Phlogiellus longipalpus , Chomphuphuang, Narin, Smith, Deborah, Wongvilas, Sitthipong, Varat Sivayyapram,, Songsangchote, Chaowalit & Warrit, Natapot, 2017

Chomphuphuang, Narin, Smith, Deborah, Wongvilas, Sitthipong, Varat Sivayyapram,, Songsangchote, Chaowalit & Warrit, Natapot, 2017, New species of Southeast Asian Dwarf Tarantula from Thailand: Phlogiellus Pocock, 1897 (Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae), ZooKeys 684, pp. 57-73: 58-60

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.684.12558

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:93759C74-9D15-4A0F-BC97-54C2878F0D3D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/CF6F2F8D-15EB-48E1-BC32-7DAEA60C594D

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:CF6F2F8D-15EB-48E1-BC32-7DAEA60C594D

treatment provided by

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scientific name

Phlogiellus longipalpus
status

sp. n.

Phlogiellus longipalpus  sp. n.

Type material.

-Thailand: Holotype ♂, paratype 1♂, and paratype 3♀, Sai Thong Watthana district, Kamphaeng Phet province (16°17 ’45.6” N 99°52 ’49.8” E), 12th May 2014. Paratype: 1♂ and 2♀, Pa Sang district, Lamphun province (18°23 ’46.8” N 98°51 ’22.2” E), 27th May 2014; 1♀, Wiang Nuea district, Lampang province (18°18 ’09.6” N 98°30 ’36.6” E) 16th Jul 2015, and 1 ♀, Saraburi province, Muak Lek, (14°27 ’27.0” N 101°11 ’27.0” E), 8th Aug 2015. ( CUMZ-(C1-NA1, C2-NA1, C4-NA2, C4-NA3, C4-NA4, C7-NA1, C8-CH2, B1-NA3, B1-NA1, B1-NA2): 3 ♂, 7♀).

Etymology.

The specific name refers to the Latin longus ( “long”), which describes both male pedipalp and female spermatheca, and palpus ("palm of the hand" or “feeler”).

Diagnosis.

Phlogiellus longipalpus  sp. n. was included in the Yamia  group of Phlogiellus  based on the following morphological characters: male embolus with single retrolateral keel (Fig. 19), anterior eye row slightly procurved, ALE larger than PLE (Fig. 6), clypeus narrow or absent, third claw present on tarsus IV (Haupt & Schmidt 2004; Zhu & Tso 2005). P. longipalpus  sp. n. differs from all other Phlogiellus  species except P. aper  , P. brevipes  , P. mutus  , P. bundokalbo  , P. watasei  , and P. moniqueverdezae  in lacking a maxillary lyra (Fig. 7). P. longipalpus  differs from the latter six species in possessing a long embolus that is more or less 3 times longer than palpal bulb length (Figs 19, 21-23; Suppl. material 1, Figs A1-A8) and in the shape of the female spermatheca, which is long with an apical bend (Figs 20, 24; Suppl. material 1, Figs B1-B8). It differs from P. brevipes  in possessing 5 spines on the posterior metatarsi (only 2 known in P. brevipes  ). It differs from P. aper  in possessing divided scopulae on tarsus IV (Fig. 18, 28) ( Nunn et al., 2016).

Description - Male.

Holotype ♂ CUMZ-C2-NA1: Color (in life, Fig. 2): dark brown, carapace black. Total length (including chelicerae) 20.88; cephalothorax 8.38 long, 6.63 wide, 2.0 high (caput); fovea 1.52 wide, procurved, deep; cephalothorax black, with cover of short, whitish brown hairs dorsally, golden yellow to yellowish brown hairs on lateral margins (Fig. 4). Clypeus 0.24; ocular tubercle 0.96 long, 1.47 wide. Anterior eyes with long hairs in front of AME and mid-posterior PME area. Anterior eye row slightly procurved and posterior row slightly recurved; eyes whitish, ALE oval in shape and larger than the round AME (Fig. 6); eye lengths/widths: AME 0.30/0.28; ALE 0.39/0.27; PLE 0.24/0.18; PME 0.21/0.12; eye interdistances: AME–AME 0.21; AME–ALE 0.12; AME–PME 0.11; ALE–ALE 0.77; ALE–PME 0.21; PME–PME 0.69; PME–PLE 0.06; PLE–PLE 0.96; and ALE–PLE 0.20. Chelicerae dark, with row of 9 promarginal teeth with rows of orange-red setae (Fig. 9), a series of strikers (>60), in > 4 horizontal rows (unordered). Strongest/longest strikers on lowest rows. Each striker is needle-form (Fig. 8), lacking filiform ends. Maxillae reddish brown, 2.95 long, 1.55 wide with 115 cuspules, covered with orange-red setae on prolateral surface; maxillary lyra absent (Fig. 7). Labium blackish-brown on the basal half, reddish brown elsewhere; 0.93 long, 1.50 wide, with 202 cuspules (Fig. 13). Sternum dark-brown, covered with 2 types of hairs: strong dark and soft white (Fig. 10); 4.45 long, 3.65 wide with 3 pairs of ovoid sigillae present near lateral margins opposite coxa I, II and III. Sigilla: anterior pair obscured close to sternal margin; median pair 0.27 long, 0.15 wide 0.33 from sternal margin; posterior pair 0.42 long, 0.18 wide 0.60 from sternal margin. Abdomen 9.88 long, 6.13 wide, brownish yellow and hirsute dorsally, dark gray and thickly hirsute laterally and ventrally (Fig. 12). Legs: Pat, Tib, Met and Tar dark brown, prolateral and retrolateral surface of femora dark, thickly covered with long and short grayish white hairs (Fig. 16), coxae and trochanter dark brown dorsally, lighter brown ventrally. Met IV with 5 distal spines. Length of legs, palpal segments and RF shown in Table 1.

Scopulae on metatarsi and tarsi I through IV may be undivided, divided longitudinally by several rows of long, straight spiniform setae or absent. Fig. 28 illustrates diagrammatically the state of the scopulae on metatarsi and tarsi of legs I-IV for P. longipalpus  and other Phlogiellus  species. In addition, we noted whether the extension of the scopulae was complete (running nearly the full length of the tarsus or metatarsus) or reduced in length (e.g., extension ¾ the length of the leg segment). Scopula extension on Met I, complete; Met II, complete; Met III, complete; Met IV, ¾ and denser at distal end than proximal end. Scopula extension on Tar I, complete; Tar II, complete; Tar III, complete; Tar IV, complete but denser at the distal end, and with a small, nearly hairless oval ("bald spot") at the proximal end. Tar II, III and IV with dense tufts of scopular hair at distal end (Fig. 15). Male tibia I spur absent. Spines: Met I and II: absent; Met III: 8 spines, Met IV: 6. Tar I–III with 2 claws, Tar IV with third claw (Fig. 14); claws covered by dense hair, dorsally with 2 rows of club-shaped setae. Spinnerets white-yellow, covered with dark longer and thinner hairs; PMS 1.16 long, 0.36 wide; PLS 4.92 long basal to apical (2.02, + 1.34, + 1.56), wide (0.64 + 0.72 + 0.41) (Fig. 12). Pedipalps dark gray reddish brown, covered with longer and thinner hairs on tibia; tibia swollen, cymbium with two lobes of light brown shaggy scopulae, bulb and embolus 3.09 long dark reddish brown (Fig. 19), palpal bulb ellipsoid and partly concave, 0.91 long, 0.51 wide; embolus extremely long, thin, curved like a partly twisted horn with sharp tip, with single retrolateral keel (Figs 21-23).

Variation - Male

(range (mean ± standard deviation)): Total length (including chelicerae) 13.7-21.00 (18.52 ± 4.18); cephalothorax 6.60-8.33 (7.19 ± 0.98) long, 2.88-6.63 (4.74 ± 1.88) wide, 2.00-2.88 (2.51 ± 0.46) high (caput); fovea 1.00-1.52 (1.28 ± 0.26) wide; clypeus 0.18-0.24 (0.21 ± 0.04) narrow or absent; ocular tubercle 0.90-1.02 (0.96 ± 0.06) long, 1.10-1.47 (1.34 ± 0.21) wide. Eye length/width: AME, 0.20-0.30 (0.26 ±0.05)/0.20– 0.28 (0.25 ± 0.04); ALE, 0.30-0.39 (0.35 ±0.05)/0.21– 0.30 (0.26 ± 0.05); PLE, 0.24-0.30 (0.26 ±0.03)/0.15– 0.20 (0.18 ± 0.03); PME, 0.15-0.21 (0.19 ±0.03)/0.10– 0.12 (0.11 ± 0.01). Inter-eye distances: AME–AME, 0.10-0.21 (0.16 ± 0.06); AME–ALE, 0.10-0.12 (0.11 ± 0.01); AME–PME, 0.10-0.12 (0.11 ± 0.01); ALE–ALE, 0.77-0.84 (0.80 ± 0.04); ALE–PME, 0.20-0.24 (0.22 ± 0.02); PME–PME, 0.50-0.72 (0.64 ± 0.12); PME–PLE, 0.06-0.10 (0.07 ± 0.02); PLE–PLE, 0.80-0.99 (0.92 ± 0.10); and ALE–PLE, 0.10-0.20 (0.14 ± 0.05). Maxillae 1.70-2.95 (2.46 ± 0.67) long, 1.2-1.56 (1.44 ± 0.21) wide. Labium 0.90-1.14 (0.99 ± 0.13) long, 1.20-1.74 (1.48 ± 0.27) wide. Sternum 3.20-4.45 (3.93 ± 0.65) long, 2.40-3.78 (3.28 ± 0.77) wide. Abdomen 6.32-9.88 (8.32 ± 1.82) long, 3.52-6.35 (5.33 ± 1.57) wide. Length of legs and palpal segments shown in Table 2. Spinnerets: PMS 0.80-1.23 (1.06 ± 0.23) long, 0.30-0.39 (0.35 ± 0.05) wide; PLS 3.40-4.92 (4.15 ± 0.76) long basal to apical (1.30-2.02 (1.65 ± 0.36), + 0.90-1.34 (1.08 ± 0.23), + 1.20-1.56 (1.43 ± 0.20)), wide (0.39-0.64 (0.55 ± 0.14) + 0.51-0.72 (0.59 ± 0.11) + 0.39-0.42 (0.40 ± 0.02)).

Description - Female.

Paratype ♀ CUMZ-C4-NA4: Color (in life, Fig. 3): dark brown, carapace brown. Total length (including chelicerae) 17.51; cephalothorax 6.56 long, 4.25 wide 2.12 high (caput); fovea 0.87 wide, procurved, deep; cephalothorax brown, covered with short whitish brown hairs dorsally, golden yellow to yellowish brown hairs on lateral margins (Fig. 5); clypeus 0.15 high; ocular tubercle 0.72 long, 1.14 wide. Anterior eyes with long hairs in front of AME and mid-posterior PME area; anterior eye row slightly procurved and posterior row slightly recurved. Eyes whitish, ALEs oval in shape, larger than the round AMEs. Eye length/width: AME, 0.30/0.15; ALE, 0.21/0.22; PLE, 0.27/0.15; PME, 0.20/0.13; Inter-eye distances: AME–AME, 0.14; AME–ALE, 0.11; AME–PME, 0.09; ALE–ALE, 0.57; ALE–PME, 0.16; PME–PME, 0.48; PME–PLE, 0.05; PLE–PLE, 0.66; and ALE–PLE, 0.11. Chelicerae dark orange with row of 10 promarginal teeth, cheliceral face with stridulatory ridges and rows of orange-red setae, a series of strikers (>60), in > 4 horizontal rows (unordered). Strongest/longest strikers on lowest rows. Each striker needleform, lacking filiform ends (Fig. 8). Maxillae reddish brown, 2.34 long, 1.24 wide with 152 cuspules, prolateral surface of maxilla covered with orange-red setae, and maxillary, and maxillae lyra absent. Labium reddish brown, 0.88 long, 1.28 wide with 271 cuspules. Sternum brownish, covered with 2 types of hair: strong dark and soft white (Fig. 11); sternum 2.9 long, 2.64 wide, with 3 pairs ovoid sigillae present near lateral margins opposite coxa I, II and III. Sigillae: anterior pair obscured close to sternal margin; median pair 0.24 long, 0.15 wide, 0.12 from sternal margin; posterior pair 0.30 long, 0.17 wide, 0.39 from sternal margin. Abdomen 9.50 long, 6.20 wide, gray-yellow and hirsute dorsally, brownish gray and thickly hirsute laterally and ventrally. Legs brownish, thickly covered with grayish white short and long hairs (Fig. 17), coxae and trochantera brown. Met IV with 5 distal spines. Length of legs, palpal segments shown in Table 3. Leg formula (length) IV, I, II, III.

Scopulae: Met I, II, III, undivided; Met IV, divided. Tar I, II, undivided; Tar III, IV, divided by several rows of long spines (Fig. 18). Met I, II, III, complete; Met IV, extension ¾, denser at distal end than at proximal end. Scopula extension on Tar I, II, III, IV complete; Tar IV scopula denser at the distal end and with a small, nearly hairless oval ("bald spot") at the proximal end (see Fig. 18). Hairs of distal scopula on Tar II, III and IV more evenly distributed than in the male, not forming tufts of hair (compare Figs 15, 18). Spines: Met I and II, absent; Met III, 7 spines; Met IV, 6 spines. Tar I–III with 2 claws, Tar IV with third claw, 2 dorsal rows of club-shaped setae. Spinnerets white-yellow, covered with long, thin dark hairs; PMS 0.87 long, 0.48 wide; PLS 3.48 length of segments (from basal to apical) (1.38 + 0.87 + 1.23), width of segments (basal to apical) 0.63 + 0.54 + 0.45. Genitalia: epigastric fold 1.86. Spermathecae (Figs 20, 24): paired, each 0.3 mm wide at base and the pair fused at the base, 1.05 (left) and 1.11 (right) mm long, 0.42 (left) - 0.54 (right) wide, and apically bent; sclerotization heaviest apically, gradually decreasing basally.

Variation

- Female

(N = 7; range (mean ± standard deviation)): Total length (including chelicerae) 14.30-26.75 (20.31 ± 4.72); cephalothorax 6.56-10.70 (8.80 ± 1.54) long, 4.25-8.20 (6.27 ± 1.41) wide, 2.12-4.16 (3.05 ± 0.69) high (caput); fovea 0.87-1.68 (1.29 ± 0.28) wide; clypeus 0.15-0.30 (0.21 ± 0.05) or absent; ocular tubercle 0.70-1.14 (0.91 ± 0.20) long, 1.00-1.80 (1.44 ± 0.30) wide. Eye length/width: AME 0.20-0.40 (0.28 ±0.07)/0.15– 0.40 (0.26 ± 0.08); ALE 0.21-0.50 (0.36 ±0.10)/0.20– 0.45 (0.28 ± 0.08); PLE 0.27-0.45 (0.33 ±0.05)/0.15– 0.20 (0.19 ± 0.02); PME 0.20-0.40 (0.28 ±0.07)/0.13– 0.20 (0.18 ± 0.03). Inter-eye distances: AME–AME 0.14-0.50 (0.33 ± 0.14); AME–ALE 0.10-0.50 (0.22 ± 0.15); AME–PME 0.09-0.50 (0.23 ± 0.16); ALE–ALE 0.57-1.70 (0.98 ± 0.38); ALE–PME 0.16-0.40 (0.28 ± 0.11); PME–PME 0.48-1.80 (0.88 ± 0.44); PME–PLE 0.05-0.30 (0.14 ± 0.09); PLE–PLE 0.66-1.90 (1.09 ± 0.39); and ALE–PLE 0.11-0.50 (0.28 ± 0.16). Maxillae 2.30-3.35 (2.73 ± 0.41) long, 1.20-2.20 (1.66 ± 0.39) wide. Labium 0.88-1.40 (1.06 ± 0.20) long, 1.28-1.96 (1.50 ± 0.27) wide. Sternum 2.90-4.82 (3.93 ± 0.85) long, 2.64-4.32 (3.50 ± 0.73) wide. Abdomen 7.38-15.62 (10.96 ± 2.99) long, 4.80-8.80 (6.74 ± 1.67) wide. Length of legs and palpal segments shown in Table 4. Spinnerets: PMS 0.80-1.40 (1.04 ± 0.26) long, 0.40-0.60 (0.53 ± 0.07) wide; PLS 3.48-5.13 (4.09 ± 0.55) long from base to apex, basal segment 1.20-2.10 (1.53 ± 0.29), median segment 0.87-1.59 (1.17 ± 0.24), apical segment 0.90-1.89 (1.40 ± 0.35) long; width of basal segment 0.63-1.05 (0.82 ± 0.17), median segment 0.54-0.99 (0.75 ± 0.16) and apical segment 0.45-0.75 (0.58 ± 0.12).

Distribution and natural history.

Specimens were collected near villages in Lampang, Lamphun and Kampangpet provinces at approximately 200-500 meters in elevation. The habitat was disturbed by human activity and organic agriculture, including cultivation of mango, coconut, and bamboo (Fig. 25). Some specimens were collected from houses in the rainy season and others in shaded forest habitats; they appear to choose moist habitats. Some nests were built in colonies of termites or ants, which are used as prey (Figs 26-27). The nest consists of a shallow (1-2 cm deep) subterranean system of silken retreat tubes under stones or logs. One part of their web appeared to be used for accumulated prey scraps. Specimens from Saraburi province were collected in forest under rock and timber.

Remarks.

Nunn et al. (2016) recently revised Phlogiellus  and gave very strong support for two synapomorphies of Phlogiellus  : number of labial cuspules between 160-320, fewer than other selenocosmiine genera and very deep fovea. However, R. Raven (pers. comm.) pointed out that in Nunn et al. (2016), P. pelidnus  Nunn et al., 2016 was described and shown to have more than 320 labial cuspules. This inconsistency of using the number of labial cuspules as a valid synapomorphic characters of Phlogiellus  remains to be investigated. For our study, P. longipalpus  sp. n. is placed in Phlogiellus  as it has deep fovea, while the labial cuspule numbers are between 202-317 (average 281 ± 42). Phlogiellus longipalpus  sp. n. differs from P. pelidnus  , P. baeri  (Simon, 1877), P. subinermis  (Giltay, 1934), P. atriceps  Pocock 1897, P. inermis  (Ausserer, 1871), P. insulanus  (Hirst, 1909), P. johnreylazoi  Nunn et al., 2016, P. xinping  (Zhu and Zhang, 2008), P. bogadeki  Nunn et al., 2016, P. orophilus  (Thorell, 1897), and P. obscurus  (Hirst, 1909) in lacking a maxillary lyra, a character it shares with P. aper  (Simon, 1891), P. brevipes  (Thorell, 1897), P. watasei  (Kishida, 1920), P. mutus  (Giltay, 1935), P. bundokalbo  (Barrion and Litsinger, 1995), and P. moniqueverdezae  Nunn et al., 2016. P. longipalpus  sp. n. differs from other Phlogiellus  species that lack a maxillary lyra by possession of a long embolus that is more or less 3 times longer than palpal bulb length (Suppl. material 1, Figs A1-A8) and long, uniquely shaped female receptacle (Suppl. material 1, Figs B1-B8). In addition, the pattern of tarsal scopula division illustrated in Fig. 28 can be used to distinguish mature specimens of P. longipalpus  sp. n., P. mutas  , P. aper  , P. watasei  , P. bundokalbo  , and P. moniqueverdezae  . This character cannot be used to diagnose P. brevipes  (material not examined) or the female of P. aper  (no specimens have been described) ( Raven 2005, Guadanucci 2005, Nunn et al. 2016).

Distribution.

Thailand (Central and Northern).