Aphonopelma peloncillo Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 207-213

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

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scientific name

Aphonopelma peloncillo Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond
status

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma peloncillo Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond  sp. n. Figures 117, 118, 119, 120, 121; Suppl. material 4

Types.

Male holotype (APH_0672) from along Hwy-338, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 31.607079 -108.867081 1, elev. 4934ft., 14.vii.2009, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson and Nate Davis; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype female (APH_1296) from Coronado National Forest, Peloncillo Mtns, Clanton Draw Area, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 31.518665 -108.982597 1, elev. 5435ft., 25.vii.2011, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype male (APH_1190) from along Hwy-338, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 31.607079 -108.867081 1, elev. 4934ft., 26.vii.2010, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis; deposited in AMNH. Paratype female (APH_1181) from Coronado National Forest, Peloncillo Mtns, Hidalgo Co., New Mexico, 31.518665 -108.982597 1, elev. 5435ft., 26.vii.2010, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms; deposited in AMNH.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is a noun in apposition taken from type locality, the Peloncillo Mountains in southwestern New Mexico, where this species was first discovered.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma peloncillo  (Fig. 117) is a member of the Marxi  species group and can be distinguished by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma peloncillo  as a phylogenetically distinct monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8), supported as a sister lineage to the clade that includes Aphonopelma catalina  sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua  sp. n., and Aphonopelma madera  sp. n. The significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma peloncillo  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are Cl, PTl, and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus III. Male Aphonopelma peloncillo  can be distinguished by possessing a larger Cl/PTw (≥4.67; 4.67-5.59) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≤4.26; 3.96-4.26), Aphonopelma chiricahua  (≤4.05; 3.32-4.05), and Aphonopelma parvum  sp. n. (≤4.22; 3.79-4.22), but smaller than Aphonopelma gabeli  (≥5.93; 5.93-6.56); by possessing a smaller PTl/M3 (≤0.82; 0.71-0.82) than Aphonopelma madera  (≥0.94; 0.94-1.05); and a smaller L3 scopulation extent (52%-68%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (75%-86%) and Aphonopelma hentzi  (69%-86%). There are no significant measurements that separate male Aphonopelma peloncillo  from Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . Significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma peloncillo  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are Cl, A4, and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma peloncillo  can be distinguished by possessing a larger Cl/T1 (≥1.56; 1.56-1.77) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≤1.51; 1.44-1.51) and Aphonopelma parvum  (≤1.55; 1.45-1.55); a larger M3/A4 (≥1.11; 1.11-1.23) than Aphonopelma chiricahua  (0.80 ± (only 1 specimen)) and Aphonopelma madera  (≤1.07; 0.96-1.07); and by possessing a smaller L4 scopulation extent (32%-39%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (63%-81%), Aphonopelma hentzi  (42%-72%), and Aphonopelma gabeli  (39%-53%). There are no significant measurements that separate female Aphonopelma peloncillo  from Aphonopelma vorhiesi  .

Description of male holotype

(APH_0672; Fig. 118). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Generally black/faded black or brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 12.27 mm long, 11.42 mm wide; densely clothed with black, faded black or brown pubescence, appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly toward ocular area; ocular quadrangle distinct and round; AER procurved, PER strongly recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus slightly extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.51, LBw 1.84; sternum hirsute, clothed with short black, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black pubescence with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed with short, similar length black setae, and longer setae interspersed. Metatarsus I slightly curved. F1 13.45; F1w 3.02; P1 4.88; T1 11.17; M1 8.31; A1 5.87; F3 10.01; F3w 3.16; P3 4.43; T3 7.87; M3 9.06; A3 6.04; F4 12.19; F4w 3.04; P4 4.52; T4 10.45; M4 12.53; A4 7.11; femur III is normal - not noticeably swollen or wider than other legs. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 58.4%; leg IV (SC4) = 34.4%. Two ventral and two prolateral spinose setae on metatarsus III; eleven ventral spinose setae, and one prolateral spinose seta on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta at the apical, prolateral femur and three spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 7.36, PTw 2.47. When extended, embolus tapers and gently curves to the retrolateral side; embolus slender, no keels.

Variation (9).Cl 10.23-14.90 (12.567 ± 0.44), Cw 9.15-14.10 (11.582 ± 0.46), LBl 1.32-1.95 (1.46 ± 0.06), LBw 1.4-2.07 (1.651 ± 0.07), F1 11.148-14.86 (13.352 ± 0.4), F 1w 2.423-3.795 (3.059 ± 0.12), P1 4.151-5.594 (4.945 ± 0.18), T1 9.699-12.83 (11.482 ± 0.36), M1 7.331-10.436 (8.77 ± 0.29), A1 5.179-6.889 (6.104 ± 0.18), L1 length 37.508-50.297 (44.654 ± 1.31), F3 9.27-12.369 (10.739 ± 0.32), F3w 2.766-4.012 (3.286 ± 0.12), P3 3.629-4.891 (4.129 ± 0.14), T3 6.674-9.573 (8.172 ± 0.3), M3 7.465-10.86 (9.588 ± 0.34), A3 5.712-7.983 (6.445 ± 0.25), L3 length 33.029-45.454 (39.073 ± 1.25), F4 10.549-14.471 (12.599 ± 0.38), F4w 2.469-3.765 (2.996 ± 0.12), P4 3.44-4.991 (4.353 ± 0.16), T4 9.249-12.388 (10.832 ± 0.35), M4 10.683-14.17 (12.768 ± 0.4), A4 6.65-8.656 (7.43 ± 0.24), L4 length 40.656-54.24 (47.981 ± 1.42), PTl 6.119-8.133 (7.382 ± 0.24), PTw 2.027-2.91 (2.507 ± 0.1), SC3 ratio 0.526-0.685 (0.594 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.274-0.442 (0.338 ± 0.02), Coxa 1 setae = tapered/thin tapered, F3 condition = normal.

Description of female paratype

(APH_1296; Figs 119-120). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Black/faded black and brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 19.32 mm long, 16.76 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with black/faded black, pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER slightly recurved; robust chelicerae, clypeus slightly extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.74, LBw 2.02; sternum very hirsute, clothed with longer black/faded black setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Spermathecae: Paired and separate, basic, slightly tapers and curves medially towards capitate bulbs, with wide bases that do not appear fused. Legs: Very hirsute; densely clothed with longer setae colored similarly as the long abdominal setae; F1 14.51; F1w 4.60; P1 6.72; T1 10.91; M1 8.45; A1 6.34; F3 11.88; F3w 3.98; P3 5.73; T3 8.62; M3 8.94; A3 6.68; F4 14.42; F4w 4.13; P4 6.40; T4 11.27; M4 11.61; A4 7.56. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 67.7%; leg IV (SC4) = 38.5%. Two ventral and two prolateral spinose setae on metatarsus III; five ventral spinose setae and one prolateral spinose seta on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; two spinose setae on the apical, prolateral femur, one spinose seta on the prolateral patella, six prolateral spinose setae and one ventral spinose seta on the tibia (two at the apical border with the tarsus).

Variation (5).Cl 15.33-19.32 (16.912 ± 0.69), Cw 13.1-16.76 (14.756 ± 0.65), LBl 1.74-2.33 (1.992 ± 0.1), LBw 2.02-2.65 (2.224 ± 0.11), F1 12.25-14.51 (13.252 ± 0.43), F1w 3.81-4.60 (4.086 ± 0.14), P1 5.3-6.72 (5.9 ± 0.28), T1 9.47-10.97 (10.376 ± 0.27), M1 6.68-8.45 (7.686 ± 0.31), A1 5.95-6.34 (6.2 ± 0.07), L1 length 39.65-46.93 (43.414 ± 1.28), F3 9.48-11.88 (10.484 ± 0.43), F3w 3.14-3.98 (3.51 ± 0.14), P3 4.54-5.73 (4.956 ± 0.21), T3 7.01-8.62 (7.748 ± 0.31), M3 7.51- 8.94 (8.262 ± 0.3), A3 5.7-6.68 (6.234 ± 0.17), L3 length 34.5-41.85 (37.684 ± 1.26), F4 12.26-14.42 (13.224 ± 0.41), F4w 3.5-4.13 (3.718 ± 0.11), P4 5.09-6.40 (5.444 ± 0.25), T4 9.66-11.27 (10.602 ± 0.26), M4 9.91-12.05 (11.294 ± 0.39), A4 6.63-7.56 (7.118 ± 0.18), L4 length 43.84-51.26 (47.682 ± 1.31), SC3 ratio 0.586-0.676 (0.64 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.324-0.386 (0.357 ± 0.01), Coxa I setae = tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 120.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Cochise: 0.03 miles N Hunt Canyon Rd on Leslie Canyon Rd, 31.64689064 -109.4732291 2, 4927ft., [APH_0718, 17/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.51 miles N Davis Ranch Rd on Leslie Canyon Rd, 31.52685642 -109.5446671 2, 4389ft., [APH_0719, 17/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 0.83 miles SW Price Canyon Rd on Hwy-80, 31.62561536 -109.2064459 2, 4656ft., [APH_0724, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; 19.8 miles NE of Douglas along Highway 80, 31.53231 -109.294192 5, 4562ft., [AUMS_2246, 23/7/1989, 1♂, F.C. Baptista, AUMNH]; along Hwy-80, 31.46999359 -109.3591602 2, 4346ft., [APH_0723, 18/8/2009, 1♂, Alice Abela, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Hidalgo: along CR C001, 31.608773 -108.86636 1, 4966ft., [APH_1227, 7/8/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; along CR C004, 31.527331 -108.905731 1, 5262ft., [APH_1226, 7/8/2010, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Ashley Bailey, Andrea Reed, AUMNH]; along Geronimo Trail, 31.528707 -108.900331 1, 5032ft., [APH_1516, 8/9/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; along Hwy-338, 31.607079 -108.867081 1, 4934ft., [APH_0671-0673, 14/7/2009, 2♂, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_1188-1191, 26/7/2010, 4♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bren don Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH & AMNH]; Clanton Draw area, 31.522379 -108.98037 1, 5406ft., [APH_0666-0669, 14/7/2009, 1♀, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; [APH_0681-0685, 16/7/2009, 3♀, 1♂, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Coronado National Forest, Peloncillo Mtns, 31.518665 -108.982597 1, 5435ft., [APH_1181-1182, 26/7/2010, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH & AMNH]; Coronado National Forest, Peloncillo Mtns, Clanton Draw Area, 31.518665 -108.982597 1, 5435ft., [APH_1296-1297, 25/7/2011, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; CR-C004, 0.8 miles SW Hwy-338, 31.544499 -108.882007 1, 5112ft., [APH_0670, 14/7/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; NM-9 at Little Hatchet Mtns Rd, W of Hachita, 31.926633 -108.363083 5, 4480ft., [APH_0411, 11/10/2008, 1♂, Kari McWest, Keisha Hendricks, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma peloncillo  can be found inhabiting the Madrean Archipelago Level III Ecoregion where it resides in lower to mid elevation habitats in and around the Peloncillo Mountains in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (Fig. 121). Aphonopelma peloncillo  can be found in syntopy at the lower elevations of its distribution with Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma parvum  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the summer ( July–August) coinciding with the summer monsoon season.

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma peloncillo  has a somewhat narrow distribution in the United States that is restricted to middle and lower elevations in and around the Peloncillo Mountains of Arizona and New Mexico. These tarantulas are fairly common but this region is subject to grazing, illegal immigration, and other modes of habitat degradation. Future climate change throughout the sky island region is also a concern ( Brusca et al. 2013).

Remarks.

This species was originally recognized by Hendrixson et al. (2015). Aphonopelma peloncillo  males and females are similar looking to other species in the sky islands, though generally possessing a more hirsute appearance. Aphonopelma peloncillo  can be differentiated from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  by phenotypic appearance, and from Aphonopelma parvum  by appearance and size. An interesting note, in both mtDNA and nuDNA datasets, Aphonopelma peloncillo  is inferred as sister to a lineage in the Huachuca Mountains (that is not Aphonopelma madera  ), putatively identified as a novel species. Unfortunately, at this time we do not have additional support for this single specimen to be recognized and formally described.

Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma peloncillo  possess a smaller PTl/M3 (≤0.82; 0.71-0.82) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≥0.86; 0.86-0.98), Aphonopelma chiricahua  (≥0.94; 0.94-1.10) and Aphonopelma parvum  (≥0.81; 0.81-0.88, with slight overlap), but larger than Aphonopelma gabeli  (≤0.63; 0.57-0.63); by possessing a larger L3 scopulation extent (52%-68%) than Aphonopelma catalina  (48%-53%, with slight overlap); by possessing a smaller F1/M4 (≤1.11; 0.99-1.11) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≥1.15; 1.15-1.22) and Aphonopelma madera  (≥1.12; 1.12-1.22), but larger than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤0.99; 0.92-0.99) and Aphonopelma gabeli  (≤0.97; 0.92-0.97); by possessing a larger T1/P4 (≥2.47; 2.47-2.94) than Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤2.46; 1.96-2.46). Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma peloncillo  possess a larger M3/A4 (≥1.11; 1.11-1.23) than Aphonopelma catalina  (≤1.10; 1.07-1.10) and Aphonopelma parvum  (≤0.92; 0.86-0.92); by possessing a smaller L3 scopulation extent (58%-68%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (78%-93%), Aphonopelma hentzi  (67%-95%, with slight overlap), and Aphonopelma gabeli  (72%-80%). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no other are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional PCA morphospace, males of Aphonopelma peloncillo  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma parvum  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . Females of Aphonopelma peloncillo  separate from Aphonopelma chiricahua  and Aphonopelma parvum  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . Interestingly, Aphonopelma peloncillo  males separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma parvum  in three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), but do not separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . Aphonopelma peloncillo  females separate from Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma madera  , and Aphonopelma parvum  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma gabeli  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥96% of the variation in all analyses.