Galium shinasii Yildirim

Sik, Levent, Yildirim, Hasan, Pirhan, Ademi Fahri, Altioglu, Yusuf & Gemici, Meliha, 2016, Galium shinasii (Rubiaceae): a new species of Galium L. from Eastern Turkey, PhytoKeys 75, pp. 19-29: 21-24

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scientific name

Galium shinasii Yildirim

sp. nov.

Galium shinasii Yildirim  sp. nov. Figure 1View Figure 1, 2View Figure 2, 3View Figure 3


Turkey: B7 Malatya: Akçadağ district, Levent Canyon, on marlstone rocky cliffs 1390 m, 26.06.2011, H. Yıldırım 2128 (holotype: EGE42431!, isotypes: EGE42432!, NGBB!, ANK!).


Turkey: Malatya: Akçadağ district, Levent Canyon, on marlstone rocky cliffs 1390 m, 29.06.2015, H. Yıldırım 3358 ( EGE!) (Figure 2AView Figure 2); loc., ibid., 11.09.2015, H. Yıldırım 3713( EGE!); Doğanşehir, Eskiköy, Meletbaşı mezrası karşısı kalker kayalıklar, 1630-1800 m., 12.07.2014, H. Yıldırım 3033 ( EGE!) (Figure 2BView Figure 2). Erzincan: Sivas-Refahiye yolu, Refahiye’ye 1-2 km kala, kalker kaya üzeri, 1528 m, 09.09.2015, H. Yıldırım 3694 ( EGE!) (Figure 2CView Figure 2).


Galium shinasii  is related to Galium cornigerum  , Galium lasiocarpum  and Galium sorgereae  but it differs from them in having very reduced flowers (not flowers relatively larger), 1.2-1.8 mm corolla diam (not 2-5 mm); yellowish-green to reddish-green and 0,5-1 mm long tepals (not white or pink and not at least 2 mm); dorsal and ventral surface of with densely transparent tubercles and lateral surface 0.2-0.4 mm spreading to patent hairy fruits (not tubercles absent and fruits wholly villous, hirsute or subtomentose).


Dwarf, caespitose perennial plant with many headed rootstock, suffruticose at base. Stem 1.5-6 cm long, fragile, prostrate-ascending to erect, many branched at base, glabrous to slightly puberulent, sometimes slightly winged on nerves, upper internodes elongate to 5 mm. Leaves in whorls of mostly 4, rarely 6, linear-lanceolate to narrow elliptic, 2-8 × 0.6-1.3 mm, 1 veined, glabrous to slightly puberulent, revolute at margin. Inflorescense dicashium, mostly terminal and also axillary, 8 to 75 flowered per stem; bracteoles absent. Pedicel glabrous, 1.5-2.5 mm in flowers, 2-5 mm in fruit. Calyx absent. Corolla 4 merious, yellowish-green to reddish-green, 1.2-1.8 mm diam; usually conical or campanulate, rarely infundibular; tube very reduced; lobes 0.5-1 × 0.4-0.7 mm, glabrous, triangular to lanceolate, mucronate at apex and apex incurved on petal inner surface. Stamen 0.4-0.6 mm long; anther yellow. Ovary 0.4-0.5 mm diam, dorsal and ventral surface of with densely transparent tubercles, lateral surface 0.2-0.4 mm spreading to patent hairy. Fruit depressed subglobose in fleshy, 0.5-0.75 mm, dorsal and ventral surface of with densely transparent tubercles, lateral surface 0.2-0.4 mm spreading to patent hairy.


This species is named in honour of retired Prof. Dr. Şinasi Yıldırımlı (Biology Dep. Hacettepe University, Turkey), who is an expert in Plant systematics and taxonomy. He described more than 100 new plant species for science in Turkey. The Turkish name of this species is given as "Levent İplikçiği”, according to the guidelines of Menemen et al. (2013).

Additional specimens examined.

- Galium cornigerum  : -Turkey: Malatya: Levent Kanyonu inişi, kalker kayalıklar, 30.05.2012, H. Yıldırım 2386 ( EGE!); Darende, Engüzek yaylası, Akbabaçalı Dağı zirve, 2100 m, 30.05.2012. H. Yıldırım 2396 ( EGE!) (Figure 4D, EView Figure 4).

- Galium incanum subsp. pseudocornigerum  : -Turkey: Sivas: Gürün-Pınarbaşı arası, Pınarbaşı’na 68 km kala, yol kenarı kayalık alan, 1662 m, 29.06.2016, H. Yıldırım 3948 ( EGE!) (Figure 4B, CView Figure 4).

- Galium lasiocarpum  : -Turkey: Elazığ: in Cappadocia, Aucher 694 (holotype G!).

Galium sorgerae  : -Turkey: Isparta: Dedegöl Da., 2200 m, 1 vii 1965, Sorger 65-42- 70 (isotype WU!).

Distribution and ecology.

Galium shinasii  is a endemic for Eastern Anatolia. It’s known that is from Levent Canyon (Figure 5View Figure 5) in Akçadağ district, and Eskiköy in Doğanşehir district in Malatya province and near Refahiye district in Erzincan (Figure 5View Figure 5). It is an element belonging to the Irano-Turanian floristic region and colonizes only marlstone-calcareous cliffs, usually those with an eastern and south-eastern orientation, at an elevation of 1200-1800 m. It is an obligate chasmophyte.

Suggested conservational status.

The new species found in 3 populations. Two populations have been discovered in Malatya province, the other has been discovered in Erzincan province. Although the distribution area of Galium shinasii  seems relatively wide, the populations of the area are very restricted. The total population area of Galium shinasii  was calculated as 0.2 km2 and approximately 500 individuals were observed in total. Probably it has still several undiscovered populations. No anthropogenic or grazing effects were observed on the population. According to the present data, following the criteria laid out by the IUCN (2012), the plant is categorized as ‘Vulnerable’ (VU) D1 + 2, on account of its restricted distribution.