TRAVUNIIDAE Absolon & Kratochvil , 1932

Derkarabetian, Shahan, Starrett, James, Tsurusaki, Nobuo, Ubick, Darrell, Castillo, Stephanie & Hedin, Marshal, 2018, A stable phylogenomic classification of Travunioidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) based on sequence capture of ultraconserved elements, ZooKeys 760, pp. 1-36: 1

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TRAVUNIIDAE Absolon & Kratochvil , 1932


Family TRAVUNIIDAE Absolon & Kratochvil, 1932 

Type genus.

Travunia  Absolon, 1920.

Type species.

Travunia troglodytes  (Roewer, 1915).


It is difficult to diagnose the Travuniidae  as all taxa have yet to be examined for all relevant characters. For all species in which male genitalia have been examined, the glans is widened and flattened with lateral extensions, tooth-like in Trojanella  and wing-like in Travunia  and Dinaria  . The Travuniidae  as defined here are restricted to the European Dinaric Karst and are highly troglomorphic, completely blind with a highly reduced ocularium (Figure 1F). The penis of Travunia  and Dinaria  is undifferentiated, while that of cladonychiids shows a clear division between glans and shaft. Trojanella  shows some similarities in glans structure to Holoscotolemon  and Peltonychia  (e.g., divided glans and shaft), but the penis musculature is restricted to the apical portion of the shaft and glans in Trojanella  , while the musculature of the European cladonychiids are restricted to the basal portion of the shaft.

Included genera and species.

Travunia  . The genus Travunia  includes four described species that are all highly troglomorphic and restricted to caves in the southern Dinaric Karst region of Europe: T. borisi  ( Hadži, 1973) from Bosnia and Herzegovina, T. hofferi  ( Šilhavý, 1937) from Montenegro, T. jandai  Kratochvíl, 1937 from Croatia, and T. troglodytes  (Roewer, 1915) from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Trojanella  (Figure 1F). This monotypic genus is represented by T. serbica  Karaman, 2005, a highly troglomorphic species restricted to a single cave on Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia.

Dinaria  . A monotypic genus represented by the highly troglomorphic species D. vjetrenicae  ( Hadži, 1932) known only from Vjetrenica Cave in southern Bosnia and Herzegovina.


It is not surprising that Trojanella  is included in the most early-diverging travunioid lineage given Karaman’s (2005) statement that this species is a "unique and isolated phylogenetic line in the superfamily". Karaman’s decision to leave Trojanella  unplaced in Travunioidea  was made to highlight, and is a consequence of, the commonly used morphological characters that have hindered a reliable taxonomy within this group. It is unclear how many species of Travunia  actually exist. Novak (2004) questioned the validity of Travunia  , Dinaria  , and Abasola  at the generic level, and Abasola  was later synonymized with Travunia  ( Kury and Mendes 2007). Novak (2004, 2005) argues that Travunia  may be oversplit and includes only 2-3 species of questionable status. The status of Travunia  and Dinaria  as distinct genera has been questioned based on similarity in male genitalic morphology ( Novak 2004); together these might represent a single lineage.