Chionaspis caudata Vea

Vea, Isabelle M., Gwiazdowski, Rodger A. & Normark, Benjamin B., 2013, Corroborating molecular species discovery: Four new pine-feeding species of Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae), ZooKeys 270, pp. 37-58 : 42-44

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Chionaspis caudata Vea

sp. n.

Chionaspis caudata Vea   ZBK sp. n. Figure 2

Morphogroup C in Gwiazdowski et al. (2011).

Type material.

Type locality: Mexico, Oaxaca state, Oaxaca, 16°11.99'N, 96°31.52'W, on needle of Pinus patulata longipedunculata (Loock ex Martínez), 28 August 2007, R. Gwiazdowski and M. Dahlberg coll.

Type specimens:

Holotypeadult female, slide-mount in balsam. Original label "D1703D Mexico: Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Hwy 175, 28.viii. 2007, 16°11'59"N, 96°31'30.9"W, R. Gwiazdowski, M. Dahlberg, Pinus patulata longipedunculata ", deposited at CNIN.

Paratypes: adult female, slide-mount in balsam, D1703A, same information as the holotype, deposited at USNM. Adult female, slide mount in balsam, D1703G, same collection data as the holotype, deposited at USNM. Adult females on separate slides, D1703F, H, I, J, K and L, same information as D1703D, deposited UNAM for all but D1703F, deposited at CNIN.

Other material examined: Adult female, slide mount in balsam. Original label "D1702A, Mexico: Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Hwy 175, 28.iii.2007, 16°10'31.3"N, 96°30'24.2"W, R. Gwiazdowski and M. Dahlberg, Pinus pseudostrobus oaxacana ", deposited at UMAM. Adult female, slide mount in balsam. Original label "D2275C, Mexico, Xalapa, HWY 131, ~2.6 km N of Atzalan, 15.i.2009, Pinus chiapensis "; adult female, slide mount in balsam. Orginal label "D2292C, Mexico, Guerrero, ~30 km, North E of Atoyac de Alvarez along road perpendicular to HWY 200, 20.i.2009, Pinus chiapensis "; adult female, slide mount in balsam, D2292D, same collection data as D2292C; adult female, slide mount in balsam. Original label "D2296B. Mexico, Chiapas, ~13.5 km North of Chamula, 24.i.2009, Pinus chiapensis "; adult female, slide mount in balsam, D2296C, same collection data as D2296B; all additional material deposited at UMAM.


Chionaspis caudata Vea differs from other Chionaspis with the following combination of characters (Table 1): median lobes (L1) unyoked, parallel-sided, with a single gland spine between them, subtended by a microduct; submedian microducts absent on abdominal segment 7; gland spine absent on abdominal segment 5; head square-shaped, body with an extended thorax relative to other pine-feeding Chionaspis .


Field characters: All pine-feeding Chionaspis reported here, including Chionaspis heterophyllae and Chionaspis pinifoliae are indistinguishable by eye in the field. See the description above for Chionaspis brachycephalon Vea.

Slide-mounted adult female (Figure 2), spindle-shaped and elongate, slightly lobed to parallel-sided laterally; length of holotype 1.75 mm, range (n= 11) 1.38 - 2.03mm; maximum width of holotype: 0.61 mm; range (n=11) 0.48 - 0.7mm.

Pygidium:Lobes. Posterior margin with 3 pairs of lobes (L1, L2 and L3), fourth pair (L4) appears as series of low, sclerotized points; paraphyses absent. L1 separated by a space 0.6 - 1 (0.73) times width of lobes, without a yoke, lobes completely separated, lateral margins parallel-sided, entire, rarely notched; L2 bilobed, smaller than L1, lobules subequal, inner lobule slightly notched, outer lobule entire; L3 bilobed, medial lobule similar to L2, lateral lobule recessed and serrated. Gland spines. Gland spine formula varying from 1-1-1 to 3-3-2 (2-2-1) (microduct formula varying from 1-1-1 to 3-3-1 (2-2-1)), with always 1 gland spine between L1, subtended by 1 microduct; gland spine on segment 5 always absent. Gland spine microduct slender with a relatively developed collar at apex. Ducts. Large macroducts in submedian area of segments 5 and 6 (with 4 - 6 (6) on segment 5 and 3 - 4 (3) on segment 6); in submarginal areas of segment 5 (with 4 - 8 (7) macroducts); marginal area of segments 5 to 7 (with 1 on segment 7, 2 - 3 (2) on segment 6, 2 - 3 (2) on segment 5); absent on segment 8. Largest macroduct on segment 7 (between L1 and L2) 15 - 22.5 (20) μm long. Pygidial microducts always on venter in submarginal areas of segment 5 and 6, with 1 - 2 (2) duct on segment 5 and 2-3 (2) ducts on segment 6, always absent from segment 7; pygidial microducts absent from dorsum. Pores. Perivulvar pores with 5 loculi, in 5 groups, 1 median group with 10 - 15 (13) pores, 2 anterolateral groups with 23 - 27 (25) pores, 2 posterolateral groups with 18 - 27 (24) pores. Anal opening. Diameter 15 - 22.5 (17.5) μm, located 6.7 - 11.7 (9.9) times length of anal opening from base of median lobes. Setae. Dorsal setae: 2 setose on L1, 1 spinose between lobules of L2 and L3. Ventral setae: 1 small on L1, 1 marginal at base of each gland spine cluster and 1 submarginal area of each segment, 2 on submedian aerea of segment 6, half as long as dorsal setae; 2 pairs of setae in a row anterior to the vulva.

Prepygidium:Gland spines. Near each body margin from segment 1 or 2 to 4, with 0 - 4 on segment 1, 0 - 5 (4) on segment 2, 1 - 7 (4) on segment 3 and 1 - 2 (1) gland spines on segment 4, which are short and protrude from the margin. Gland spines from segment 1 to 3 are the smallest, and never protrude from the margin. Ducts. Macroducts of 2 sizes; largest macroducts in submedian areas of abdominal segments 4 and 3. Small macroducts in submedian area of segments 3 and 4, and in submarginal areas of segments 1 to 4. Prepygidial microducts present on venter from segment 1 to segment 3, in marginal or submarginal areas from head to segments 2 to 3. Prepygidial microducts on dorsum on segments 1 to 4, often in conspicuous clusters submedially.

Cephalothorax: Small macroducts present on last thoracic segment, marginally and submarginally. Microducts present on both surfaces, evenly distributed. Perispiracular pores primarily with 3 loculi, anterior spiracles with 6 - 8 (7) pores, posterior spiracles with 2 - 3 (2) pores. Eyes represented by small sclerotized area, located on body margin at level near anterior clypeolabral shield. Antennae each with 1 long seta. Distance between antennae 122.5 - 375 (135) μm.


Chionaspis caudata Vea possesses an unusual median gland spine between the median lobes. The epithet caudata is a Latin adjective meaning tailed (caudate), derived from cauda, tail, and referring to this peculiar feature.


Chionaspis caudata Vea differs from the other species by the rather square-shaped head and noticeably longer body, the presence of a single gland spine subtended by one microduct between the median lobes, and the gland spine formula. The presence of the median gland spine is striking as this feature prevents this species from keying to the genus Chionaspis (or indeed any related genus) in available keys to genera; however, the phylogenetic analyses of Gwiazdowski et al. (2011) unambiguously place Chionaspis caudata Vea within Chionaspis .