Zelus luridus Stal , 1862
Zhang, Guanyang, Hart, Elwood R & Weirauch, Christiane, 2016, A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens, Biodiversity Data Journal 4, pp. 8150-8150 : 8150
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|Zelus luridus Stal , 1862|
Zelus luridus Stål, 1862, p. 452, orig. descr.; Stål, 1872, p. 91, cat. (subgenus Diplodus ) Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 152, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 259-260, junior syn. of Z. exsanguis ; Uhler, 1904, p. 364, list; Wirtner, 1904, p. 206, list; Torre-Bueno and Brimley, 1907, p. 437, list; Torre-Bueno, 1910, p. 32, note; Torre-Bueno and Engelhardt, 1910, p. 150, note; Torre-Bueno, 1913, p. 60, note (subgenus Diplodus ); Barger, 1914, p. 506, list; Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, junior syn. of Z. exsanguis ; Hart, 1986, p. 537, redescription, lectotype desig, note, key, fig. and stat. rev.; Maldonado, 1990, p. 329, cat.
Diplodus luridus : Uhler, 1872a, p. 471, checklist; Uhler, 187213, p. 420, note; Walker, 1873, p. 124, cat.; Uhler, 1876, p. 61, note; Uhler, 1877, p. 429, note; Uhler, 1878, p. 427, note; Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Provancher, 1887, p. 181, note; Van Duzee, 1894, p. 183, list; Gillette and Baker, 1895, p. 60, list.
Diplocodus luridus : Van Duzee, 1912, p. 324, note.
Zelus acanthogonius Say & Uhler, 1878, p. 427, manuscript name.
Evagoras viridis Uhler, 1878, p. 427, manuscript name
Reduvius sp. Emmons, 1854, p. 168, P1. 7, fig. 3, note and fig.
Zelus exsanguis [misapplication of name due to Champion's synonymy of Z. luridus under Z. exsanguis ]: Wirtner, 1904, p. 206, list; Barber, 1906, p. 285, list; Snow, 1907, p. 159, list; Parshley, 1914, p. 144, list; Hussey, 1922, p. 24, list; Britton, 1923, p. 687, list; Blatchley, 1926, p. 570-571, descr. and note ( Diplodus ); Readio, 1926, 167, P1. X, fig. 5, 6 and 7, note and fig.; Readio, 1927, p. 169, 171-177, P1. XIII, descr., notes and fig.; Leonard, 1928, p. 105, list; Brimley, 1938, p. 73, list; Harris, 1943, p. 151, list; Procter, 1946, p. 319, list; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Sibley, 1951, p. 92, list; Hall, Downe, MacLellan and West, 1953; p. 199-204, note; Dome and West, 1954, p. 181-184, behavior; West and De Long, 1955, p. 97-101, biology; Davis, 1961, p. 351, note; Drew and Schaeffer, 1962, p. 106, list; Whitcomb and Bell, 1964, p. 22, list; Kelton, 1968, p. 1070- 1071, note; Yonke and Medler, 1970, p. 441-443, biology.
Type status: Lectotype. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00041007 ; occurrenceRemarks: Lectotype of Zelusluridus Stål, 1862 (designated by Hart, 1986). Verbatim label info: Germar / Carolina / luridus Stal / Lectotype Zelusluridus Stal / designated by E.R.Hart / Typus / NHRS-GULI 000000333; recordedBy: Stal; sex: Adult Female; otherCatalogNumbers: NHRS-GULI 000000333; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusluridus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: North Carolina; county: unknown; locality: unknown ; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: No date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: NHRS Type status: Paralectotype. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00041007 ; occurrenceRemarks: Paralectotype of Zelusluridus Stål, 1862 (Designated by Hart, 1986); recordedBy: Stal; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusluridus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: North Carolina; county: unknown; locality: unknown ; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: No date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: NHRS Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Holotype of Darbanusgeorgiae Provancher, 1872, junior synonym of Zelusluridus Stål, 1862. Bears the following label: No. 114 Darbanusgeorgiae Prov. Zelusexsanguis (Stal).; sex: Adult Male; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusluridus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: Georgia; locality: unknown ; Event: eventDate: Macon Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Holotype of Darbanuspalliatus Provancher, junior synonym of Zelusluridus Stål, 1862. Bears the following labels: No. 247, Darbanuspalliatus Prov. Zelusexsanguis (Stal); sex: Adult Male; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusluridus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: CANADA; stateProvince: Ontario; Event: eventDate: Ottawa
Figs 130, 131, 132
Male: (Fig. 130a, b) Medium-sized, total length 13.21-15.27 mm (mean 13.89 mm, Suppl. material 2), slender. COLORATION: Yellowish-brown through reddish-brown to brownish-black, colors more vibrant in live individuals. Anteocular lobe uniformly yellowish-brown to reddish-brown or with dorsum variably reddish-brown to brownish-black with lighter lateral and ventral surfaces. Postocular lobe reddish-brown to brownish-black dorsally and laterally with mid-dorsal and occasionally circumocellar areas yellowish-brown, ventral surface yellowish-brown. Rostrum uniformly yellowish-brown to light reddish-brown. Antennae light reddish-brown, base and apex of scape and pedicel sometimes slightly darker than shaft. Anterior pronotal lobe yellowish-brown to brownish-black, light specimens usually with darker coloration on anterior portion of medial longitudinal sulcus and/or with setal tracts darker, many darker specimens with lateral margins and/or collar yellowish-brown, remainder of surface yellowish-brown. Dorsum of posterior lobe reddish-brown to brownish-black, lateral margins and usually posterior margins yellowish-brown, lateral processes of lighter specimens usually brownish-black, remainder of surface yellowish-brown. Scutellum reddish-brown to brownish-black with apex and sometimes posterior mid-dorsal surface yellowish-brown. Femora yellowish-brown to light reddish-brown, usually with dark bands or dorsal markings near apices, tibiae yellowish-brown to dark reddish-brown, usually slightly darker than femora. Hemelytron yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, some darker specimens with lighter veins in clavus and corium and/or lighter area along costal margin. Dorsum of abdomen reddish-brown, lateral and ventral surfaces yellowish-brown to light reddish-brown. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Anteocular lobe with short, recumbent and erect setae dorsally, erect setae predominating on vertex, sparse short erect and semi-erect setae on ventral half. Postocular lobe with mostly recumbent, some erect setae dorsally; lateroventral and ventral surfaces with moderate to long erect and scattered recumbent setae. Anterior pronotal lobe with short erect and recumbent setae over surface, confined to setal tracts dorsally, long erect setae laterally. Dorsum of posterior lobe with short recumbent setae, some short recumbent setae laterally, long erect setae lateroventrally. Lateral surface of scutellum with moderate to long erect setae, elevated dorsal surface nearly bare. Clavus and corium with inconspicuous short erect and recumbent setae. Abdomen dorsally with short, sparse, erect setae, remainder of surface with short erect and recumbent setae and some scattered longer erect setae. Exposed area of pygophore with short recument and short to long erect setae. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.44. Postocular lobe moderately long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion somewhat constricted. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; in lateral view removed from both dorsal and ventral surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.8: 0.4. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small protuberance; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening anterior to transverse sulcus of pronotum. Posterior pronotal lobe with rugulose surface; disc elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with tuberculate to long spinous lateral processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, slightly projected upward. Legs: Slender. Profemoral diameter slightly larger than mesofemoral diameter, metafemoral diameter slightly less than that of mesofemur. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small, elongate; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R. GENITALIA: (Fig. 131) Pygophore: Elongate ovoid; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process triangular; broad; short; erect; nearly straight; apex in posterior view blunt, without modification. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, slightly exceeding medial process; nearly straight; apical part slightly enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat squarish; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, surface flat; apex truncate, medially emarginate; posterior margin of foramen broadly inversely V-shaped. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally fused. Basal plate arm slender; separate; subparallel; in lateral view nearly straight, very slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate small and confined to apex of basal plate arm.
Female: (Fig. 130c, d) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 13.26-18.48 mm (mean 15.48 mm, Suppl. material 2). Coloration rather similar to that in male; lateral process on humeral angle dark brown, often longer; apices of femora reddish. Hemelytron slightly surpassing apex of abdomen.
Recognized by the following combination of characters: Yellow-green to green-black; apices of femora with reddish or brown bands; disc elevated above humeral angle. As with other members of the Zelus luridus species group, the medial process is triangular, its base distinct from rest of the ventral rim of pygophore and apex without modification (Fig. 131a, b). Zelus luridus has the pronotal disc noticeably elevated above and not continuous with the humeral angle, thus distinguishing it from both Z. exsanguis and Z. ambulans . Males of the two differ in significant ways in paramere and medial process (Fig. 3). Among males of the Zelus luridus species group, Z. luridus is similar to Z. antiguensis , and Z. grandoculus in having the paramere apex not greatly expanded. The medial process is narrower than that in Z. antiguensis . The eyes are not as prominent as those of Z. grandoculus . Among species with overlapping distributions, Z. luridus may be confused with Z. renardii . However, Z. renardii usually has the corium reddish, whereas it is greenish or dark brown in Z. luridus .
North America (Fig. 132). Countries with records: Canada, Mexico and USA.
This is one of the most commonly collected species in this genus. Hart (1986) discussed intraspecific variations and species identity confusions, which we briefly summarize here. Individuals in the western population (i.e., Southeastern Arizona) are larger than those from the eastern population. Eastern males have parameres somewhat more enlarged apically (Fig. 131a), and the apical half of the dorsal phallothecal sclerite is less expanded laterally (Fig. 131c). Since Champion (1898) synonymized Z. luridus and Z. ambulans under Z. exsanguis , almost all specimens collected from the US were labeled as Z. exsanguis . Zelus luridus has the disc clearly elevated above, and not continuous with, the humeral angle which distinguishes it from Z. exsanguis .
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