the Guianas, Amazon and Orinoco basins undertook during the present study showed that all these characters are either not valid (i.e., premaxilary teeth counts, lack of symphyseal teeth, dentary teeth shape), or vary considerably within populations (i.e., body depth, anal-fin basis pigmentation), or else present a continuous variation among distinct populations (i.e., scale counts) (see item “Variation”, above). We consider thus Brycon brevicauda  as a synonym of B. falcatus  .

Steindachner (1882a: 176) briefly described Brycon stuebelii  (originally spelled as stübelii  ) having as its type locality the Amazon basin (“Amazonestrome”). Soon thereafter Steindachner (1882b: 13–14) redescribed the species in detail, and specified its type-locality as being “ Rio Amazonas (Iquitos)”. Steindachner (1882b: 13) compared Brycon stuebelii  with a single congener, B. melanopterus  , from which he diagnoses it by possessing a shorter dark stripe at the anal-fin basis and a supposedly larger second infraorbital bone. Géry (1964: 450) considered Brycon stuebelii  as provisionally valid and considered it as belonging to a group of species similar to B. falcatus  , being supposedly distinct from the latter by possessing higher scales counts. Howes (1982: 45), however, considered Brycon stuebelli  as a possible synonym of B. falcatus  . The holotype of Brycon stuebelii  was not examined during the course of the present study, but Steindachner’s description and illustration show a typical Brycon falcatus  specimen, with a well-defined crescent-shaped blotch on the caudal-fin, a color pattern no longer displayed by the now faded holotype ( Zarske, 2003: 16, fig. 7). Curiously, all subsequent specimens of Brycon falcatus  collected in the western portions of the Amazon basin, including specimens collected at Iquitos, does not possess a V- or crescent-shaped blotch on caudal fin, but instead, the dark pigmentation is considerably more developed or even entirely confined to the upper caudal-fin lobe (see item “Variation”, above).

Brycon bicolor  was described by Pellegrin (1909a: 12–13) based on three specimens collected at at the Rio Orinoco, without a precise locality. The collector of the type material, Jean Chaffanjon, was a French explorer who traveled between 1885–1890 in the Río Orinoco, and explored its upper reaches, including the Río Caura and upstream into the Río Orinoco to the rapids of the Raudal de los Guaharibos ( Huber, 1995). The species was compared by Pellegrin (1909a) with Brycon falcatus  and considered to be distinct due to the possession of smaller scales. Howes (1982: 11, 13–14) examined the syntypes and considered it a “very characteristic taxon hardly to be confused with any other Brycon  species”. The distinctiness of Brycon bicolor  , according to Howes (1982), relied in its color pattern, which consisted in a dark stripe extending across the base of anal fin and a blotch extending diagonally from caudal peduncle to the upper lobe of caudal fin. Géry & Mahnert (1992: 802) also examined the syntypes and considered Brycon bicolor  to be more related to B. melanopterus  and B. cephalus  (= B. amazonicus  ) than to B. falcatus  due to the presumably distinct V-shaped caudal-fin pigmentation present in the latter species. Lima (2003: 175), listing the valid species of Bryconinae  , considered the species provisionally valid, but mentioned the possibility that the species might be a synonym of Brycon melanopterus  . This supposition was based on the fact that the syntypes exhibit a color pattern similar to the one found in this latter species. However, after we have examined the syntypes of Brycon bicolor  (MNHN 87746-748), and studied in more detail Brycon  specimens from the upper Río Orinoco and upper rio Negro basins, it became obvious that these specimens does not belong to B. melanopterus  (see item “Comparisons” of B. melanopterus  , and item “Variation”, above), but instead are best interpreted as representing one extreme of variation in pigmentary features found within a polymorphic B. falcatus  . Accordingly, Brycon bicolor  is herein considered a synonym of B. falcatus  . Thus, records in the literature for Brycon melanopterus  in the upper rio Negro and upper Río Orinoco basins ( Myers & Weitzman, 1960; Lima et al., 2005) actually represent misidentifications of this unusually-pigmented color morph of B. falcatus  .

Fowler (1941: 192–194) described Brycon matrinchao  for the rio Parnaíba, Piauí, northeastern Brazil. Fowler (1941: 194) did not compared Brycon matrinchao  with any other Brycon  species, with the exception of Brycon hilarii  , and as a matter of fact did not put forward any reasoning justifying the description of the species. Géry (1964: 450) considered Brycon matrinchao  as belonging to a putative group of species related to B. falcatus  , from which it would be diagnosed by possessing higher scales counts. The holotype of Brycon matrinchao  ( ANSPAbout ANSP 69619) was examined during the course of the present study, and it is undoubtedly a specimen of B. falcatus  belonging to the populations that display relatively high scale counts (see item “Variation”, above). Despite a considerable sampling effort in the last twenty years (e.g., Ramos et al., 2014), no additional specimens of Brycon falcatus  were collected in the rio Parnaíba basin. In fact, the only other putative record of a Brycon  species occurring in the rio Parnaíba is a lot of Brycon orthotaenia  collected by the Thayer Expedition, which also constitutes a doubtful record (see item “Distribution” of the latter species, and the item “Biogeography”, below). Several species recorded by Fowler (1941) from the rio Parnaíba and another drainages from northeastern Brazil were never collected again in that area and clearly are mislabelled specimens which were rather probably collected in the rio Tocantins system (Roberts, 1973: 213; Vari, 1995: 80; Vari & Harold, 2001: 45–46; Castro & Vari, 2004: 151). It is very unlikely that fish species highly prized and exploited by fishermen such as a Semaprochilodus (Castro & Vari, 2004: 151)  or a Brycon  species would have escaped further notice, if in fact they were truly present in the rio Parnaíba basin. We consider thus that the reported occurrence of Brycon falcatus  in the rio Parnaíba basin to be based on a mislabelled specimen, and that the holotype of B. matrinchao  was actually collected somewhere in the Amazon basin, perharps in the rio Tocantins basin.

Géry & Mahnert (1992: 800–802) identified as a possible new species specimens of Brycon  belonging to the INPA collection from the rio Aripuanã and Lago Amanã. These specimens were considered by Géry & Mahnert (1992) to be distinct from Brycon brevicauda  , and similar to B. bicolor  , by possessing the dark pigmentation confined to the upper caudal-fin lobe. We have examined one of the lots studied by Géry & Mahnert (1992) (INPA 16412, from the rio Aripuanã) and specimens from the Lago Amanã and nearby areas (MZUSP 99213, MCP 29776, MCP 29774, MCP 29771, MCP 29775). As noticed under the item “Variation”, above, the intensity of pigmentation in the lower caudal-fin lobe vary in intensity across the populations of Brycon falcatus  , with a distinct east-west clinal tendence of decrease of intensity of pigmentation in the lower caudal-fin lobe. The population of Brycon falcatus  from the rio Madeira basin is variable in this respect, and specimens ranging from a lower caudalfin lobe much less pigmented than the upper caudal-fin lobe to specimens presenting a almost symmetric, V-shaped caudal-fin blotches are present in the area, while specimens from the lago Amanã area typically possess a lower caudal-fin lobe much less pigmented than the upper caudal-fin lobe, a condition which is in fact a rule for B. falcatus  populations from the western Amazon (see item “Variation”, above). In sum, the purported specific distinctness of the populations from the rio Aripuanã and Lago Amanã hypothesized by Géry & Mahnert (1992) constitute actually only in the extreme of a continuous variation of the lower-caudal fin pigmentation within Brycon falcatus  populations.

Material examined. Type material. MNHNAbout MNHN A.9894 (1, 169.5 mm SL): " L'Amazone " (= Brazil, Goiás, Salinas, c. 13°40’S, 50°14’W, rio Araguaia basin); F. de Castelnau, 1844GoogleMaps  . Paralectotype of Chalceus hilarii Valenciennes  (designated by Géry & Mahnert, 1992: 815). BMNH 1849.4.8: 42, 49 (2, 87.4–92.7 mm SL): “ Rio Capin” (= Brazil, Pará, Rio Capim); “purch. Stevens ” (i.e., collected by H.W. Bates)  ; syntypes of Brycon brevicauda Günther, 1864  . BMNH 1842.4.20.13 (1, 232.0 mm SL): “ Rio Jocintins ” (= Rio Tocantins, Brazil); “pres. by M. Gardiner ”  ; syntype of Brycon brevicauda Günther.  MNHN 87746-748 (3, 110.0– 120.9 mm SL): “Orénoque”, Chaffanjon. Syntypes of Brycon bicolor Pellegrin.  ANSPAbout ANSP 69619View Materials (1, 149.2 mm SL): Brazil: “ Rio Parnahyba; Therezina; Piauhy ”; R. von Ihering, 1936  . Holotype of Brycon matrinchao Fowler. 

Non types. French Guyana. MNHNAbout MNHN 2000-4476View Materials (1, 162.6 mm SL): Maroni River at Maripasoula , 3°38’48’’N, 54°2’27’’W; IRD-Cayenne, 15 June 1999GoogleMaps  . MNHNAbout MNHN 1999-1451View Materials (1, 102.0 mm SL): Maroni River, Saut Singatelet , c. 4°20’N, 54°23’W; P. Planquette, 15 Oct 1979GoogleMaps  . MNHN 2004-0345 (1, 99.1 mm SL); MNHNAbout MNHN 2004-0243View Materials (1, 70.9 mm SL): Saint Laurent du Maroni , 5°28’N, 54°3’WGoogleMaps  ; O. Tostain, 2003. MNHNAbout MNHN 1998-1822View Materials (1, 257.9 mm SL): Saint Laurent du Maroni , 5°28’N, 54°3’W; P.- Y. Le Bail, no dateGoogleMaps  . Suriname, Nickerie District: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 38255View Materials (4, 1 cs, 116.9–131.6 mm SL): woodland stream about 0.5 km inland of Camp Mataway, Corantijn River basin, 4°48'N, 57°43'W; R.P. Vari, 21 Sept 1980GoogleMaps  . USNMAbout USNM 225975View Materials (2, 129.1–152.0 mm SL): small creek entering Corantijn River, on east side approx. 300 m north of Amotopo boat landing, 3°33’N, 57°40’W; R.P. Vari et al., 19 Sept 1980GoogleMaps  . USNMAbout USNM 225625View Materials (3, 134.7– 141.2 mm SL): creek opposite logging camp, 2 and a half hours S of Matapi, approx. 2 km downstream Cow Falls , 4°59’N, 57°38’W; R.P. Vari et al., 11 Sept 1980GoogleMaps  . USNMAbout USNM 226161View Materials (66, 77.1–108.1 mm SL): Corantijn River at km 180, side channel along Surinamese shore, 5°8’N, 57°18’W; R.P. Vari et al., Sept 1980GoogleMaps  . USNMAbout USNM 225624View Materials (4, 127.6– 136.6 mm SL): Mataway Creek approximately 8 km from its intersection with Corantjin River, 4°47'N, 57°45'W; R.P. Vari et al., 11 Sept 1980GoogleMaps  . USNMAbout USNM 226122View Materials (9, 96.7–140.0 mm SL): Matapi Creek ca. 1 km from intersection with Corantijn River, 5°00'N, 57°16'W; R.P. Vari et al., 9 Sept 1980GoogleMaps  . AMNHAbout AMNH 54849View Materials (98.9– 118.8 mm SL): stream near Camp Avanavaro, about 3 mi. downstream of Devis Falls (Kabalebo River drainage); R.P. Vari et al., 7 Dec 1979  . AMNHAbout AMNH 54976View Materials (5, 103.4– 114.2 mm SL): small stream just south of Tiger Falls on Corantijn River approx. km 405, c. 4°0’N, 58°2’W; R.P. Vari et al., 11 Dec. 1979GoogleMaps  . AMNHAbout AMNH 54876View Materials (7, 100.2– 124.3 mm SL): Toeboeroe creek , trib. Corantjin River at km 220; R.P. Vari et al., 8 Dec 1979  . AMNHAbout AMNH 54764View Materials (9, 97.4– 113.7 mm SL): Corantijn drainage, Kapoeri Creek about 7 km from intersection with Corantjin River; R.P. Vari et al., 5 Dec 1979  . AMNHAbout AMNH 54904View Materials (10, 90.0– 105.9 mm SL): small inlets on sand bar opposite entrance of Matawai creek in Corantjin River; R.P. Vari et al., 8 Dec 1979. Guyana  , Essequibo River basin. MCZAbout MCZ 30162View Materials (1, 193.3 mm SL)  ; FMNHAbout FMNH 53352View Materials (2, 196.5–222.0 mm SL): Tukeit , Potaro River, c. 5°16’N, 59°23’WGoogleMaps  ; C.H. Eigenmann, 1908. FMNHAbout FMNH 7472View Materials (1, 188.8 mm SL): same locality; S.E. Shideler, 1908GoogleMaps  . AMNHAbout AMNH 73000View Materials (6, 82.5–124.9 mm SL): Mazaruni-Potaro District, Cuyuni River, just upstream of Caowry Creek , c. 6°23’N, 58°43’W; R.E. Schmidt, K. Schmidt & R. Pappantoniou, 18 Aug 1983GoogleMaps  . UMMZAbout UMMZ 216328View Materials (2, 102.1–107.0 mm SL): Essequibo River, Bartica , 6°24’N, 58°37’WGoogleMaps  ; Carslon & Persand, 12 Sept 1971. UMMZ 216215 (3, 41.4–50.6 mm SL): small creek trib. Essequibo River, south of Bartica ; F. Cichocki, 21 May 1972  . UMMZAbout UMMZ 216492View Materials (2, 51.2–66.0 mm SL): Essequibo River, opposite Bartica; F. Cichocki & Douglas, 4 June 1972  . UMMZAbout UMMZ 216401View Materials (1, 38.3 mm SL): Essequibo River, east bank up to Makouria Quarry; F. Cichocki et al., 18 May 1972  . BMNH 1972.19.17: 1398-1411 (14, 82.7–125.6 mm SL): Essequibo River, Moraballi , c. 6°12’N, 58°34’W; R. Liley, 3 Nov 1959GoogleMaps  . FMNHAbout FMNH 53350View Materials (1, 89.7 mm SL): Essequibo River, Rockstone , 6°1’N, 58°34’WGoogleMaps  ; C.H. Eigenmann, 1908. ANSPAbout ANSP 177356View Materials (2, 185.0–255.0 mm SL): Siparuni River, Levi Falls Creek ; G. Watkins et al., 5 Dec 1997  . ANSPAbout ANSP 175740View Materials (1, 250.0 mm SL): Essequibo River, approx. 3 hours above Kupurukari field station; W.G. Saul et al., 30 Jan 1997  . ANSPAbout ANSP 178559View Materials (1, 248.0 mm SL): Burro Burro River: ca.35 minutes upstream from Burro Burro campsite ( Water Dog Rapids ), 4°10'48''N, 58°50'46''W; G.G. Watkins et al., 22 Jan 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 175455View Materials (1, 106.0 mm SL): Siparuni VIII-2, blackwater creek tributary of Burro Burro River, upstream from Burro Burro campsite, 4°42'47''N, 58°51'46''WGoogleMaps  ; G.G. Watkins et al., 21 Jan 1997. ANSPAbout ANSP 175451View Materials (1, 141.4 mm SL): Siparuni VIII-2, clear water creek at campsite 3.1 miles from Kurupukari, field station on Kurupukari-Surema River Road ( Tiger cr.), 4°38'00''N, 58°42'59''W; W.G. Saul et al., 5 Febr 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSP 176666 (1, 252.0 mm SL); ANSPAbout ANSP 176667View Materials (1, 165.3 mm SL): Burro Burro River, Water Dog Falls , 4°10'48''N, 58°50'46''W; E. McBirney et al., 17–20 Nov 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 176668View Materials (1, 137.4 mm SL): Burro Burro River, Lunch Rock , 4°41'28''N, 58°51'8''W; C. Watson et al., 20 Nov 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 176667View Materials (1, 165.3 mm SL): same locality; G. Watkins et al., 17 Nov 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 175456View Materials (1, 134.4 mm SL): Siparuni VIII-2, Paddle Rock lake , ca. 15 min downstream from Essequibo campsite  , Essequibo River, 4°43'57''N, 58°42'53''W; W.G. Saul, 27 Jan 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 176669View Materials (1, 135.2 mm SL): Essequibo River, black water creek 2 km downstream from Paddle Rock campsite, 4°45'40''N, 58°43'05''W; C. Watson et al., 24 Nov 1997GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 175454View Materials (1, 100.7 mm SL): Siparuni VIII- 2, Essequibo River, 180 yd. upstream from Essequibo campsite ( Maipuri ), 4°45'43''N, 58°45'52''WGoogleMaps  ; D. Allicock, 27 Jan 1997. ANSPAbout ANSP 176670View Materials (2, 128.4– 134.3 mm SL): Siparuni River, small side stream of Siparuni next to Tumble Down Falls, 4°48'39''N, 58°51'11''WGoogleMaps  ; G. Watkins et al., 8 Dec 1997. ANSPAbout ANSP 175457View Materials (1, 121.3 mm SL): Siparuni VIII-2, Essequibo River: sandbars in vicinity of Maipuri campsite, 4°34'17''N, 58°35'17''WGoogleMaps  ; W.G. Saul et al., 2 Feb. 1997. ROMAbout ROM 64251View Materials (2, 93.1–101.9 mm SL): Region 6 (Kurupukari), about 1.6 km downstream from Tambikabo inlet, 4°48’40’’N, 58°49’20’’WGoogleMaps  ; E. Holm et al., 13 Oct 1990. ANSPAbout ANSP 39752View Materials (3, 86.3–109.1 mm SL): Rupununi River (no precise locality); J. Ogilvie, 1911  . BMNH 1972.7.27:52-76 (25, 79.5–255.0 mm SL): Rupununi District (no precise locality); R.H. Lowe McConnel, no date  . MNHNAbout MNHN A. 8614 (1, 244.3 mm SL, half skin)  ; MNHNAbout MNHN A.9831 (1, 112.4 mm SL)  ; MNHN 4388 (2, 110.0– 115.8 mm SL); MNHNAbout MNHN 101View Materials (2, 205.3– 218.3 mm SL): “Fl. Essequibo  , Guyane Anglaise”; R. Schomburgk, no date  . Venezuela, Río Orinoco basin, Depto  . Amazonas:  AMNHAbout AMNH 93064View Materials (1, 197.7 mm SL): Rio Mavaca, upriver from base camp, at tributary, c. 2°31’N, 65°10’W; C.J. FerrarisGoogleMaps  , A. Machado-Allison et al., 18–20 March 1989  . AMNHAbout AMNH 93065View Materials (1, 202.8 mm SL): Río Mavaca, at base camp, c. 2°31’N, 65°10’W; C.J. Ferraris & J. Daly, 17 March 1989GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 159731View Materials (1, 114.0 mm SL): Río Sipapo, above Pendare , 4°51’N, 67°44’W; B. Chernoff et al., 12 Nov 1985GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 159734View Materials (1, 91.5 mm SL): Caño entering Río Sipapo at raudal del Caldero , c. 3 km above confluence with Río Orinoco, 5°4’N, 67°46’W; B. Chernoff et al., 14 Nov 1985GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 159732View Materials (1, 110.1 mm SL): morichal 26.9 km from Puerto Ayacucho, along Puerto Ayacucho- Caicara highway; B. Chernoff et al., 15 Nov 1985  . ANSPAbout ANSP 159733View Materials (1, 127.2 mm SL): Río Cataniapo at bridge on Puerto Ayacucho-Samariapo carretera, 3 km S of Puerto Ayacucho, 5°32'N 67°31'W; B. Chernoff et al., 11 Nov 1985GoogleMaps  . FMNHAbout FMNH 85689View Materials (4, 2 cs, 92.4–147.7 mm SL): 50 km towards Puerto Ayacucho from Puerto Novo; J. Thomerson et al., 14 Jan 1975  . USNMAbout USNM 270181View Materials (3, 97.3–120.0 mm SL): Laguna Provincial, approx. 20 km north of Puerto Ayacucho, 5°50’N, 67°30’WGoogleMaps  ; R.P. Vari et al., 1 Dec 1984. INHSAbout INHS 61580View Materials (1, 118.3 mm SL): Caño Agua Linda (trib. Río Orinoco), 5°50'24''N 67°27'10''WGoogleMaps  ; L.M. Page et al., 22 Jan 1992. ANSPAbout ANSP 159730View Materials (2, 83.9–97.7 mm SL): Caño crossing Puerto Ayacucho-El Burro hwy., c. 7 km from intersection of Puerto Ayacucho-Caicara hwy., 5°56’N, 67°21’WGoogleMaps  ; B. Chernoff et al., 14 Nov 1985. ANSPAbout ANSP 159721View Materials (1, 109.3 mm SL): Río Orinoco at El Burro , 6°12’N, 67°26’W; B. Chernoff et al., 26 Nov 1985GoogleMaps  . BMNH uncat. (1, 86.5 mm SL): Río Orinoco, Puerto Ayacucho, 5°40’N, 67°38’W; Delmastro, July 1980GoogleMaps  . UMMZAbout UMMZ 240018View Materials (3, 94.8–136.0 mm SL): mouth of Río Guaviare, opposite San Fernando de Atabapo, 4°2’N, 67°43’W; J.S. Albert et al., 2 Jan 1994GoogleMaps  . UMMZAbout UMMZ 239924View Materials (1, 93.7 mm SL): Río Orinoco, 5 km upstream from San Fernando de Atabapo, c. 4°2’N, 67°40’W; J.S. Albert et al., 27 Dec 1993GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 161212View Materials (8, 106.4– 149.8 mm SL): Río Ventuari ca. 12 km from its confluence with Río Orinoco, 4°4’N, 66°56’W; B. Chernoff et al., 25 March 1987GoogleMaps  . FMNH 104026 (1, 100.4 mm SL); FMNH 104027 (1, 92.6 mm SL); FMNHAbout FMNH 104028View Materials (1, 117.5 mm SL): Río Ventuari, c. 12 km above mouth in Río Orinoco  , Laguna Pavón, 4°4’N, 66°56’W; B. Chernoff et al., 24 Jan 1991GoogleMaps  . FMNHAbout FMNH 161210View Materials (1, 157.1 mm SL): Río Iguapo (trib. Río Orinoco), c. 1 hr. above its mouth, 3°7’N, 65°28’W; H. Lopez et al., 13 March 1987GoogleMaps  . CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 52View Materials 635 (1, 102.8 mm SL): Rio Orinoco, Orinoco bifurcation, Tamatama beach, c. 3°9’N, 65°51’W; C. Ternetz, 14 March 1925GoogleMaps  . CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 64370View Materials (1, 230 mm SL): Rio Orinoco bifurcation, Cano Tamatama into Rio Orinoco, c. 3°9’N, 65°51’W; C. Ternetz, 17 March 1925GoogleMaps  . Estado Bolívar: ANSPAbout ANSP 159736View Materials (1, 100.7 mm SL)  : Río Caura at Puerto Las Majadas , 7°38’N, 64°50’W; L. Aguana, 23 Nov 1985GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 96418View Materials (1, 54.2 mm SL): Caicara del Orinoco, Río Orinoco, Puerto Cedeño , 7°39’6’’N, 66°10’34’’W; M.C.C. de Pinna & P. Hernadez, 20 July 2004GoogleMaps  . LBP 2187 (2, 98.4–147.6 mm SL): Caicara del Orinoco , Laguna de Castilleros, 7°30’51’’W, 66°9’20’’W  ; A  . Granado, 17 Jul 2004. LBP 3027 (4, 101.2–172.0 mm SL): Caicara del Orinoco  , Río Orinoco, 7°38’11’’N, 66°19’4’’WGoogleMaps  ; C. Oliveira & A  . Granado, 2 Oct 2005. CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 68916View Materials (1, 107.8 mm SL)  ; CAS-SU 54649 (1, 101.4 mm SL); CAS-SU 56 784 (1, 103.3 mm SL); CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 54566View Materials (1, 104.5 mm SL): Caño de Quiribana, near Caicara , c. 7°36’N, 66°11’W; C. Ternetz, April– May 1925GoogleMaps  . UF 80419 (1, 112.1 mm SL); UF 80474 (1, 125.3 mm SL): bridge on Río Chaviripa on Caicara-San Fernando de Atabapo (Puerto Ayacucho) road, c. 7°0’N, 66°31’W; D.C. Taphorn et al., 16 Apr 1984GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 159729View Materials (1, 102.9 mm SL): river and flooded area 15 km N of Maniapure on Caicara-Puerto Ayacucho hwy. (Río Chaviripa?), c. 7°0’N, 66°31’W; B. Chernoff et al., 16 Nov 1985GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 96499View Materials (1, 69.2 mm SL): Cedeño, Río Parguaza, Puente Parhueña village , 5°53’30’’N, 67°24’14’’W; M.C.C. de Pinna & C. Oliveira, 19 Jul 2004GoogleMaps  . Estado Apure: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62447View Materials (2, 104.6– 124.4 mm SL)  : Apure, laguna near Caño La Pica; F. Provenzano et al., 14 May 1989. INHSAbout INHS 61479View Materials (3, 84.6–113.5 mm SL)  : Apure  , Caño San Miguel (trib. Río Cínaruco), 6°34’24’’N 67°17’32’’W; L.M. Page et al., 20 Jan 1992GoogleMaps  . INHSAbout INHS 61402View Materials (1, 115.1 mm SL): Laguna Larga (Río Cínaruco), 6°33’19’’N 67°24’49’’W; L.M. Page et al., 19 Jan 1992GoogleMaps  . FMNH 69901 (1, 89.3 mm SL); FMNHAbout FMNH 69902View Materials (8, 94.1– 169.4 mm SL): Río Cinaruco, c. 6°33’N, 67°18’W; W.P. Braker & Zunwalt, Feb 1967. Venezuela, DeptoGoogleMaps  . Amazonas  , Rio Negro basin: ANSPAbout ANSP 161211View Materials (1, 102.4 mm SL)  : Río Pamoni, lagoon ca. 0.5 km from confluence of Río Casiquiare, 2°50’N, 65°53’W; B. Chernoff et al., 18 March 1987GoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 162802View Materials (1, 272.0 mm SL): mouth of Río Pamoni at Río Casiquiare, 2°49’N, 65°55’W; W.G. Saul et al., 18 March 1987GoogleMaps  . CAS-SU 56148 (1, 109.5 mm SL); CAS-SU 54738 (1, 127.7 mm SL); CAS-SU 54652 (2, not measured); CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 54652View Materials (2, 107.9– 117.2 mm SL): Rio Casiquiare, Laje Curare (not located); C. Ternetz, 2 March 1925  . CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 54653View Materials (2, 113– 124.6 mm SL): Rio Casiquiare, Punta de la Isla Guachancho; C. Ternetz, 26 Febr 1925  . USNMAbout USNM 270180View Materials (1, 105.4 mm SL): San Carlos de Río Negro  , Río Negro above town landing, 1°55’N, 67°3’WGoogleMaps  ; A. Machado et al., 3 Dec 1984  . USNMAbout USNM 270182View Materials (5, 80.8–99.8 mm SL): Río Negro about 0.5 hour above San Carlos de Río Negro , 1°58’N, 67°4’WGoogleMaps  ; R.P. Vari et al., 4 Dec 1984. CAS-SU 54651 (1, 109.8 mm SL); CAS-SUAbout CAS-SU 69885View Materials (1, 106.0 mm SL): Rio Negro, sandy point n. of “ Amanadona ” (= Santa Rosa de Amanadona , 1°28’30’’N, 66°54’30’’W); C. Ternetz, 21 Febr 1925GoogleMaps  . Colombia, Río Orinoco basin: NRMAbout NRM 26206View Materials (1, 70.5 mm SL): Prov  . Guainía  , Río Guaviare drainage, Caño Carbón, Cuayare, 3°56'N 67°50'W; T. Hongslo, 28 June1976. Brazil, rio Capim basin: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17894View Materials (1, 115.1 mm SL)GoogleMaps  : Pará, São Domingos do Capim, igarapé Pirajauara, trib. rio Capim , c. 1°44’S, 47°47’W; EPA, 12 Aug 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17957View Materials (5, 79.2–92.4 mm SL): Pará, Badajós, lago Maria Preta, rio Capim , c. 2°30’S, 47°40’W; EPA, 18 Aug 1970GoogleMaps  . Rio Tocantins basin  . Pará:  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18051View Materials (9, 143.8– 160.1 mm SL): Paraná Samuuma, mouth of rio Tocantins, c. 1°56’S, 49°12’W; EPA, 4 Sept 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18068View Materials (15, 100.4– 127.6 mm SL): Mocajuba, igarapé Oxipucu , 2°34’S, 49°31’W; EPA, 8 Sept 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18087View Materials (30, 1 cs, 98.1–113.9 mm SL): rio Tocantins, between Mocajuba and Baião, c. 2°39’S, 49°37’W; EPA, 9 Sept 1970GoogleMaps  . INPA 16424 (1, 191.9 mm SL); INPA 16368 (1, 119.7 mm SL); INPA 16386 (1, 168.0 mm SL); INPAAbout INPA 16382View Materials (1, 146.4 mm SL): rio Tocantins, Acarí Pucu , 2°42’S, 49°43’WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia/INPA, 1981–1982. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18089View Materials (5, 106.4–112.0 mm SL): Baião , rio Tocantins, 2°48’S, 49°41’W; EPA, 9–10 Sept 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18077View Materials (21, 103.4– 135.3 mm SL): Baião, igarapé do Limão, rio Tocantins; EPA, 9 Sept 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18195View Materials (3, 100.3–105.0 mm SL): igarapé dos Cinco, km 5 on road Tucuruí-Mato Grosso; EPA, 22 Sept 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18200View Materials (1,111.5 mm SL): igarapé Urubu, near posto Trocará, rio Tocantins; EPA, 24 Sept 1970  . INPA 16392 (2, 206.7– 210.9 mm SL); INPAAbout INPA 16373View Materials (2, 141.4– 146.7 mm SL): Icangui , rio Tocantins, 3°27’S, 49°36’WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia/INPA, 1980–1985. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18115View Materials (4, 112.9– 196.6 mm SL): marginal lagoons of rio Tocantins, near Tucuruí; EPA, 14 Sept 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 61991View Materials (1, 109.9 mm SL): Tucuruí, rio Tocantins, downstream Tucuruí dam, 3°42'S 49°40'WGoogleMaps  ; F.C.T. Lima, 17 May 2000  . INPAAbout INPA 16448View Materials (1, 192.6 mm SL): rio Tocantins, Tucuruí fish market; Eq. Ictiologia / INPAAbout INPA, 13 March 1982  .. INPAAbout INPA 16452View Materials (5, 43.3– 73.5 mm SL): rio Tocantins, Tucuruí reservoir, c. 4°2’S, 49°40’W; Martinho, 13 March 1986GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 16431View Materials (3, 185.6– 199.1 mm SL): rio Tocantins, Breu Branco , c. 4°11’S, 49°37’WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia/INPA, 13 May 1981. INPAAbout INPA 16387View Materials (1, 95.3 mm SL): rio Tocantins, igarapé Pucuruizinho; Eq. Ictiologia / INPAAbout INPA, 9 July 1982  . MZUSP 18145 (1, 84.3 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18134View Materials (3, 89.3–98.9 mm SL): pool facing Jatobal , rio Tocantins, 4°32’S, 49°32’W; EPA, 17–18 Sept 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18163View Materials (10, 88.9–111.1 mm SL): lagoon near canal do Capitariquara, near Jatobal, rio Tocantins; EPA, 18 Sept 1970  . INPAAbout INPA 16362View Materials (1, 109.0 mm SL);: Itupiranga , rio Tocantins, 5°8’S, 49°19’WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia/INPA, 1980–1981. INPAAbout INPA 16381View Materials (1, 84.6 mm SL): Itupiranga, rio Tocantins, Lago Gracílio; Eq. Ictiologia / INPAAbout INPA, 1 July 1982  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 26924View Materials (1, 96.8 mm SL): Marabá , rio Tocantins, 5°9’S, 49°6’W; N.J.H. Smith, April 1979GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 19260View Materials (1, 193.8 mm SL): São João do Araguaia, at the confluence of rio Araguaia and rio Tocantins, 5°22’S, 48°43’W; SUDEPE, 1977–1978GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 31503View Materials (1, 218.9 mm SL): Parauapebas, rio Itacaiúnas , igarapé Boa Vista; M. Goulding, Nov 1983  . MZUSP 56946 (2, 199.2– 211.6 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56943View Materials (3, 194.3– 212.9 mm SL): Parauapebas, rio Itacaiúnas, Caldeirão , Serra dos Carajás, c. 5°40’S, 50°16’W; M. Goulding, April–July 1983GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59100View Materials (5, 157.5– 164.1 mm SL): Parauapebas, Serra dos Carajás, rio Itacaiúnas, Cachoeira Carreira Comprida ; M. Goulding, 14 Oct 1983. Mato Grosso: LBP 4005 (4, 113.3–125.0 mm SL): São Félix do Araguaia , Lago Morto , 11°40’0’’S, 50°51’00’’WGoogleMaps  ; R. Devidé & C. Martins, 24 Oct 2006. MZUSP 17023 (1, 111.8 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17024View Materials (1, 113.7 mm SL): Santa Teresinha, rio Araguaia , 10°28’S, 50°30’W; H. A. Britski, Oct 1964GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 54444View Materials (2, 127.1– 172.2 mm SL): rio Cristalino , c. 12°43’S, 50°42’W; R. A. Silvano, 3 Oct 1997GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 16448View Materials (24, 121.1– 209.1 mm SL): rio São Domingos, trib. rio das Mortes, São Domingos village , 13°33’S, 51°25’W; Exp. Inst. Butantã / Depto. de Zoologia, Sept–Oct 1949GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 3845View Materials (15, 130.1– 215.7 mm SL): same locality; A. Hoge, 1950GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 52332View Materials (1, 190.9 mm SL): Cocalinho, rio Araguaia , 14°24’S, 50°59’W; R.S. A. Matias, July 1997GoogleMaps  . LBP 12816View Materials (1, 97.9 mm SL): Cocalinho, rio Araguaia , 13°18’37’’S, 50°36’48’’W; R. Devidé et al., 29 Sept 2009GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62537View Materials (3, 172.0– 197.7 mm SL): Cocalinho, rio Araguaia, near ilha do Biratã , c. 14°30’S, 50°59’W; W. Severi et al., 25–26 July 1997GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18628View Materials (2, 184.6– 214.7 mm SL): Cocalinho, Lago Dumbá, rio Araguaia , c. 14°30’S, 50°59’W; EMGOPA, 1976GoogleMaps  . Maranhão: CASAbout CAS 68839View Materials (1, 123.2 mm SL): rio Tocantins below Imperatriz , 5°30’S, 47°31’WGoogleMaps  ; C. Ternetz, 16 Apr 1924. Tocantins: INPAAbout INPA 20064View Materials (1, 126.3 mm SL): Caseara, rio Araguaia , lago das Ariranhas, P.E. Cantão, 9o43’47” S, 50o 9’14” WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia INPA, 20 May 2000. UNTAbout UNT 448View Materials (1, 155.4 mm SL): Dueré, rio Formoso , c. 11°23’S, 49°41’WGoogleMaps  ; NEAMB, 23 Aug 1997. UNTAbout UNT 1971View Materials (1, 107.3 mm SL): Tocantinópolis, ribeirão Matrinchã , c. 6°19’S, 47°26’WGoogleMaps  ; NEAMB, 26 June 2000. CAS 68824 (1, 214 mm SL); CASAbout CAS 68825View Materials (4, 181.5– 192.3 mm SL): Ribeirão Presídio, trib. Rio Tocantins, below Porto Nacional; C. Ternetz, 13 Feb 1924  . UNTAbout UNT 3457View Materials (1, 129.7 mm SL): rio Tocantins  , Porto Nacional, 10°42’S, 48°25’W; NEAMB, 21 Feb 2002GoogleMaps  . UNTAbout UNT 3225View Materials (1, 96.6 mm SL): Brejinho de Nazaré, riacho Sussuarana , c. 11°3’S, 48°35’WGoogleMaps  ; NEAMB, 15 Feb 2002. UNTAbout UNT 2013View Materials (1, 131.3 mm SL): Peixe, rio Santa Tereza (trib. rio Tocantins), 11°47’S, 48°38’WGoogleMaps  ; NEAMB, 12 April 2000. UNT 451 (1, 193.8 mm SL); UNTAbout UNT 452View Materials (1, 221.4 mm SL): Paranã, rio Paranã, 12°37’S, 47°53’WGoogleMaps  ; NEAMB, 24–26 March 1998. UNTAbout UNT 1970View Materials (1, 106.4 mm SL): Paranã, rio Maranhão  ; NEAMB, 21 Apr 1998. Goiás: MCPAbout MCP 17213View Materials (1, 1, 190.2 mm SL): Luís Alves, rio Araguaia , marginal lagoons, 13°14'S, 50°35'WGoogleMaps  ; F.L.T. Garro, 21 April 1994. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 89614View Materials (1, 111.7 mm SL): Luís Alves, rio Verde (trib. rio Araguaia ), 13°9’28’’S, 50°30’22’’WGoogleMaps  ; A. Akama, 10 Apr 2004. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 52391View Materials (1, 200.9 mm SL): rio Araguaia, Bandeirantes , 13°41’S, 50°48’W; R.SGoogleMaps  . A. Matias, July 1997. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 48113View Materials (4, 197.7– 224.6 mm SL): Aragarças, rio Araguaia , c. 15°54’S, 52°15’WGoogleMaps  ; W.P. Margarido, 6 July 1994. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 70418View Materials (1, 179.5 mm SL): Serra da Mesa dam, rio Palmeirinha , 14°03'57'’S, 48°29'37'’W; D.F. Moraes & D  . A. Halboth, 8 June 1997  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 70415View Materials (1, 243.7 mm SL): rio Maranhão, old bridge between Uruaçu and Niquelândia, 14°31'27'’S, 49°2'33'’W; D.F. Moraes et al., 7 April 1998  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 70416View Materials (1, 85.4 mm SL): rio Maranhão, between the mouth of rio Bagagem and rio Tocantizinho , 13°56'S, 48°17'W; D.F. Moraes & DGoogleMaps  . A. Halboth, 6 Dec 1996  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 70417View Materials (2, 109.9– 245.6 mm SL): Serra da Mesa dam, córrego Boa Nova, 13°47'00'’S, 48°25'01'’W; D.F. Moraes, 6 Feb 1997. Rio Xingu basin  . Pará: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 29922View Materials (3, 59.2–97.9 mm SL)  ; MZUSP 56945 (151, 117.2– 193.5 mm SL); MZUSP 31448 (1, 153.5 mm SL); MZUSP 56811 (1, 155.7 mm SL); MZUSP 56947 (1, 194.3 mm SL); MZUSP 30755 (2, 82.6–93.8 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 58985View Materials (3, 97.1–100.9 mm SL): Belo Monte, rio Xingu , 3°7'S 51°42'W; M. Goulding, July–Aug 1983GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 29923 (3, 89.5–129.8 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 58986View Materials (4, 93.6–107.8 mm SL): Belo Monte, rio Xingu (rocky pool), 3°7'S 51°42'W; M. Goulding, 26 Sept 1983GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 29928View Materials (1, 103.4 mm SL): igarapé do Santo Antônio, near Belo Monte, rio Xingu ; M. Goulding, 27 Sept 1983  . INPA 15747 (4, 121.5– 130.4 mm SL); INPA 4225 (1, 86.4 mm SL); INPAAbout INPA 15745View Materials (1, 166.5 mm SL): rio Xingu, Altamirim, ilha do Sr. Izaltino , 3°16’21’’S, 52°12’7’’W; J. Zuanon, Oct 1996GoogleMaps  Aug 1997. INPAAbout INPA 15748View Materials (1, 149.2 mm SL): rio Xingu, Souzel, ilha da Bela Vista , 3°24’22’S, 51°43’3’’W  ; J. Zuanon et al., 27–28 Sept 1996. ZUECAbout ZUEC 4487View Materials (1, 98.9 mm SL): Altamira, rio Xingu , Buraco do Inferno; J. Zuanon, 7 Sept 1997  . INPAAbout INPA 4226View Materials (4, 89.6–95.9 mm SL): rio Xingu   , Ilha de Babaguara; L. Rapp Py-Daniel & J. Zuanon, 5 Oct 1990. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 105722View Materials (1, 170.7 mm SL): Altamira, rio Xingu, Caitucá , 3°33’48’’S, 51°51’49’’WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia UFPA, 14 Sept 2001. MNHNAbout MNHN 1998-1197View Materials (3, 97.1–181.1 mm SL): Altamira, rio Xingu, Caitucá , 3°33’48’’S, 51°51’49’’W; M. Jégu, Oct 1992GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 106211View Materials (1, 159.0 mm SL): Altamira, rio Xingu, Paquiçamba , 3°33’44’S, 51°52’37’’W  ; Eq. Ictiologia UFPA, 5–6 Nov 2000. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 36792View Materials (3, 106.9– 162.2 mm SL): rio Xingu, Cachoeira do Espelho , 3°39’2’’S, 52°22’46’’W; P.E. Vanzolini, 23–26 Oct 1986GoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94946View Materials (2, 195.0–325.0 mm SL): Campinápolis   , Rio Sucuri, trib. rio Culuene , 13°55’40’’S, 53°17’10’’WGoogleMaps  ; A. Akama & J.L. Birindelli, 15–22 Jan 2006. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91924View Materials (1, 318.0 mm SL): Campinápolis, rio Culuene , below future PCHAbout PCH Paranatinga II, 13°49’S, 53°15’WGoogleMaps  ; J.L. Birindelli et al., 21 Aug 2006. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94962View Materials (3, 247.0–347.0 mm SL): same locality; F.C.T Lima et al., 19–20 May 2007GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94897View Materials (21, 4 skel., 278.0–355.0 mm SL): same locality; L.M. Sousa et al., July 2007GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 98119View Materials (13, 311.0–380.0 mm SL): same locality; F.C.T. Lima et al., Oct 2007GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91857View Materials (1, c. 300 mm SL): Córrego do Lício , trib  . rio Culuene , below PCHAbout PCH Paranatinga II, 13°50’22’’S, 53°14’59’’W; J.L. Birindelli et al., 21 Aug 2006GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 98118View Materials (2, 297.0–336.0 mm SL): Campinápolis, rio Culuene, rio Corgão , at its mouth, 13°48’7’’S, 53°15’0’’W; F.C.T. Lima et al., 4–14 Oct 2007GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 98131View Materials (2, 309.0–401.0 mm SL): Campinápolis, rio Culuene, Cachoeira do Adelino , 13°47’50’’S, 53°14’46’’W; F.C.T. Lima et al., 2–14 Oct 2007GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94377View Materials (3, 112.6– 187.3 mm SL): Canarana, lake at fazenda Miriam, rio Culuene , 13°25’48’’S, 53°2’24’’W; F.C.T. Lima et al., 23 May 2007GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56809View Materials (1, 233.6 mm SL): Gaúcha do Norte, rio Xingu, confluence of rio Culuene and rio Sete de Setembro , 12°55’28’’S, 52°49’34’’W; M. Goulding et al., 23 Aug 1984GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 103199View Materials (1, 376.0 mm SL): Nova Ubiratã, rio Von den Steinen, fazenda A.R.S., 13°5’35’’S, 54°49’8’’WGoogleMaps  ; F. A. Machado et al., 21 Jan 2006  . Rio Tapajós basin  . Pará:  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18255View Materials (8, 188.4– 210.1 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 21988View Materials (2, 92.7–117.7 mm SL): São Luís, rio Tapajós , 4°27'S 56°15'W; EPA, 4–8 Nov 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 56955 (5, 159.5– 182.3 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 30759View Materials (1, 114.7 mm SL): rio Tapajós , between Itaituba and São Luís, c. 4°23’S, 56°5’W; M. Goulding, Sept–Oct 1983GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 58095View Materials (8, 103.2–146.0 mm SL): Itaituba, rio Tapajós above Itaituba (rapids); M. Goulding, 22 Oct 1983  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 25585View Materials (1, 175.7 mm SL): rio Tapajós, between National Park headquarters and Ramal Saita , km 67, Parque Nacional da Amazônia , 4°33’S, 56°19’W; J.C. Oliveira, 4–6 Jan 1979GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 22026View Materials (8, 99.3–122.9 mm SL): lago da Santa Clara, Monte Cristo, rio Tapajós , c. 4°1’S, 55°39’W; EPA, 6 Dec 1970GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 25362View Materials (3, 88.6– 101.0 mm SL): igarapé Mambuaí, bridge at BR-230, Amazônia National Park, rio Tapajós ; J.C. Oliveira, 15–31 Jul 1979  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 25452View Materials (1, 94.2 mm SL): rio Tapajós, Porto Flexal, below Amazônia National Park headquarters, c. 4°37’S, 56°18’W; J.C. Oliveira, 15–31 July 1979GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 25436 (1, 94.2 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 25437View Materials (1, 84.4 mm SL): Ilha Grande, rio Tapajós , above Amazônia National Park headquarters; J.C. Oliveira, 15–31 July 1979  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18251View Materials (2, 143.3–206.0 mm SL): rio Tapajós , Barreirinha; EPA, Nov 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 18287View Materials (5, 123.7– 137.1 mm SL): lake facing Monte Cristo, rio Tapajós ; EPA, 8 Dec 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 21876View Materials (1, 95.5 mm SL): Maloquinha, near Itaituba, rio Tapajós ; EPA, 11–13 Nov 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 22081View Materials (16, 115.4– 135.3 mm SL): ilha da Barrerinha, rio Tapajós , near São Luís; EPA, 21 Nov 1970  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 25504View Materials (1, 139.9 mm SL): Furo do Sandro, rio Tapajós , above Pimental, Amazônia National Park; J.C. Oliveira, 6 Jan 1979  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 25619View Materials (2, 126.3–155.0 mm SL): rio Tapajós , between Ramal Saita and igarapé da Boa Vista, Amazônia National Park; J.C. Oliveira, 16 Jan 1979  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 29926View Materials (8, 1 cs, 91.0– 103.4 mm SL): rio Tapajós , Pederneiras, below Itaituba; M. Goulding, 14 Oct 1983  . INPA 16410 (2, 146.5– 159.7 mm SL); INPAAbout INPA 7058View Materials (1, 131.5 mm SL): rio Tapajós, Pimental , 4°34’29’’S, 56°15’44’’W; L.H. Rapp Py-Daniel & J. Zuanon, 22–24 Oct 1991GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 92804View Materials (1, 134.8 mm SL): Itaituba, rio Tapajós , 4°16’14’’S, 55°58’34’’W; J.L. Birindelli & L.M. Sousa, 7 Nov 2006GoogleMaps  . LBP 12871View Materials (3, 147.4–225.0 mm SL): Itaituba, rio Tapajós , 4°33’10’’S, 56°18’00’’W; R. Britzke & CEPTA team, 24 Sept 2011GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 7292View Materials (1, 132.3 mm SL): rio Tapajós (no specific locality); L.H. Rapp Py-Daniel & J. Zuanon, Oct 1991  . INPAAbout INPA 6969View Materials (18, 85.8–129.6 mm SL): rio Tapajós , Pimental (rocky pool); L.H. Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 23 Oct 1991  . INPA 6793 (4, 93.7–144.0 mm SL); INPAAbout INPA 6636View Materials (2, 107.7– 132.3 mm SL): rio Jamanxim , trib  . rio Tapajós , Ilha Terra Preta, 4°47’S, 56°24’W; L.H. Rapp Py-Daniel & J. Zuanon, 19–20 Oct 1991GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99926View Materials (3, 85.0– 102.9 mm SL): trib. rio Teles Pires, below Sete Quedas rapids, 9°18’27’’S, 56°47’38’’W; L.M. Sousa & A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 9 June 2008GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99874View Materials (1, 110.3 mm SL): rio Teles Pires, below Sete Quedas rapids, 9°18’42’’S, 56°46’47’’W; L.M. Sousa & A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 9 June 2008GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 99564 (1, 42.5 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99512View Materials (3, 191.7– 192.1 mm SL): rio Teles Pires, near Sete Quedas rapids, 9°20’20’’S, 56°46’30’’W; R. Hilário, 23–25 March 2008GoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 100055View Materials (3, 72.2–101.1 mm SL): Paranaíta, rio Teles Pires, above Sete Quedas , 9°23’53’’S, 56°34’37’’WGoogleMaps  ; L.M. Sousa & A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 16 June 2008. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99996View Materials (2, 94.6–110.9 mm SL): Paranaíta, rio Teles Pires, above Sete Quedas , 9°25’2’’S, 56°33’1’’WGoogleMaps  ; L.M. Sousa & A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 16 June 2008. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99574View Materials (1, 44.3 mm SL): Paranaíta, rio Teles Pires , 9°25’5’’S, 56°32’21’’WGoogleMaps  ; R. Hilário, 2 April 2008. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 95620View Materials (14, 97.0–197.0 mm SL): Paranaíta, rio Teles Pires , near ferry at MT-416 road, 9°27’7’’S, 56°30’46’’WGoogleMaps  ; L.M. Sousa & A.L. Netto-Ferreira, 27 Sept 2007. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 106177View Materials (8, 250.0–405.0 mm SL): Alta Floresta, rio Cristalino, P.E. do Cristalino , c. 9°27’S, 55°50’WGoogleMaps  ; S. A  . A. Silva, 2004–2006. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 100017View Materials (1, 120.0 mm SL): Novo Mundo, rio Nhandu (trib. rio Teles Pires ), below Nhandu dam, c. 9°53’S, 55°22’WGoogleMaps  ; K. de Silimon, 19 Nov 2006. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62537View Materials (1, 106.7 mm SL): Alta Floresta, rio Teles Pires, pesqueiro do Dentinho , c. 10°15’S, 55°49’WGoogleMaps  ; F. A. Machado et al., 29–30 July 1997. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62508View Materials (2, 150.5– 174.8 mm SL): Alta Floresta, rio Teles Pires   , Porto do Alcindo (1 km below mouth of rio Peixoto de Azevedo ), 9°59'25'’S, 55°33'48'’W; F  . A. Machado et al., 29–30 July 1997. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 96822View Materials (2, 210.0–220.0 mm SL): Peixoto de Azevedo, Cachoeira da Neblina, trib. rio Peixoto de Azevedo , 10°23’10’’S, 54°18’22’’WGoogleMaps  ; J.L. Birindelli et al., 18 Oct 2007. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 95866View Materials (2, 157.5– 159.2 mm SL): Itaúba, rio Teles Pires , 10°58’30’’S, 55°44’3’’WGoogleMaps  ; J.L. Birindelli & P.H. Carvalho, 1 Oct 2007. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99135View Materials (1, 290.0 mm SL): Itaúba, rio Renato (trib. rio Teles Pires ), 11°4’24’’S, 55°14’35’’WGoogleMaps  ; P. Hollanda-Carvalho & S. Lima, 26 Feb 2008. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99385View Materials (1, 392.0 mm SL): Itaúba, rio Teles Pires, below mouth of rio Renato , 11°3’44’’S, 55°19’8’’WGoogleMaps  ; P. Hollanda-Carvalho & S. Lima, 19 Feb 2008. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 62559View Materials (1, 417.9 mm SL): Sinop, rio Teles Pires , Ilha do Peixeirinho, 11°34’55’’S, 55°38’53’’W: FGoogleMaps  . A. Machado et al., 1–2 Aug 1997. ZUECAbout ZUEC 9190View Materials (1, 345.0 mm SL): Sinop, rio Teles Pires , 11°35’17’’S, 55°39’36’’WGoogleMaps  ; L. Matos & L.N. Carvalho, 19 Nov 2014. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 82015View Materials (1, 409.0 mm SL): Lucas do Rio Verde, rio Verde (trib. rio Teles Pires ), 13°3’S, 55°54’WGoogleMaps  ; K. de Silimon, 16 March 2001. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56785View Materials (2, 199.5– 233.6 mm SL): Porto dos Gaúchos, rio Arinos , 11°32’S, 57°25’WGoogleMaps  ; M. Goulding, 19 Aug 1984. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 92633View Materials (1, 279.0 mm SL): Sapezal, rio Juruena, below future PCHAbout PCH Telegráfica , 12°41’22’’S, 58°56’47’’WGoogleMaps  ; K. de Silimon et al., 15 Sept 2006. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 95506View Materials (1, 271.0 mm SL): Sapezal, rio Papagaio at mouth of rio Buriti , road Sapezal / Brasnorte , 12°47’6’’S, 58°23’5’’WGoogleMaps  ; F. A. Machado et al., 7–9 Oct 2006. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 61056View Materials (1, 202.2 mm SL)  ; MZUSPAbout MZUSP 60423View Materials (2, 255.7– 263.5 mm SL): Nova Mutum, rio Arinos , Fervedouro, fazenda Fervedouro, 14°13'10'’S 56°01'43'’W; F.C.T. Lima et al., 18–19 Feb 2000  . MZUSP 61133 (3, 219.3– 247.1 mm SL); MZUSP 61132 (9, 211.9– 434.7 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91506View Materials (3, 210.0–247.0 mm SL): Nova Mutum, rio Arinos , 14°13’S, 56°2’W; J. M. Mendes, 1999–2000GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 67832 (130, 11 cs, 16.9–53.2 mm SL): Nova Mutum, piscicultura Buriti (stocked juveniles); H.F. Mendes, 10 Feb 2000. USNM 194317 (1, 86.5 mm SL); USNM 199204 (3, 151.3– 194.8 mm SL); USNMAbout USNM 194390View Materials (2, 170.9– 177.5 mm SL): “ Upper Juruena-Arinos ” (no precise locality); H. Schultz, 1962. Rio Madeira basin  . Rondônia: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 14028View Materials (6, 104.9– 130.7 mm SL): Cururu, rio Machado , c. 8°13’S, 62°46’W; M. Goulding, April 1978. UF 100614View Materials (1, 207.6 mm SL)GoogleMaps  : Rio Candeias ca. 2 km above from its mouth, c. 8°38’S, 63°33’’W; J.P. Viana, 14 May 1994GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 16437View Materials (1, 112.1 mm SL): rio Jamari, diverting channel of UHE Samuel (cofferdam), 8°45’S, 63°27’W; G.M. Santos, 7–9 June 1988GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 16413View Materials (6, 257.6– 272.8 mm SL): rio Jamari , below Samuel dam (igapó); G.M. Santos, 27 March 1986  . INPAAbout INPA 16457View Materials (1, 284.8 mm SL): igarapé Japiim, c. 45 km above Samuel dam, c. 9°12’S, 63°13’W; G.M. Santos, 13 June 1985GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 16458View Materials (1, 319.8 mm SL): rio Jamari, above Samuel dam; G.M. Santos, 7 Dec 1984. LBP 5146 (1, 215.0 mm SL): Ji-Paraná , rio Machado , 10°46’36’’S, 61°55’12’’WGoogleMaps  ; J. Damaceno & W. Troy, 22 Aug 2007. INPAAbout INPA 16459View Materials (1, 325.2 mm SL): Ariquemes, rio Jamari, below rio Canaã mouth, 9°56’S, 63°5’WGoogleMaps  ; G.M. Santos, 15 Nov 1983. INPAAbout INPA 16363View Materials (6, 110.5– 148.3 mm SL): mouth of rio Guaporé, Surpresa , 11°53’S, 65°1’WGoogleMaps  ; G.M. Santos, 16 Jun 1984. INPAAbout INPA 16356View Materials (1, 246.0 mm SL): Pimenteiras do Oeste, rio Guaporé , 13°29’S, 61°3’WGoogleMaps  ; G.M. Santos, 30 Nov 1984. CASAbout CAS 68857View Materials (1, 241.6 mm SL): Rio Guaporé, Maciel , c. 12°34’S, 63°30’WGoogleMaps  ; J.D. Haseman, 26 Jul 1909. Mato Grosso: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 77402View Materials (1, 186.8 mm SL): Panelas, rio Roosevelt , above the rapids, 9°11’17’’S, 60°44’53’’WGoogleMaps  ; F. A. Machado et al., 17–18 July 1997  . INPAAbout INPA 16389View Materials (3, 161.3– 191.1 mm SL): rio Aripuanã , Lago Genipapo; Eq. Ictiologia / INPAAbout INPA, 20 Aug 1976  . INPAAbout INPA 16412View Materials (5, 102.0– 127.1 mm SL): rio Aripuanã   , Ilha do Castanhal; Eq. Ictiologia / INPAAbout INPA, 20 Aug 1976  . INPAAbout INPA 16395View Materials (1, 283.2 mm SL): rio Aripuanã, 3 km below Cachoeira Grande , c. 10°8’S, 59°26’WGoogleMaps  ; Eq. Ictiologia/INPA, 8 Nov 1976. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 103036View Materials (1, 290.0 mm SL): Aripuanã, rio Aripuanã , below Salto de Dardanelos, 10°10’6’’S, 59°26’50’’WGoogleMaps  ; F. A. Machado et al., 17 Sept 2004  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 103037View Materials (1, 225.0 mm SL): rio Verde , trib  . rio Guaporé , Brazil / Bolivia border, 14°7’36’’S, 60°28’30’’W; O. A. Cantelmo & L. Barbosa, 13–21 Aug 2005GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 94990View Materials (2, 230.0–264.0 mm SL): Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade, rio Guaporé , 15°1’S, 59°49’W; R.O. Mascarenhas et al., 5 Dec 2006. Rio Negro basinGoogleMaps  . Amazonas: CASAbout CAS 68836View Materials (2, 116.4– 119 mm SL): market at Manaus; C. Ternetz, Dec 1924  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 6136View Materials (1, 162.8 mm SL): rio Negro, above Manaus , c. 3°4’S, 60°16’W; EPA, 22–25 April 1967GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 59076 (3, 143.7– 178.4 mm SL); MZUSP 59075 (1, 202.7 mm SL); MZUSP 59078 (1, 215.0 mm SL); MZUSP 59081 (1, 240.8 mm SL); MZUSP 59087 (2, 100.6– 196.5 mm SL): Anavilhanas, Lago do Prato; G. Borges, May 1981 – June 1982. MZUSP 59084 (1, 190.0 mm SL): rio Negro, Anavilhanas, lago Xilauá (igapó); G. Borges, Aug 1981. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56782View Materials (3, 182.8–200.0 mm SL)  ; MZUSP 59083 (4, 102.0– 120.3 mm SL); MZUSP 59082 (1, 102.3 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59073View Materials (10, 89.4– 114.7 mm SL): rio Negro, Anavilhanas , c. 2°43’S, 60°41’W; M. Goulding, Oct 1979GoogleMaps  Dec 1980. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59077View Materials (1, 188.0 mm SL): Anavilhanas   , rio Negro, Lago Camauiri (igapó): G. Borges, July 1981  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59079View Materials (1, 132.8 mm SL): rio Negro, Anavilhanas; G. Borges, Oct 1981  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 27333View Materials (4, 81.1–96.4 mm SL): Ayrão Velho, mouth of rio Padauari , rio Negro, 2°6’S, 61°13’WGoogleMaps  ; L.P. Portugal, 8 Nov 1982. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 27328View Materials (1, 104.8 mm SL): Moura, Pedra do Gavião , rio Negro, c. 1°27’S, 61°38’WGoogleMaps  ; L.P. Portugal, 13–14 Nov 1982  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17658View Materials (1, 178.0 mm SL): Rio Jauaperi (trib. rio Negro), c. 1°16’S, 61°36’W; T.R. Roberts, Nov 1968GoogleMaps  . MCPAbout MCP 46478View Materials (1, 26.3 mm SL): igarapé Cambeua (trib. Rio Jauaperi), 1° 30’53’’S, 61° 27’33’’WGoogleMaps  ; P. Petry, 28 Jan 2011. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59074View Materials (9, 91.6–113.9 mm SL): rio Negro, Cachoeira do Buiu-Açú , c. 0°30’S, 64°50’WGoogleMaps  ; M. Goulding, Oct 1979. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 45526View Materials (1, 103.3 mm SL): rio Negro, Tapera , c. 0°12’S, 64°4’WGoogleMaps  ; EPA, 1 Nov 1972. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59086View Materials (2, 144.7–206.0 mm SL): rio Negro, below rio Daraá (rapids), c. 0°27’S, 64°44’WGoogleMaps  ; M. Goulding, 16 Feb 1980. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59080View Materials (1, 285.3 mm SL): igarapé do Acará, São Pedro (igapó), c. 0°21’S, 66°36’WGoogleMaps  ; M. Goulding, May 1979. LBP 6878 (2, 82.2–93.7 mm SL): São Gabriel da Cachoeira , rio Negro, 0°8’ 9’’ S, 67°05’3’’ WGoogleMaps  ; C. Oliveira et al., 11 Aug 2008. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91576View Materials (3, 127.1– 138.1 mm SL): Rio Uaupés (no precise locality); J. Chernella, no date  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 91493View Materials (1, 226.0 mm SL): Rio Tiquié, between Caruru and Boca de Sal villages, 0°16’N, 69°54’W; M.C. Lopes, 2001– 2002GoogleMaps  . Rio Branco basin  , Roraima:  MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59085View Materials (6, 120.8– 202.9 mm SL): Marará, rio Branco ; M. Goulding, 26 Oct 1979. USNMAbout USNM 202716View Materials (1, 231.4 mm SL): Rio Xeruini, c. 60 km above mouth, c. 1°55’S, 61°55’WGoogleMaps  ; M.R. Brittan, 28 April 1964. MZUSP 56944 (1, 198.1 mm SL); MZUSP 59621 (3, 207.9– 252.6 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56807View Materials (10, 203.2– 273.9 mm SL): rio Branco, cachoeira do Bem Querer , 1°55’N, 61°1’W; M. Goulding, 6–9 Jan 1984GoogleMaps  . MZUSP 29925 (1, 90.8 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 56778View Materials (1, 200.3 mm SL): igarapé 2 km above Cachoeira do Bem Querer, rio Branco ; M. Goulding, 9 Jan 1984  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 29924View Materials (2, 84.6–86.8 mm SL): igarapé do Bota-Panela, near Cachoeira do Bem Querer, rio Branco ; M. Goulding, 9 Jan 1984  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17756View Materials (3, 122.9– 134.4 mm SL): igarapé do Pau Roxo, trib. rio Uraricoera , Fazenda Canadá; T.R. Roberts, 18 Feb 1969  . MZUSP 56781 (2, 211.4– 233.9 mm SL); MZUSPAbout MZUSP 29927View Materials (5, 107.9– 116.7 mm SL): Igarapé do Cujobim, rio Branco, facing ilha de Maracá , c. 3°22’N, 61°22’W; M. Goulding, 13 Jan 1984GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 16388View Materials (1, 169.0 mm SL): rio Mucajaí, c. 1 km below Paredão , 2°56’47’’N, 61°34’34’’W; M. Jégu & E. Ferreira, 4 Oct 1986GoogleMaps  . INPAAbout INPA 16394View Materials (1, 262.6 mm SL): rio Mucajaí, c. 2 km above Paredão , 2°56’20’’N, 61°37’14’’W; M. Jégu & E. Ferreira, 3 Oct 1986GoogleMaps  . Other river systems: Brazil, Amazonas: MZUSPAbout MZUSP 99213View Materials (1, 117.0 mm SL): Lago Urini, mouth of rio Japurá , c. 2°9’S, 65°9’W; R.B. Barthem, 30 Sept 1979GoogleMaps  . MCPAbout MCP 29771View Materials (1, 121.1 mm SL): Maraã, Lago Amanã, mouth of igarapé Uxi , 2°32’47’’S, 64°40’10’’W; W.G.R. Crampton, 14 Dec 1997GoogleMaps  . MCPAbout MCP 29776View Materials (1, 120.6 mm SL): Maraã, Lago Amanã, mouth of igarapé Uxi , 2°37’4’’S, 64°40’1’’W; W.G.R. Crampton, 1 Dec 1998GoogleMaps  . MCPAbout MCP 29774View Materials (1, 128.1 mm SL): Maraã, Lago Amanã, mouth of rio Baré , 2°28’28’’S, 64°43’20’’W; W.G.R. Crampton, 15 Nov 1998GoogleMaps  . MCPAbout MCP 29775View Materials (2, 128.9– 131.6 mm SL): Maraã, Lago Amanã, mouth of rio Baré , 2°27’23’’S, 64°43’35’’WGoogleMaps  ; W.G.R. Crampton, 13 Dec 1997. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17592View Materials (1, 42.5 mm SL): rio Içapó, at mouth of rio Jutaí , c. 2°47’S, 66°49’WGoogleMaps  ; EPA, 22 Oct 1968. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17530View Materials (8, 72.2–134.4 mm SL): Santo Antônio do Içá, igarapé da Cachoeira, Cuiauá , trib  . rio Içá, c. 3°6’S, 67°57’W; EPA, 18 Oct 1968GoogleMaps  . MNRJAbout MNRJ 21470View Materials (1, 146.0 mm SL): rio Queixito at mouth of rio Javari , 4°25’48’’S, 70°15’38’’W; A. Parko, 1952GoogleMaps  . Peru, Depto. Loreto: INHSAbout INHS 106468View Materials (2, 97.1–134.4 mm SL)  ; INHSAbout INHS 106470View Materials (6, 93.5–119.2 mm SL): Río Nanay, Pampa Chica , 3°45’1’’S, 73°17’0’’W; M.H. Sabaj et al., 22–27 Jul 1997. Bolivia, DeptoGoogleMaps  . Beni  , Rio Madeira basin: UMMZAbout UMMZ 204246View Materials (2, 164.1– 247.3 mm SL)  ; UMMZ 204394 (1, 217.2 mm SL); UMMZ 204201 (1, 98.0 mm SL); UMMZ 204445 (2, 89.9–90.6 mm SL); UMMZ 204930 (1, 91.2 mm SL); UMMZ 204417 (1, 80.4 mm SL); UMMZ 204408 (2, 152.4– 204.1 mm SL); UMMZAbout UMMZ 204649View Materials (1, 251.0 mm SL): Río Itenez (= Rio Guaporé), near Costa Marques, 12°27’S, 64°14’W; R.M. Bailey et al., Aug– Oct 1964GoogleMaps  . MNHNAbout MNHN 1989-1429View Materials (3, 120.2– 146.2 mm SL): Río Itenez, Boca Machupo , c. 12°27’S, 64°22’W; L. Lauzanne & G. Loubens, no date.GoogleMaps 

TABLE 23. Absolute frequency of lateral-line scales among distinct Brycon falcatus populations.

  47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57
Guyana and Suriname 1 1 2 1 5 10 12 12 6 4 2
Orinoco 1 5 2 5 3 3
Negro 1 1 3 5 3 4 6 9
Branco 1 4 5 4 4 4
Tocantins and Capim 1 2 1 1 1 4
Xingu 2 4 5 10 13
Tapajós 2 3 5 9 13 10
Madeira 2 4 7 6 8
Western Amazon 2 1 2 4 4
continued.
MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

UMMZ

University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology

ROM

Royal Ontario Museum

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

CAS-SU

California Academy of Sciences, Stanford University Collection

NRM

Swedish Museum of Natural History - Zoological Collections

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

UNT

Universidad nacional de Tucumn

MCP

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

ZUEC

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas

PCH

Prestwich and Pilkington Botanical Society

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Characiformes

Family

Bryconidae

Genus

Brycon

Loc

Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844

Lima, Flávio C. T. 2017

2017
Loc

Brycon falcatus

Phillip 2013: 8

2013
Loc

Brycon melanopterus:

Lima 2005: 164Myers 1960: 99

2005
Loc

Chalceus labrosus Jardine, in Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841 : 212

Lima 2003: 178Schomburgk 1841: 212

2003
Loc

Brycon stuebelli:

Zarske 2003: 16Lima 2003: 176

2003
Loc

Brycon

Toledo-Piza 2002: 116

2002
Loc

Brycon carpophagus

Merona 2001: 387

2001
Loc

Brycon

Gery 1992: 800

1992
Loc

Brycon bicolor

Lima 2003: 175
Taphorn 1992: 80
Royero 1992: 49
Howes 1982: 11Pellegrin 1909: 12

1982
Loc

Brycon matrinchao

Gery 1964: 450Fowler 1941: 192

1964
Loc

Characinus amazonicus

Magalhaes 1931: 141

1931
Loc

Brycon brevicauda Günther, 1864 : 335

Lima 2003: 176
Bergleiter 1999: 23
Tejerina-Garro 1998: 402
Santos 1984: 41
Costi 1977: 53
Gery 1964: 448
Goeldi 1898: 483
Boulenger 1897: 297Gunther 1864: 335

1897
Loc

Brycon stübelli

Amaral 1950: 142Steindachner 1882: 176
Steindachner 1882: 13

1882
Loc

Brycon hilarii

Lima 2003: 176
Gery 1992: 815
Castelnau 1855: 68

1855
Loc

Brycon falcatus Müller & Troschel, 1844 : 90

Matos 2016: 2016Matos 2016: 1
Correa 2014: 214
Lima 2013: 228
Bartolette 2012: 61
Albrecht 2012: 203
Rubio 2012: 173
Pelicice 2012: 711
Lima 2011: 149
Venere 2011: 64
Antunes 2010: 676
Albrecht 2009: 181
Melo 2009: 424
Camargo 2009: 221
Agostinho 2007: 126
Agostinho 2007: 163
Silva 2007: 487
Ferreira 2007: 125
Bejarano 2006: 362
Blanco-Parra 2006: 856
Mol 2006: 114
Layman 2005: 2532
Watkins 2004: 46
Lima 2003: 176
Hoeinghaus 2003: 383
Hardman 2002: 234
Mol 2002: 71
Planquette 1996: 226
Lasso 1992: 11
Vari 1983: 12
Howes 1982: 26
Richter 1980: 123
Saul 1975: 103
Gery 1964: 450
Lowe-McConnell 1964: 115
Steindachner 1917: 36
Cockerell 1915: 100
Fowler 1914: 250
Eigenmann 1912: 371
Goeldi 1898: 483
Gunther 1864: 334
Muller 1845: 29Muller 1844: 90

1845
Loc

Brycon schomburgkii Müller & Troschel, 1844 : 91

Eigenmann 1912: 372
Muller 1845: 29Muller 1844: 91

1845
Loc

Brycon stuebeli: Géry, 1964 : 450

Gery 1964: 450

Loc

Brycon stubelii:

Howes 1982: 45

Loc

Brycon cf. falcatus: Goulding et al., 1988 : 124

Goulding 1988: 124