Virola cogolloi D. Santam., 2022

Santamaria-Aguilar, Daniel & Lagomarsino, Laura P., 2022, New Species of Virola (Myristicaceae) from South America, PhytoKeys 197, pp. 81-148 : 81

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scientific name

Virola cogolloi D. Santam.

sp. nov.

5. Virola cogolloi D. Santam. sp. nov.


Colombia. Antioquia: Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orquídeas”, Sector Cruces, margen derecha del Rio Calles , camino de Cruces hacia Venados , 06°30'N, 076°19'W, 840-870 m, 23 Feb 1989 (♂ fl), Á. Cogollo 4198 (holotype: MO! [accession 4235971, barcode MO-2560852]; isotypes: COL [n.v.; accession 333167]). Fig. 10 View Figure 10 GoogleMaps


Virola cogolloi previously confused with V. macrocarpa both from Colombian montane forests. These species have similar size and shape of the fruits and abaxial leaf blades with stellate, sessile trichomes. Morphologically, it differs from V. macrocarpa in leaf blade densely pubescent abaxially (vs. sparsely pubescent), small fruits (2.7-3.2 cm long vs. [2.7-] 3.5-4.5 cm), cover with persistent trichomes (vs. caducous trichomes), and thinner pericarp (1.9-2.1 mm vs. [2.7-] 3-4.7 mm).

Tree (7-) 14-20 m × (8-) 17-24 cm diameter, inner bark not described. Exudate watery, oxidizing reddish, location of exudate on plant not stated. Twigs 0.43-0.54 cm thick, terete or laterally compressed, tomentose, trichomes dendritic, sessile, ferruginous, without lenticels on young twigs, but present on mature twigs. Leaves young terminal bud 2 × 0.4 cm; petiole 1.7-2.4 × (0.28-) 0.32-0.6 cm, slightly to deeply canaliculate, very often shortly winged, glabrescent to tomentulose, the trichomes dendritic; leaf blades 25-29.7 × (9.2-) 10.8-15 cm, widely elliptical; adaxial surface of mature leaves drying blackish to dark brown, the surface smooth, sometimes shiny, glabrous; abaxial surface drying brown, densely pubescent, the trichomes stellate, ca. 0.1 mm diameter, sessile, the central part of the trichome reddish to dark reddish, the branches reddish to brown-reddish; lateral veins ca. 12-14 per side, 3 veins per 5 cm, spaced 1.9-2.5 cm apart, on adaxial side the same color as the adaxial surface, flat to slightly raised, on abaxial surface blackish, raised, puberulent to glabrescent above, densely pubescent to the sides, arcuate-ascending, slightly anastomosing near the margin and without forming a very marked intramarginal vein; tertiary veins very slightly visible on both sides; midvein adaxially flat to slightly elevated, abaxially raised, rounded to laterally compressed, tomentose to puberulent, more pubescent to the sides; base obtuse, not revolute, flat; margin flat; apex acute or obtuse. Staminate inflorescence 7.5-9 cm long, axes flattened, tomentose, trichomes dendritic, ferruginous; peduncle 2.3-2.5 × 0.32-0.37 cm; main axis with 4-6 ramifications, the first pair opposite to subopposite, the others alternate; bracts not seen. Staminate flowers (in bud) in lax terminal fascicles of 5-8 flowers, on a receptacle 1.6-2 mm wide; perianth 3.5-4.1 mm long, elliptic to elongate, fleshy, yellowish when fresh, connate by 1.5-2.3 mm long, external surface densely pubescent with ferruginous and dendritic trichomes, internal surface densely pubescent (especially in the lobes); lobes 3 (4), 1.8-2 × 0.6-0.9 (-1.4) mm and 0.2-0.3 (-0.5) mm thick, without resinous punctuations when rehydrated; stamens 3, the filament column 1.2-1.4 mm long and 0.2-0.3 (-0.5) mm wide, glabrous, straight to bottle-shaped, constricted at the apex; anthers 1.1-1.2 mm long, ca. 0.4 mm wide; apiculus 0.2-0.3 mm long, acuminate, slightly separated distally. Pistillate inflorescence and flowers unknown. Infructescence 6-6.5 cm long, with 1-3 fruits, peduncle 2-3.4 × 0.75 cm. Fruits 2.7-3.2 × 1.7-2.2 cm, when fresh brown or ferruginous (probably by the trichomes), or green and covered with brown trichomes, subglobose to ellipsoid, sessile or shortly stipitate, densely tomentose, persistent, the trichomes dendritic, sessile, ferruginous, the trichomes not falling easily like dust, the surface smooth to slightly rugose, the line of dehiscence smooth, the base obtuse, the apex obtuse to acute; pericarp 1.2-1.6 mm thick on the thinnest side, 1.9-2.1 mm thick on the thickest side; pedicel 0.5-0.8 cm long. Seed 2.2-2.4 × 1.3-1.4 cm, the testa brown to brown reddish when dry, slightly ribbed distally; aril color when fresh described as red or creamy, brown to brown reddish when dry, the texture dry and thin, laciniate almost to the base, in narrow bands distally.

Distinctive characters.

Virola cogolloi is best distinguished by the combination of its wide leaf blades that are abaxially covered with dense but inconspicuous stellate and sessile trichomes and with lateral veins that are well-separated (Fig. 4G View Figure 4 ); wide staminate inflorescences with few flowers per fascicle; and staminate flowers with fleshy perianth lobes that are internally covered by a dense layer of trichomes (especially on the lobes) and filament columns that are longer (1.2-1.4 mm long) than the anthers (1.1-1.2 mm long). It is also distinctive for its densely tomentose fruits with relatively thin pericarp (1.2-1.6 mm thick, the thinnest side) (Fig. 6G View Figure 6 ) and a seed covered by a thin aril that is laciniate almost to the base.


The specific epithet honors Álvaro Cogollo Pacheco, the Colombian botanist who collected most known specimens of this new species as well for his valuable contribution to our knowledge of the Colombian flora. We celebrate his important contributions to botany, epitomized by his numerous collections, ~48 of which now represent type specimens ( Tropicos 2021). Álvaro is author of the Myristicaceae treatment for the Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Antioquia ( Cogollo 2011), among others.


Virola cogolloi is known only from Colombia (Antioquia department) (Fig. 18C View Figure 18 ). It is found between 840-1500 m elevation in premontane forest in Las Orquídeas National Park in the Western Cordillera of Colombia.


Specimens with staminate flowers of Virola cogolloi were collected in February and May. Fruits have been observed in February, April to July. Pistillate flowers were not seen in the studied material.

Common name and uses.

Sebo (Colombia; Á. Cogollo et al. 4195).

Preliminary conservation status.

Virola cogolloi is Endangered following IUCN criteria B1a and B2a. It is known from three localities, has an EOO of 24 km2, and an AOO of 24 km2. While V. cogolloi benefits from its occurrence within Las Orquídeas National Park, this region (including within the national park) is still vulnerable to deforestation to expand human activities, including agriculture and livestock grazing ( González-Caro and Vásquez 2017; Pedraza-Peñalosa 2015).


Prior to our study, most of the specimens with fruits of Virola cogolloi were identified as V. macrocarpa . Both species grow in Colombian montane forests, respectively in the departments of Antioquia (840-1500 m elevation) and Boyacá (1100 m elevation). In addition to a shared habitat, these species have similar size and shape of the fruits and, like other species described here, abaxial leaf blades with stellate, sessile trichomes with a reddish central portion. However, V. cogolloi is distinguished by the size of its leaf blades, petiole thickness, separation of the lateral veins, and other features summarized in Table 6 View Table 6 .

A second Virola species ( V. tuckerae , formally described below) occurs with V. cogolloi . In addition to their similar distributions, these species share leaf blades that are densely pubescent abaxially (Fig. 4G, N View Figure 4 ). However, V. tuckerae , has narrower leaf blades with more lateral veins, a filament column that is shorter than the anthers, and a fruit that is covered by a dense layer of trichomes. A comparison between these two species is presented in Table 7 View Table 7 .


The specimens Á. Cogollo et al. 4195, cited as V. macrocarpa in Cogollo (2011), and [ Á.] Cogollo 3331, included in Gradstein (2016), both cited as V. macrocarpa , correspond with this new species.

Specimens examined.

Colombia. Antioquia: Urrao, Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orquídeas”, Vereda Cruces , camino a Piñares, poco después de la escuela La Esperanza , orilla izquierda del rio Calles , 06°28'56"N, 076°19'20"W, 960 m, 5 May 2013 (♂ fl), J. Betancur et al. 18081 (COL!, NY!); Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orquídeas”, Sector Calles, quebrada La Bironda, 06°31'N, 076°19'W, 1300-1500 m, 02 Apr 1992 (fr), D. Cárdenas & E. Alvarez 3239 (MO!); Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orquideas", Camino a San Mateo, margen izquierda de la Quebrada San Mateo, 06°33'N, 076°19'W, 1060 m, 07 Jun 1988 (fr), Á. Cogollo et al. 3331 (JAUM!, MO!); Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orquídeas”, sector Venados arriba, margen izquierda del rio Venados , 06°34'N, 076°19'W, 1110-1240 m, 27 Jul 1988 (fr imm), Á. Cogollo et al. 3553 (COL!, JAUM-2 sheets!, MO!); Parque Nacional Natural "Las Orquídeas”, Sector Cruces, margen derecha del rio Calles , camino de Cruces hacia Venados, 06°30'N, 076°19'W, 840-870 m, 23 Feb 1989 (fr), Á. Cogollo et al. 4195 (COL!, JAUM!, MO!); Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquídeas, Vereda Cruces, sitio Piñares, camino a Perdidas, poco después de la escuela La Esperanza, 06°28'35.5"N, 076°19'39.5"W, 980 m, 3 May 2013 (fr), S. E. Hoyos et al. 2254 (COL!) GoogleMaps .