Aphonopelma marxi (Simon, 1891)

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 163-175

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/C534C579-0824-0F93-97F6-2134EDF085A4

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Aphonopelma marxi (Simon, 1891)
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma marxi (Simon, 1891)  Figures 88, 89, 90, 91, 92

Eurypelma marxi  Simon, 1891: 324; no original labeled types known to exist; male neotype designated ( Prentice 1997) from Punta del Aqua, Torrance Co., New Mexico, 34.600061 -106.283907 5, elev. 6576ft., unknown collecting date, coll. Geo. Marx; deposited in NMNH. [not examined]

Delopelma marxi  Petrunkevitch, 1939: 252.

Rhechostica marxi  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma marxi  Smith, 1995: 119.

Aphonopelma marxi  Prentice, 1997: 147.

Delopelma simulatum  Chamberlin & Ivie, 1939: 8; male holotype from Fruita, Wayne Co., Utah, 38.285536 -111.246836 6, elev. 5442ft., 14.vii.1931, coll. Gertsch and Johnson; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Aphonopelma (Delopelma) simulatum  Chamberlin, 1940: 26.

Rhechostica simulatum  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma simulatum  Smith, 1995: 144. previously synonymized by Prentice, 1997: 147.

Aphonopelma behlei  Chamberlin, 1940: 26; male holotype and male paratype from Grand Canyon Village, Coconino Co., Arizona, 36.054444 -112.140111 4, elev. 6882ft., 15.ix.1939, coll. Dr. W.H. Behle; deposited in AMNH. [examined]

Rhechostica behlei  Raven, 1985: 149.

Aphonopelma behlei  Smith, 1995: 76. syn. n.

Aphonopelma vogeli  Smith, 1995: 154; male holotype from Aztec, San Juan Co., New Mexico, 36.822226 -107.992846 6, elev. 5657ft., 20.x.1982, coll. W.A. Drew; deposited in Oklahoma State University collection [presumed lost]

Aphonopelma vogelae  - male neotype designated (APH_1431) from 0.4 miles E. CR-7635 along dirt road, San Juan Co., New Mexico, 36.28073 -107.8757 2, elev. 6721ft., 4.xi.2011, coll. Amber Williams; deposited in AUMNH. [examined] syn. n.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma marxi  (Fig. 88) is a member of the Marxi  species group and can be identified by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma marxi  as a strongly supported monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8). Aphonopelma marxi  is morphologically most similar to species in the Madrean sky island but has a different distribution. This species can easily be differentiated from syntopic species due to its black (or faded black) color, overall hirsute appearance, size, and habitat. The most significant measurement that distinguishes male Aphonopelma marxi  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species is M1. Male Aphonopelma marxi  can be distinguished by possessing a larger F1/M1 (≥1.69; 1.69-1.94) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.36; 1.11-1.36), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤1.47; 1.32-1.47), Aphonopelma mareki  sp. n. (≤1.58; 1.41-1.58), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≤1.63; 1.25-1.63). The most significant measurement that distinguishes female Aphonopelma marxi  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species is F1. Female Aphonopelma marxi  can be distinguished by possessing a larger F1/M3 (≥1.76; 1.76-1.91) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.66; 1.41-1.66), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤1.61; 1.44-1.61), and Aphonopelma mareki  (≤1.75; 1.58-1.75); and a larger F1/T4 (≥1.32; 1.32-1.43) than Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≤1.25; 1.17-1.25).

Description.

Male originally described by Simon (1891). No labeled types were known to exist. Two specimens from the Geo. Marx collection are now deposited in the USNM: a male non-type from the San Bernardino Mountains, California and a male non-type from Punta del Aqua, Torrance Co., New Mexico. Prentice (1997) examined the non-types and designated the New Mexico male as the neotype.

Redescription of male exemplar

(APH_1396; Fig. 89). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live crossing road, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). General coloration: Black and faded black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 9.50 mm long, 8.98 mm wide; Very hirsute; densely clothed with black, slightly iridescent, pubescence mostly appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises gradually from foveal groove, gently arching anteriorly, reaches peak before ocular area; AER very slightly procurved - mostly straight, PER recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus slightly extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.228, LBw 1.376; sternum very hirsute, clothed with black, densely packed setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black pubescence with numerous longer red/orange setae interspersed; possessing a dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972). Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in black or faded black pubescence. Metatarsus I straight. F1 10.683; F1w 2.563; P1 3.868; T1 8.649; M1 6.048; A1 4.776; F3 7.862; F3w 2.353; P3 3.401; T3 5.858; M3 6.311; A3 5.758; F4 9.913; F4w 2.349; P4 3.494; T4 8.04; M4 8.761; A4 6.426; femur III is normal - not noticeably swollen or wider than other legs. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 66.3%; leg IV (SC4) = 46.5%. Five ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; eleven ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV; one large megaspine is present on the retrolateral tibia at the apex of the mating clasper; one large megaspine at the apex of the retrolateral branch of the mating clasper. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and thin tapered setae. Pedipalps: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; two spinose setae on the prolateral tibia; PTl 6.409, PTw 2.11. When extended, embolus tapers and gently curves to the retrolateral side.

Variation (8).Cl 8.32-10.53 (9.348 ± 0.24), Cw 8.03-10.55 (8.854 ± 0.28), LBl 1.087-1.397 (1.235 ± 0.03), LBw 1.222-1.64 (1.446 ± 0.05), F1 9.556-12.45 (10.532 ± 0.36), F1w 1.957-2.89 (2.444 ± 0.11), P1 3.546-4.81 (3.896 ± 0.15), T1 7.366-10.21 (8.463 ± 0.3), M1 4.912-7.33 (5.847 ± 0.26), A1 4.61-6.05 (5.051 ± 0.17), L1 length 30.157-40.85 (33.79 ± 1.2), F3 7.184-9.23 (7.864 ± 0.24), F3w 2.12-2.67 (2.315 ± 0.06), P3 2.768-3.66 (3.179 ± 0.11), T3 5.386-7.37 (5.985 ± 0.22), M3 5.247-7.27 (6.183 ± 0.23), A3 4.902-5.964 (5.421 ± 0.14), L3 length 26.005-33.32 (28.632 ± 0.86), F4 8.677-11.04 (9.536 ± 0.28), F4w 2.04-2.79 (2.268 ± 0.09), P4 2.943-4.11 (3.398 ± 0.13), T4 7.058-9.39 (8.073 ± 0.25), M4 7.548-9.74 (8.539 ± 0.24), A4 5.573-6.80 (6.247 ± 0.15), L4 length 32.388-41.08 (35.791 ± 1), PTl 5.663-6.774 (6.152 ± 0.13), PTw 1.94-2.49 (2.134 ± 0.06), SC3 ratio 0.524-0.668 (0.605 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.38-0.465 (0.411 ± 0.01), Coxa I setae = thin tapered, F3 condition = normal.

Description of female exemplar

(APH_0452; Figs 90-91). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; deposited in AUMNH; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right leg III removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Black/faded black. Cephalothorax: Carapace 15.30 mm long, 14.04 mm wide; Very hirsute, densely clothed with black/faded black, slightly iridescent, pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER very slightly recurved; robust chelicerae, clypeus straight; LBl 1.74, LBw 2.09; sternum very hirsute, clothed with long black/faded black setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short black setae with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972); ventral side with shorter black setae. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, short, tapering and curving medially towards capitate bulbs, with wide bases that are not fused. Legs: Very hirsute, particularly ventrally; densely clothed in medium and long black pubescence, with longer setae colored similarly as the long abdominal setae; F1 12.84; F1w 4.33; P1 6.29; T1 10.29; M1 6.88; A1 6.58; F3 10.16; F3w 3.56; P3 5.04; T3 7.18; M3 6.72; A3 6.54; F4 11.94; F4w 3.77; P4 5.21; T4 9.54; M4 9.66; A4 7.51. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 70.0%; leg IV (SC4) = 50.6%. Three ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; seven ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface a mix of fine, hair-like and tapered/medium tapered setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur and two spinose setae on the prolateral tibia.

Variation (5).Cl 13.49-15.30 (14.454 ± 0.34), Cw 12.85-15.02 (13.714 ± 0.38), LBl 1.49-2.27 (1.86 ± 0.13), LBw 1.95-2.31 (2.148 ± 0.07), F1 11.48-13.62 (12.498 ± 0.36), F1w 3.68-4.47 (4.004 ± 0.16), P1 5.24-6.76 (5.95 ± 0.26), T1 9.17- 10.91 (9.914 ± 0.31), M1 6.22-7.23 (6.76 ± 0.16), A1 5.58-7.13 (6.276 ± 0.27), L1 length 37.69-44.70 (41.398 ± 1.17), F3 8.87-10.83 (9.832 ± 0.32), F3w 2.94-4.06 (3.39 ± 0.2), P3 4.36-5.54 (4.912 ± 0.19), T3 6.36-7.93 (6.958 ± 0.28), M3 6.49-7.30 (6.818 ± 0.14), A3 5.45-6.66 (6.182 ± 0.23), L3 length 31.67-38.0 (34.702 ± 1.04), F4 10.85-13.28 (11.936 ± 0.4), F4w 3.36-3.81 (3.566 ± 0.1), P4 4.35-5.50 (4.936 ± 0.21), T4 8.64-9.54 (9.146 ± 0.18), M4 8.71-10.69 (9.734 ± 0.32), A4 6.18-7.61 (7.124 ± 0.28), L4 length 38.73-46.55 (42.876 ± 1.26), SC3 ratio 0.597-0.74 (0.674 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.339-0.51 (0.438 ± 0.04), Coxa I setae = tapered/medium tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 91.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: Apache: 0.75 miles NE Hwy-191 on Hwy-61, 34.908575 -109.227341 1, 6251ft., [APH_1408, 9/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 9.5 miles N Hwy-61 on Hwy-191, 35.030934 -109.254585 1, 6415ft., [APH_1423, 12/10/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Ganada, 35.711279 -109.542049 5, 6398ft., [APH_2576, 5/10/1962, 1♂, Charles Supplee, AMNH]; Navajo Indian Reservation, Chuska Mtns, Roof Butte, 2.8 miles on IR-68/road to Roof Butte lookout tower from IR-13, 36.45784722 -109.0942889 1, 9304ft., [APH_0452, 30/8/2008, 1♀, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Coconino: 1 mile north of Cosimo and east of Flagstaff, 35.237379 -111.465593 5, 6348ft., [APH_2514, 1/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; 5 miles south of Lindbergh Spt. And south of Flagstaff on 89A, 35.010414 -111.738008 5, 5587ft., [APH_2520, 19/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; FH-3 (Lake Mary Road) south of Flagstaff, 35.132647 -111.612736 5, 6873ft., [APH_2516, 4/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Grand Canyon - river side, 36.091658 -112.131436 7, 3668ft., [APH_2522, 25/10/1982, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; Leupp Road (510) east of Flagstaff toward Doney Peak, 35.304918 -111.20856 5, 5469ft., [APH_2519, 5/10/1977, 1♂, B. Sanderson, AMNH]; Northeast of Flagstaff about 1/4 mile east of Highway 89A on Leupp Road, 35.238083 -111.42633 5, 6207ft., [APH_2530, 30/9/1977, 1♂, F.B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Northeast of Flagstaff in pine-oak forest, 35.241395 -111.555125 6, 6824ft., [APH_2515, 24/9/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; [APH_2517, 10/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; On road north of Mormon Lake, 34.997156 -111.453915 5, 7175ft., [APH_2518, 9/10/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Schnebly Hill Road northeast of Sedona in pines north Highway 17, 34.914247 -111.640255 5, 6506ft., [APH_2523, 21/10/1976, 1♂, M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; 0.1 miles NW Mormon Lake Rd on FS Rd 240, 34.946366 -111.490839 1, 7175ft., [APH_0764, 6/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.54 miles E Spruce St on Hwy-180, 35.604503 -112.040946 1, 6126ft., [APH_0772, 7/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.63 miles W Spruce St on Hwy-180, 35.609818 -112.060954 1, 6095ft., [APH_0773, 7/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.9 miles E Hwy-64/180 on FS Rd 320, 35.804115 -112.115103 1, 6185ft., [APH_0769, 7/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 1.1 miles S FS Rd 320 on Hwy-64/180, 35.787285 -112.129924 1, 6095ft., [APH_0770-0771, 7/10/2009, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 1.5 miles S Mormon Lake Rd on Lake Mary Rd, 34.962886 -111.437062 1, 7298ft., [APH_1403-1404, 9/10/2011, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 1.55 miles N FR-234 on Lake Mary Rd, 34.673922 -111.380134 1, 6893ft., [APH_1406, 9/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 1.66 miles W Lake Mary Rd on Mormon Lake Rd, 34.983545 -111.474974 1, 7251ft., [APH_0765, 6/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 2.33 miles N Mormon Lake Rd on Lake Mary Rd, 35.014623 -111.451737 1, 6910ft., [APH_0766-0767, 6/10/2009, 1♂, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 3.5 miles north of Flagstaff on 89A, then 1 mile northeast on Land Fill road, 35.286659 -111.537408 5, 6726ft., [APH_2556, 21/10/1977, 1♂, M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; 5.4 miles N Mormon Lake Rd on Lake Mary Rd, 35.056801 -111.462549 1, 6913ft., [APH_0768, 6/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 6 miles north of Flagstaff-east of Highway 89A, 35.286052 -111.534536 5, 6739ft., [APH_2558, 4/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; 8 miles north of Flagstaff on 89A, 35.270113 -111.545071 5, 6732ft., [APH_2545, 5/11/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; along FR-47 near Kaibab Lake, 35.276468 -112.156744 1, 6885ft., [APH_1427, 15/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Krissy E. Rehm, AUMNH]; along FS-126, 34.982005 -111.27115 2, 6382ft., [APH_0750, 20/9/2009, 1♂, Tyler P. McKee, AUMNH]; Disc Cave, 35.246593 -111.746956 5, 7690ft., [APH_2054, 1/11/1953, 1♂, R. deSaussure, AMNH]; E of junction of I-17 and Rocky Park Road, 34.808426 -111.598321 5, 6463ft., [AUMS_2274, 12/1991, 1♀, Chuck Kristensen, AUMNH]; east side of Upper Lake Mary, 35.048834 -111.456544 5, 6860ft., [APH_2563, 9/10/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Grand Canyon, 36.090161 -112.123683 7, 3540ft., [APH_2592, 3/10/1935, 1♂, unknown, AMNH]; Grand Canyon National Park, South Rim Trail, 36.060569 -112.124309 1, 6987ft., [APH_1425-1426, 14/10/2011, 1♂, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Krissy E. Rehm, AUMNH]; Grand Canyon Village, 36.054444 -112.140111 5, 6880ft., [APH_2047, 15/9/1939, 1♂, W.H. Behle, AMNH]; Grand Canyon - Colorado river side, 36.090969 -112.128235 7, 3675ft., [APH_2564, 23/10/1982, 1♂, V. Roth, AMNH]; Grand Canyon, S rim, 5.5 miles E of Hwy 64/180 off Hwy 64, 36.006329 -112.03996 5, 7160ft., [AUMS_2270, 7/10/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Grand Canyon, S. Rim - 7.7 E of Hwy 64/180 jct off Hwy 64, 35.993894 -112.02127 4, 7370ft., [AUMS_2393, 6/10/1996, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Grand Canyon, S. Rim 5.7 E of Hwy 64/180 jct, 35.996859 -112.032781 5, 7295ft., [AUMS_2291, 6/10/1996, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Highway 180, 0.1 miles E of marker 258, 35.59363 -112.000625 4, 6280ft., [AUMS_2271, 17/10/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Highway 180, 1.6 miles E of marker 258, 35.594031 -112.000933 5, 6280ft., [AUMS_2269, 17/10/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Hwy 64, 1.5 miles S of Hwy 64 and 180 junction, 36.050233 -112.067007 4, 6033ft., [AUMS_3290, 18/10/1998, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; just east of Lake Mary Rd on unnamed Forest Rd, 34.695292 -111.372356 1, 6908ft., [APH_1405, 9/10/2011, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Kaibab Lake, 0.5 miles W of Hwy 64, 0.75 miles N of I-40, 35.27411 -112.157105 4, 6933ft., [AUMS_2275, 22/10/1999, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Kaibab National Forest, along Benham Trail, 35.203242 -112.179256 1, 7307ft., [APH_1428, 15/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Krissy E. Rehm, AUMNH]; Lake Mary Rd, along Lower Lake Mary, 35.086973 -111.533713 1, 6773ft., [APH_1529, 4/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Lake Mary Rd, near Jct with CR-209, 34.976885 -111.446262 1, 7126ft., [APH_1530, 4/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Lakeview Trail at Double Springs Campground, 34.940291 -111.493418 1, 7213ft., [APH_0509-0510, 20/5/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Leupp Road (510) west of Doney Park, 35.23797 -111.426361 5, 6207ft., [APH_2562, 9/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; [APH_2571, 9/10/1977, 1♂, B. Sanderson, AMNH]; Leupp Road east of Flagstaff, 4 miles west of turnoff to Leupp, 35.299775 -111.028763 5, 4767ft., [APH_2569, 8/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Lower Lake Mary, Lake Mary Rd., 0.75-1 mile N of dividing dam, 35.094464 -111.542495 4, 6840ft., [AUMS_2280, 8/10/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Lower Lake Mary, Lake Mary Rd., S of dividing dam, 35.08059 -111.5309 6, 6826ft., [AUMS_2282, 22/10/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Mogollon Rim, along Hwy-260, E of Payson, 34.29877 -110.86005 5, 7574ft., [APH_0171-0172, unknown, 2 juv, Brandon Anderson, AUMNH]; Munds Park, along Pinewood Blvd between Maverick Circle and Stallion Circle, 34.939587 -111.629052 1, 6639ft., [APH_0763, 6/10/2009, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; NE Flagstaff in Ponderosa pine-oak forest, 35.33044 -111.52799 6, 6801ft., [AUMS_3350, 5/10/1978, 1♂, Mary Lou Olivier, AUMNH]; near entrance to Lindbergh Spring on Highway 89A - a few miles south of Flagstaff, 35.108374 -111.722211 5, 6919ft., [APH_2512, 28/9/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; NE of Flagstaff in pine-oak forest, 35.254193 -111.566811 6, 7005ft., [APH_2541, 4/11/1977, 1♂, Mary Lou Olivier, AMNH]; NE of Flagstaff on Leupp road between 89A and Lindsey Road, 35.318653 -111.250668 5, 5607ft., [APH_2557, 4/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; NE of Flagstaff on Lindsey Road off of Leupp Road, 35.241864 -111.553488 5, 6811ft., [APH_2572, 28/9/1977, 1♂, Palmer Child, AMNH]; Oak Creek Canyon at Slide Rock, 34.944142 -111.752462 5, 4944ft., [APH_2574, 7/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Oak Creek Canyon- 3 miles south of Pine Flat campground, 34.994615 -111.737614 5, 5443ft., [APH_2573, 9/10/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; off SR-260, unmarked forest road, 34.48289 -111.45219 1, 7043ft., [APH_0302, 7/10/2007, 1♀, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; on FH-3, 0.5 miles south of Upper Lake Mary dam, 35.078386 -111.529309 5, 6844ft., [APH_2560, 9/10/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on FH-3, 1/2 mile south of curve to Mormon Lake Village, 34.897979 -111.438392 5, 7310ft., [APH_2546, 9/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on FH-3, 13.5 miles north of Highway 87, 34.858355 -111.437038 5, 7392ft., [APH_2566, 31/10/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on FH-3, 4 miles north of Upper Lake Mary dam, 35.095012 -111.544621 5, 6864ft., [APH_2537, 9/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on FH-3, 5 miles south of Upper Lake Mary dam, 35.06553 -111.506179 5, 6844ft., [APH_2536, 9/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on FH-3, east of Upper Lake Mary, north of Mormon Lake Village, 35.022747 -111.452029 5, 6909ft., [APH_2561, 12/11/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; [APH_2570, 12/11/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on FH-3, near Upper Lake Mary, 35.032127 -111.453127 5, 6890ft., [APH_2542, 9/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on road north of Flagstaff near Buffalo Park, 35.21067 -111.633677 5, 7090ft., [APH_2568, 4/10/1977, 1♂, M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on road to Mormon Lake Village-west of FH-3, 34.901168 -111.444089 5, 7234ft., [APH_2565, 9/10/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; on road west of Mormon Lake, 34.937277 -111.48767 5, 7198ft., [APH_2544, 9/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Ponderosa pine-oak forest northeast of Flagstaff, 35.291744 -111.487715 6, 6598ft., [APH_2559, 10/10/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; S Rim of Grand Canyon, 4.2 miles E of Hwy 180 and Ring Rd junction, 36.005413 -112.046599 4, 7258ft., [AUMS_2288, 5/10/1996, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; S rim of Grand Canyon, BLM road between Grandview and Moran Points, 35.975297 -111.94644 6, 7124ft., [AUMS_2266, 21/9/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Schnebly Hill Road, 34.867375 -111.746206 5, 4495ft., [APH_2538, 27/11/1978, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; south of Flagstaff on FH-3 (Lake Mary Road), 35.137983 -111.644481 5, 6969ft., [APH_2547, 4/11/1977, 1♂, B. and M.W. Sanderson, AMNH]; Tusayan - jct. rd. 302, 35.926944 -112.048164 5, 6840ft., [AUMS_2392, 21/10/1999, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Tusayan, 0.7 miles E of Hwy 64/180 on FR302, 35.967188 -112.115484 4, 6701ft., [AUMS_2279, 21/10/1999, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Tusayan, 2.1 miles E of Hwy 64/180 on FR302, 35.954709 -112.091883 4, 6754ft., [AUMS_2283, 6/10/1996, 1 juv, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Tusayan, 4.6 miles SE on Rd 302, 1 mile W off 302 on dirt road, 35.9315 -112.076389 4, 6805ft., [AUMS_2618, 13/10/2001, 2♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Tusayan, campsite 1/2 mile N, 35.980154 -112.121266 5, 6660ft., [AUMS_2286, 6/10/1996, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Tusayan, campsite 5 miles E of town, 35.930788 -112.056647 4, 6812ft., [AUMS_2284, 5/10/1996, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Tusayan, Hwy 180/64, 1.2 miles E of Tusayan on Rd. 302, 35.963569 -112.106672 4, 6729ft., [AUMS_2292, 7/10/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, Lake Mary Road- 0.2 miles S of Marshall Lake Road, 35.090485 -111.53677 4, 6842ft., [AUMS_2273, 22/10/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2287, 22/10/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, Lake Mary Road- 0.25 miles S of Marshall Lake Road, 35.089915 -111.535904 4, 6845ft., [AUMS_2277, 22/10/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2290, 22/10/1995, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, Lake Mary Road- 2 miles S of boat landing, 35.05728 -111.471341 4, 6840ft., [AUMS_2276, 8/10/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, Lake Mary Road- directly across rd. L.M. boat landing, 35.072195 -111.522194 4, 6847ft., [AUMS_2289, 22/10/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, Lake Mary Road, 0.5 miles S of northern boat landing, 35.067884 -111.513956 4, 6851ft., [AUMS_3292, 8/10/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, Lake Mary Road, just S of northern L. M. boat landing, 35.070238 -111.520417 5, 6843ft., [AUMS_2466, 8/10/1995, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Upper Lake Mary, S end of lake (Tusayan), 35.043271 -111.465698 5, 6860ft., [AUMS_2659, 17/10/1998, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; W. side of San Francisco Mountain (near Sugarloaf Mtn), 35.342816 -111.737946 6, 8510ft., [APH_2049, 4/10/1970, 1♂, R.H. Russell, AMNH]; West of Mormon Lake on road, 34.915288 -111.470848 5, 7123ft., [APH_2502, 9/10/1978, 1♂, W. S and BBS, AMNH]; Gila: along FR-512, 34.19 -110.7925 2, 6600ft., [APH_1239-1241, 24/10/2010, 3♂, Tyler P. McKee, AUMNH]; [APH_1246-1247, 24/10/2010, 1♀, 1♂, Tyler P. McKee, AUMNH]; Mazatzal Mtns, Four Peaks, Pigeon Spring Rd. junction, 33.72156 -111.33753 1, 5780ft., [APH_0296, 6/10/2007, 1 juv, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Mount Ord, 33.908542 -111.406922 1, 6864ft., [APH_1533, 4/10/2012, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Strawberry, 34.444717 -111.453017 6, 7079ft., [APH_0878-0879, 2007, 2 juv, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; [APH_0882, 2007, 1♀, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; Maricopa: Mount Ord, 33.91722 -111.40972 5, 6338ft., [APH_0137, unknown, 1 juv, David Kandeyeli, AUMNH]; Navajo: 0.55 miles W Hwy-260 on unmarked Forest Rd, 34.430555 -110.652986 1, 6827ft., [APH_1407, 9/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 1.35 miles SW Apache County Line on Elmer’s Way, 34.212947 -109.869137 1, 7020ft., [APH_1424, 12/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Heber, 34.435921 -110.599701 5, 6575ft., [APH_2053, 18/10/1950, 1♂, G.M. Bradt, AMNH]; Yavapai: 1005 N Zuni Ln, Prescott, 34.55229 -112.26907 2, 4738ft., [APH_0030, 23/10/2005, 1♂, Shane Yoder, AUMNH]; 2.1 miles of junction Copper Basin Rd./89a S along Hwy 89, 34.499381 -112.480383 4, 5801ft., [AUMS_2522, 17/11/1987, 1♂, F.C. Baptista, AUMNH]; Bradshaw Mtns, 34.41407 -112.403407 6, 7480ft., [AUMS_3294, unknown, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; Bradshaw Mtns, above Crown King, 34.223851 -112.319382 6, 6074ft., [AUMS_2268, 22/9/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Bradshaw Mtns, Coal Camp Spring, 34.152809 -112.273775 6, 6192ft., [AUMS_2249, 19/9/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Bradshaw Mtns, Lane Mtn. area, eastern slope - power line, 34.156773 -112.316443 6, 6703ft., [AUMS_2389, 21/9/1990, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Crown King by Ranger Station, 34.210431 -112.336055 6, 5721ft., [AUMS_2281, 25/10/1992, 1♀, Fred Jenson, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2634, 24/10/1992, 1♂, Fred Jenson, AUMNH]; Crown King ranger station, 34.206888 -112.34151 5, 5885ft., [AUMS_3276, 19/10/1992, 1♀, Fred Jenson, AUMNH]; [AUMS_3287, 18/9/1992, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Granite Basin Rd, near Prescott, 34.613078 -112.543108 2, 5624ft., [APH_1608-1611, 12/10/2012, 4♂, Tim Cota, AUMNH]; Ranger Station, Bradshaw Mtns, 34.468075 -112.514445 7, 5884ft., [AUMS_2207, 18/9/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Seligman, 0.75 miles from I-40 BI on CR-5, 35.313373 -112.86772 1, 5225ft., [APH_1429, 15/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Krissy E. Rehm, AUMNH]; Seligman, along CR-5, 35.295749 -112.867876 1, 5211ft., [APH_1544, 23/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Colorado: Archuleta: 6 miles S Hwy 160 on Cat Creek Rd, 37.15957 -107.16641 5, 6953ft., [APH_0009, 8/10/2004, 1♂, Rich Fuller, AUMNH]; Conejos: along Hwy-142, 37.17546 -105.849954 1, 7750ft., [APH_1526-1527, 2/10/2012, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Dolores: 0.25 miles NW CR-N on Hwy-491 (Hwy-666), 37.700308 -108.836649 1, 6673ft., [APH_1412, 10/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.6 miles E CR-15 on Rd N, 37.70015 -108.76392 2, 7005ft., [APH_1238, 17/10/2010, 1♂, Bob De Groff, AUMNH]; 10 miles SE Dove Creek, 0.5 miles E CR 15 on Rd N, 37.69978 -108.76347 4, 7028ft., [APH_0787, 8/10/2009, 1♂, Robert De Groff, AUMNH]; 11 miles SE Dove Creek, 37.639983 -108.80134 2, 6744ft., [APH_1433, 4/11/2011, 1♂, Bob De Groff, AUMNH]; Dove Creek, 37.7661 -108.905939 5, 6861ft., [AUMS_2632, 8/10/2002, 1♂, Dessie Watson and La Veta Martin, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2640, 28/10/2001, 1♂, Emullest, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2657, 4/10/2002, 1♂, E & R Summers, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2658, 30/9/2002, 1♀, E & J Crawford, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2661, 25/10/2001, 1♂, Jake Holley, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2662, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2663, 7/10/2001, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2665, 9/10/2002, 1♂, J. Fury, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2666, 28/10/2001, 1♂, Glenda Holley, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2656, 9/10/2002, 1♀, Jeff Martinez and Buddy Banks, AUMNH]; Montezuma: Town of Cortez, 0.4 miles N CR-G on Creek 22.6, 37.31811 -108.62973 2, 5930ft., [APH_1237, 3/10/2010, 1♂, Bob De Groff, AUMNH]; Montrose: Nucla, 38.24624 -108.545593 5, 5840ft., [APH_2604, 8/10/1964, 1♂, L. Anderson, AMNH]; Nucla, 5 miles N CO-97, 38.26991 -108.54767 5, 5816ft., [APH_0008, 9/10/2004, 1♂, Peggy Case, AUMNH]; New Mexico: Catron: 0.4 miles E Hwy-180 on Hwy-12, 33.694408 -108.855012 1, 6344ft., [APH_1396, 6/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.7 miles E Hwy-180 on Hwy-12, 33.69624 -108.849978 1, 6312ft., [APH_1397, 6/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 11.4 miles N Hwy-12 on Hwy-32, 33.975757 -108.674004 1, 7560ft., [APH_1399, 6/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 3.8 miles E Hwy-180 on Hwy-12, 33.717351 -108.803131 1, 6086ft., [APH_1398, 6/10/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 9.1 miles S Hwy-60 on Hwy-32, 34.222511 -108.541725 1, 7299ft., [APH_1400, 6/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Swingle Canyon Rd, 34.179194 -107.896824 1, 7639ft., [APH_1534, 5/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Cibola: El Morro National Monument, along Hwy-53, 35.043388 -108.343568 1, 7182ft., [APH_1410, 9/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Grant: 3.6 miles E Hwy-15 on Hwy-35 (Ruins Vista Trail), 33.034239 -108.163433 1, 6165ft., [APH_1401, 7/10/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Gila National Forest, 33.32663 -108.334031 6, 7802ft., [APH_2575, 20/8/1975, 1♂, Riectert, AMNH]; Meadow Creek, 33.034779 -108.184903 5, 5928ft., [APH_2621, 16/10/1978, 1♂, MH♂, AMNH]; [APH_2634, 4/12/1977, 1♂, M.H. Muma, AMNH]; Los Alamos: 0.45 miles SE Bandelier National Monument entrance on Hwy-4, 35.791144 -106.267812 1, 6614ft., [APH_1422, 11/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; McKinley: Zuni, 0.44 miles W CR-8 on Hwy-53, 35.068318 -108.859058 1, 6272ft., [APH_1409, 9/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Rio Arriba: 2.75 miles E CR-247 on Hwy-111/554, 36.349489 -106.146003 1, 7122ft., [APH_1536, 6/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 2.8 miles S El Rito on Hwy-554, 36.304638 -106.183638 1, 6741ft., [APH_1535, 6/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Chama Canyon Road, 8 miles west of Hwy 84, 36.585467 -106.725334 5, 6821ft., [APH_2051, 6/10/1963, 1♂, William A. Shear, AMNH]; Valencia Canyon, Carson National Forest, 36.5850096 -107.2461544 5, 6745ft., [APH_2050, 25/10/1963, 1♂, William A. Shear, AMNH]; [APH_2052, 26/10/1963, 1♂, William A. Shear, AMNH]; San Juan: 0.4 miles E CR-7635 along dirt road, 36.28073 -107.8757 2, 6721ft., [APH_1431-1432, 4/11/2011, 2♂, Amber Williams, AUMNH]; along dirt road just W of Rio Arriba County line, 36.29967 -107.63205 2, 7236ft., [APH_1430, 1/11/2011, 1♂, Amber Williams, AUMNH]; Sandoval: Jemez Springs, 35.768636 -106.692258 5, 6204ft., [APH_2320, unknown, 1♀, 1♂, Gertsch, AMNH]; Santa Fe National Forest, River’s Bend Rec Area, off Hwy-4, 35.713267 -106.723601 1, 5827ft., [APH_1524, 1/10/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; [APH_1542, 7/10/2012, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Taos: 10.4 miles SE Hwy-285 on Hwy-64, 36.582832 -105.798461 1, 7388ft., [APH_1417, 11/10/2011, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 2.4 miles SE Hwy-285 on Hwy-64, 36.632836 -105.927053 1, 7942ft., [APH_1413, 11/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 2.87 miles E Hwy-285 on Hwy-567, 36.361557 -105.846664 1, 7057ft., [APH_1537, 6/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 3.7 miles E Rio Grande Gorge on Hwy-64, 36.465284 -105.66766 1, 7087ft., [APH_1421, 11/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 5.2 miles SE Hwy-285 on Hwy-64, 36.615257 -105.881934 1, 7708ft., [APH_1414, 11/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 7.5 miles N Hwy-64 on Hwy-285, 36.75308 -105.982277 1, 8229ft., [APH_1525, 2/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 8.6 miles SE Hwy-285 on Hwy-64, 36.594161 -105.827864 1, 7502ft., [APH_1415-1416, 11/10/2011, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; along Hwy-64, 36.479505 -105.748914 1, 6906ft., [APH_1539-1541, 6/10/2012, 3♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; along Hwy-64, Taos Plateau Access Road, 36.561091 -105.769216 1, 7356ft., [APH_1528, 2/10/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Hwy-570 at the bottom of the Rio Grande Gorge, 36.319072 -105.755713 1, 6388ft., [APH_1538, 6/10/2012, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; near jct. Sheep Herder Rd and Upper Rim Rd (0.9 miles W Rio Grande Gorge on Hwy-64), 36.480253 -105.747771 1, 7031ft., [APH_1418-1420, 11/10/2011, 1♀, 2♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Utah: San Juan: along Mustang Rd, near Blanding, 37.676633 -109.403537 1, 6478ft., [APH_1411, 10/10/2011, 1♂, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Black Ridge area, south of Moab, 38.389 -109.372 6, 6706ft., [APH_1444, 2/9/2011, 1♂, Corina Smith, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma marxi  has a wide distribution across higher elevation areas of northern Arizona (Fig. 1B), northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, and southeastern Utah (Fig. 92) in the following Level III Ecoregions: Arizona/New Mexico Plateau, Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, Colorado Plateaus, and Southern Rockies. These tarantulas have been found in a variety of habitats including mixed conifer forests and sagebrush steppe. Aphonopelma marxi  can be found syntopic with Aphonopelma chalcodes  and Aphonopelma mareki  . The breeding season, when mature males abandon their burrows in search of females, occurs during the fall (generally September–November). Additional details about the natural history of this species (discussed under the section on Aphonopelma behlei  ) are provided by Smith (1995).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma marxi  has a wide distribution across higher elevation habitats centered on the Four Corners region of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Some populations appear to be restricted to isolated mountains (e.g., Mount Ord) but are otherwise very common (but can be quite difficult to find due to the cryptic nature of their burrows). The species is likely secure.

Remarks.

Because no labeled types existed, Prentice (1997) examined additional material at the NMNH and designated a neotype, a New Mexico male, based on measurements matching Simon’s (1891) original description. We use this designation as the basis for our definition of Aphonopelma marxi  . Efforts to locate the holotype of Aphonopelma vogelae  (from Aztec, New Mexico) in the Oklahoma State University collection were unsuccessful and the specimen is presumed lost (Richard Grantham 2013, pers. comm.); the identity of this species, however, is not in question so we have designated a neotype from northwestern New Mexico (see above; deposited in AUMNH). We examined the holotype and freshly collected topotypic material of Aphonopelma behlei  as well as the neotype of Aphonopelma vogelae  . Our morphological and molecular analyses fail to recognize these two species as separate, independently evolving lineages. As a consequence, we consider Aphonopelma behlei  and Aphonopelma vogelae  junior synonyms of Aphonopelma marxi  .

Other important ratios that distinguish males: Aphonopelma marxi  possess a larger T1/M1 (≥1.39; 1.39-1.52) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤1.13; 0.99-1.13), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤1.24; 1.08-1.24), Aphonopelma mareki  (≤1.33; 1.26-1.33), Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≤1.36; 1.09-1.36); by possessing a larger PTl/M3 (≥0.92; 0.92-1.16) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (≤0.76; 0.65-0.76), Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤0.81; 0.71-0.81), Aphonopelma mareki  (≤0.92; 0.76-0.92), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≤0.87; 0.71-0.87). Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma marxi  possess a larger L1/L3 (≥1.17; 1.17-1.21) than Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤1.15; 1.07-1.15); by possessing a larger T1/T4 (≥1.06; 1.06 -1.14) than Aphonopelma hentzi  (≤1.05; 0.85-1.05), Aphonopelma mareki  (≤1.01; 0.94-1.01), and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  (≤0.98; 0.93-0.98); by possessing a larger L4 scopulation extent (33%-51%) than Aphonopelma mareki  (21%-27%) and smaller than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (56%-81%). For both males and females, certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no others are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional PCA morphospace, males of Aphonopelma marxi  separate in PCA morphological space from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma mareki  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  sp. n., and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  but do not separate from the sky island species Aphonopelma catalina  sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua  sp. n., and Aphonopelma madera  sp. n.. Female Aphonopelma marxi  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , and Aphonopelma mareki  in morphological space, but do not separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma madera  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . Interestingly, Aphonopelma marxi  males separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  , and Aphonopelma vorhiesi  in three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), but do not separate from Aphonopelma chiricahua  or Aphonopelma madera  . Aphonopelma marxi  females separate from Aphonopelma catalina  , Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma chiricahua  , Aphonopelma hentzi  , Aphonopelma mareki  , Aphonopelma peloncillo  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma madera  or Aphonopelma vorhiesi  . PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥96% of the variation in all analyses.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma marxi (Simon, 1891)

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Delopelma marxi

Petrunkevitch 1939

1939
Loc

Delopelma simulatum

Petrunkevitch 1939

1939
Loc

Aphonopelma marxi

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma marxi

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma (Delopelma) simulatum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma simulatum

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma behlei

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma behlei

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma vogeli

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Aphonopelma vogelae

Pocock 1901

1901
Loc

Rhechostica marxi

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica simulatum

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Rhechostica behlei

Simon 1892

1892
Loc

Eurypelma marxi

Koch 1850

1850