Xyphinus Simon 1893

Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne, 2014, The goblin spider genus Xyphinus (Araneae; Oonopidae), Zootaxa 3870 (1), pp. 1-79 : 4-6

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3870.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0844EBCA-5432-4912-80B6-150732635B78

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5120429

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/C73B87AE-0D51-FFFE-2FAE-DCA0FA1BFE5A

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Xyphinus Simon 1893
status

 

Xyphinus Simon 1893

Xyphinus Simon, 1893: 76 (type species by monotypy Xyphinus hystrix Simon ).

Pseudotriaeris Brignoli, 1974: 77 (type Gamasomorpha karschi Bösenberg & Strand, 1906 ). Syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Members of this genus resemble those of Gamasomorpha , Brignolia and other genera of the subfamily Oonopinae in having heavily sclerotized dorsal and ventral abdominal scuta (e.g. figs 1C, 3C), spineless legs and relatively large eyes (e.g. Figs 1D View FIGURE 1 , 3D View FIGURE 3 ). They can easily be distinguished from all other genera by the long and ribbed pedicel tube (e.g. figs 1C, 3C) and by the male palps with several long or plate-like, strongly sclerotized apophyses (e.g. figs 14A–E, 46A–G). The female epigastric region usually shows a tongue-like structure, not present in similar genera (e.g. fig. 7F–H).

Description. Total length of males 1.4–2.3 mm, of females 1.7–2.4 mm; cephalothorax, legs, and abdominal scuta orange to orange-brown. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace without any pattern, without radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, rebordered, with blunt denticles or spikes (e.g. figs 1A,C; 5A,C; 26A,C), with needle-like setae, with pits (e.g. fig. 24A, arrow) or without pits (e.g. figs 33A; 37A) on posterolateral edge. Eyes six, well developed. Sternum coloration uniform, sickle-shaped structures present (e.g. figs 1B; 5B, arrow). Chelicerae without tooth-like projections, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified; setae evenly scattered. In males anteromedian part of endites with backwards folded ridge (e.g. figs 9B; 17B, arrow), posteromedian part sclerotized. Female palp without claw or spines but spine-like setae present on femora (e.g. fig. 7E), patella and tibia sometimes with more or less pronounced microsculpture (e.g. fig. 41H, arrow). ABDOMEN: Ovoid, without long posterior extensions, without color pattern. Book-lung covers large (e.g. figs 1C,E; 7F; 11F; 29F). Pedicel tube long, ribbed (e.g. figs 1C, 3C; 39B). Scutum extending far dorsal of pedicel. Dorsal scutum covering whole length of abdomen, strongly sclerotized. Epigastric and postepigastric scutum strongly sclerotized, sometimes with posteriorly directed apodemes (e.g. figs 37B; 49B). Spinneret scutum present, incomplete ring, with fringe of needle-like setae; supra-anal scutum absent; dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. LEGS: without color pattern. GENITALIA: Male epigastric region with sperm pore large (e.g. figs 1B; 22B). Male palp of normal size, distal parts strongly sclerotized, right and left palps symmetrical, tibia with three trichobothria, bulb pale, stout. Prolateral surface of patella and tibia sometimes with more or less pronounced microsculpture (e.g. figs 6A,B,D; 14A,C; 19D,G,H,I, arrow). Dark apophyses in various shapes and sizes present, elongated or plate-like (e.g. figs 14A–E; 30A–H; 62A–E), embolus not discernible. The female epigastric area is more or less protruding, the ventral plate is divided into an anterior and a posterior scutum, the latter consisting of a massive oval sclerite, with strongly sclerotized elements, sometimes extremely elongated posteriorly (e.g. figs 7G,H; 11G; 35E).

Distribution. Asia and Australia

Key to species

Females unknown for X. montanus , X. sabal sp. nov. and X. infaustus sp. nov.

1. Pits on carapace present ( Fig. 24A View FIGURE 24 , arrow).................................................................. 2

- Pits on carapace absent ( Fig. 26A View FIGURE 26 )........................................................................ 4

2. Carapace with very long spikes ( Figs. 1A View FIGURE 1 ; 3A View FIGURE 3 )....................................................... X. hystrix

- Carapace sides with blunt denticles ( Figs 22A View FIGURE 22 ; 24A View FIGURE 24 )..................................................... X. xelo

- Carapace sides without denticles ( Figs 39A View FIGURE 39 ; 41A View FIGURE 41 )...................................................... X. krabi

- Carapace with sharply pointed denticles ( Figs 45D View FIGURE 45 ; 49D View FIGURE 49 )...................................................... 3

3. Male palpal apophysis racket-like; female epigastric area with bubble-like structure ( Figs 46A–G View FIGURE 46 ; 48A–H View FIGURE 48 ).. X. rogerfedereri

- Male palpal apophysis scissor-like; female epigastric area with folded scape ( Figs 50A–F View FIGURE 50 ; 52B–F View FIGURE 52 )............. X. pachara

- Male palpal apophysis twisted; female epigastric area appearing as ring in lateral view ( Figs 62A–E View FIGURE 62 ; 63C View FIGURE 63 )....... X. distortus

4. Carapace surface elevated portion and sides smooth ( Figs 5A View FIGURE 5 ; 9A View FIGURE 9 )............................................... 5

- Carapace surface elevated portion and sides reticulate ( Fig. 55D View FIGURE 55 ).............................................. 12

5. Male bulb with very long, sclerotized apophysis and microsculpture on the prolateral side of patella and tibia; female epigastric area triangle-shaped with median stripe ( Figs 14A–E View FIGURE 14 ; 16A–D View FIGURE 16 )....................................... X. lemniscatus

- Male bulb and female epigastric area different............................................................... 6

6. Anterior part of abdomen provided with sharply pointed denticles ( Figs 5A,E View FIGURE 5 ; 7A,F View FIGURE 7 ).................... X. abanghamidi

- Anterior part of abdomen unmodified ( Figs 11A,C View FIGURE 11 )........................................................... 7

7. Tip of abdomen bulging, overlapping carapace, almost reaching highest point of carapace ( Fig. 9C View FIGURE 9 ).................... 8

- Tip of abdomen not bulging ( Fig. 20C View FIGURE 20 ).................................................................... 11

8. Male palp without microsculpture ( Fig. 10A View FIGURE 10 )................................................................ 9

- Male palp with microsculpture ( Fig. 27A View FIGURE 27 )................................................................. 10

9. Male palpal bulb heavily sclerotized, with broad, dark apophysis and pointed outgrowth dorsally ( Figs 9G–I View FIGURE 9 ; 10A–C View FIGURE 10 ); female epigastric area circle-shaped with broad median stripe ( Figs 11B View FIGURE 11 ; 12A–B View FIGURE 12 ).................................. X. gibber

- Male palpal bulb slightly sclerotized, with bifid apophysis ( Fig. 17I View FIGURE 17 ); female unknown...................... X. montanus

- Male palpal bulb slightly sclerotized, with short apophyses; endites bulging distally ( Fig. 43B View FIGURE 43 ); female unknown...................................................................................................... X. infaustus

10. Male palp with microsculpture and thin, elongated apophysis ventrally ( Fig. 30A–D View FIGURE 30 ); female epigastric area with small triangle-shaped protrusion ( Fig. 32A–D View FIGURE 32 )............................................................ X. deelemanae

11. Male palp with microsculpture and broad, elongated apophysis ( Fig. 34A–F View FIGURE 34 ); female epigastric area with elongated pointed scape ( Fig. 35B,E View FIGURE 35 ; 36A–D View FIGURE 36 )....................................................................... X. acutus

12. Male palpal patella and tibia with microsculpture, bulb with broad, beak-shaped apophysis ( Fig. 19A–H View FIGURE 19 ); female epigastric area with narrow triangle-shaped protrusion ( Fig. 21A,B View FIGURE 21 ).............................................. X. xanthus

13. Small species; male palpal patella and tibia with fine microsculpture, bulb with short apophyses ( Fig. 27A–F View FIGURE 27 ); female epigastric area with small, roundish structure ( Fig. 28D–G View FIGURE 28 ).................................................. X. holgeri

14. Male palp with three strong setae on the prolateral surface of the cymbium ( Fig. 38A–C View FIGURE 38 ); female unknown........ X. sabal

15. Male palp without strong setae ( Fig. 54B–F View FIGURE 54 )............................................................... 13

16. Male palpal cymbium laterally protruding ( Figs 53B; 53E View FIGURE 53 ; 54D–E View FIGURE 54 ); female epigastric area with sclerotized arch and fine median stripe ( Fig. 56B View FIGURE 56 )......................................................................... X. karschi

17. Male palpal patella with microsculpture ( Fig. 58C View FIGURE 58 ); female epigastric area with sclerotized arch and thick transverse ridge ( Fig. 59H View FIGURE 59 )................................................................................... X. baehrae

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Loc

Xyphinus Simon 1893

Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne 2014
2014
Loc

Pseudotriaeris

Brignoli, P. M. 1974: 77
1974
Loc

Xyphinus

Simon, E. 1893: 76
1893