Libellulidae, Rambur, 1842

Mauffray, William F. & Tennessen, Kenneth J., 2019, A Catalogue and Historical Study of the Odonata of Ecuador, Zootaxa 4628 (1), pp. 1-265: 236-242

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4628.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E4C2F52F-9A1A-4C55-B03B-C87B2B4C4676

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D076D419-B5F8-FF27-FF23-F68827C2FBDF

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scientific name

Libellulidae
status

 

Libellulidae 

Agrionoptera difficilis Selys, 1879  . Synonym of Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Anatya anomala Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Anatya normalis Calvert, 1899  . Synonym of Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Anatya theresiae Selys in Therese, 1900  . Synonym of Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Belonia funerea (Hagen, 1861)  . See Erythrodiplax funerea (Hagen, 1861)  .

Belonia longipennis Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Libellula herculea Karsch, 1889  .

Brachymesia australis Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Brachymesia furcata (Hagen, 1861)  .

Brechmorhoga inequiunguis (Calvert, 1895)  . See Macrothemis inequiunguis Calvert, 1895  .

Brechmorhoga pertinax  eurysema Ris, 1913. Synonym of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen, 1861)  .

Brechmorhoga pertinax  pertinax (Hagen, 1861)  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen, 1861)  .

Brechmorhoga pertinax  peruviana Ris, 1913  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen, 1861)  .

Brechmorhoga rapax  crocosema Ris, 1913. Synonym of Brechmorhoga rapax Calvert, 1898  .

Brechmorhoga rapax  rapax (Calvert, 1898)  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga rapax Calvert, 1898  .

Cannacria batesii Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Brachymesia herbida (Gundlach, 1889)  .

Cannacria fumipennis Currie, 1901  . Synonym of Brachymesia herbida (Gundlach, 1889)  .

Cannacria smithii Kirby, 1894  . Synonym of Brachymesia furcata (Hagen, 1861)  .

Cannaphila insularis Kirby, 1889  . Publ. Recs. ECU: (Tsuda, 1991). Unlikely to occur in Ecuador, probably based on a misidentification of C. vibex (Hagen, 1861)  .

Dasythemis liriopa Karsch, 1889  . Synonym of Dasythemis venosa (Burmeister, 1839)  . Publ. Recs. Campos (1922—“pers comm. Dr. Ris”). This specimen is not discussed in Ris (1910) and it is reported only from southern South America by Paulson (2011).

Diastatops fuliginea Rambur, 1842  . Synonym of Diastatops pullata (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Diplacodes abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  . See Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Diplacodes paraguayensis Förster, 1904  . See Erythrodiplax paraguayensis (Förster, 1904)  .

Diplacodes  sp. Publ. Recs. GY: (Campos 1922). We are not sure what this species was since we could not locate the specimen; it was probably a species of Erythrodiplax  .

Diplax abjecta Hagen, 1861  . See Erythrodiplax abjecta (Rambur, 1842)  .

Diplax chloropleura (Brauer, 1865)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Diplax credula Hagen, 1861  . See Erythemis credula (Hagen, 1861)  .

Diplax fraterna Hagen, 1873  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Diplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  . See Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  .

Diplax fuscofasciata Blanchard, 1845  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Diplax  gilva Selys, 1884. See Sympetrum gilvum (Selys, 1884)  .

Diplax illotum var. gilvum Selys, 1884  . Synonym of Sympetrum gilvum (Selys, 1884)  .

Diplax imbuta Burmeister, 1839  . See Uracis imbuta (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Diplax  orchracea Hagen, 1861. Synonym of Erythrodiplax fervida (Erichson, 1848)  .

Diplax pulla (Burmeister, 1839)  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Diplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  . See Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Dythemis aequalis Hagen, 1861  . See Micrathyria aequalis (Hagen, 1861)  .

Dythemis apicalis Hagen, 1861  (nomen nudum). Synonym of Nephepeltia phryne (Perty, 1834)  .

Dythemis atra Martin, 1897  . See Micrathyria atra (Martin, 1897)  .

Dythemis broadwayi Kirby, 1894  . Synonym of Dythemis sterilis (Hagen, 1861)  .

Dythemis cannacrioides Calvert, 1906  . See Elasmothemis cannacrioides (Calvert, 1906)  .

Dythemis dicrota Hagen, 1861  . Synonym of Micrathyria didyma (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Dythemis didyma (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  . See Micrathyria didyma (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Dythemis guttata (Erichson, 1848)  . See Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Dythemis hemichlora (Burmeister, 1839)  . See Macrothemis hemichlora (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Dythemis  multipunctata Kirby, 1894. Meurgey (2011) found the true D. multipunctata is limited to the Lesser Antilles and stated that Central and South American records for D. multipunctata are really Dythemis nigra  .

Dythemis musiva (Hagen, 1861) See  Macrothemis musiva Calvert, 1898  .

Dythemis  multipunctata reducta De Marmels, 1989. Synonym of Dythemis nigra Martin, 1897  .

Dythemis pertinax, Hagen, 1961  . See Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen, 1961)  .

Dythemis sallaei Selys, 1868  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen, 1861)  .

Dythemis tabida Hagen, 1861  (nomen nudum). Synonym of Dythemis nigra Martin, 1897  .

Dythemis velox Hagen, 1861  . Reported by Tsuda (1986, 1991). The subspecies of D. velox  according to Ris (1913): D. multipunctata and D. sterilis  were raised to specific rank and then Meurgey (2011) showed that D. multipunctata references for mainland South America should be D. nigra  (in the FSCA, Campos’ specimens of D. sterilis  are labeled D. velox  ).

Dythemis velox var sterilis (Hagen, 1861)  . Synonym of Dythemis sterilis (Hagen, 1861)  .

Elga santosi Machado, 1954  . Synonym of Elga leptostyla Ris, 1911  .

Ephidatia longipes (Hagen, 1861)  . See Idiataphe longipes (Hagen, 1861)  .

Erythemis furcata Hagen, 1861  . See Brachymesia furcata (Hagen, 1861)  .

Erythemis longipes Hagen, 1861  . See Idiataphe longipes (Hagen, 1861)  .

Erythemis verbenata (Hagen, 1861)  . Synonym of Erythemis plebeja (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Erythrodiplax amazonica  melanica Borror, 1942  . See Erythrodiplax melanica Borror, 1942  .

Erythrodiplax atroterminata Ris, 1911  . A record at QZAC, NA, Archidona: 1 ♂, Archidona (705m), 29 iii 1991, leg. & det.? [QZAC], could not be verified for this southern South American species; therefore it is not included on the list.

Erythrodiplax attenuata  forma hyalina Sjöstedt, 1918  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax attenuata (Kirby, 1889)  .

Erythrodiplax basalis  basalis (Kirby, 1897)  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, 1897)  .

Erythrodiplax basifusca (Calvert, 1895)  . Publ. Recs. GY: Campos (1922). Paulson (2003) provided evidence that the true E. basifusca  is found only in Mexico and the southwestern United States. The Ecuador records were for some other species in the connata  - fusca  group.

Erythrodiplax  chloropleaura (Brauer, 1865). See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Erythrodiplax communis (Rambur, 1842)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  . Publ. Recs. ECU (Racenis 1954; Paulson 1983; Tsuda 1986, 1991). CR: (Campos 1922), EO: (Campos 1927), GY: (Calvert 1906 “form betweem d/e” and form e’; (Campos 1922), (Borror, 1942 “ connata  d/e by Calvert”), LR: (Calvert 1906 “form between d/e”; (Campos 1922). The true E. connata  is restricted to the west slope of the Andes in Chile (Paulson 2003); all of these historical records are presumed to be either E. abjecta  or E. fusca  .

Erythrodiplax connata  abjecta (Rambur, 1842)  . See Erythrodiplax abjecta (Rambur, 1842)  .

Erythrodiplax connata  connata (Burmeister, 1839) See  Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Erythrodiplax connata  fraterna (Hagen, 1873)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Erythrodiplax connata  var “ 100 c”. Publ Recs. IM: Campos (1922 “forma incerta por Dr. Ris”). We suspect that this was either E. abjecta  or E. fusca  .

Erythrodiplax connata  var “ 100 d ”. Publ. Recs. ES: Campos (1922 “forma dudosa por Dr. Ris”). We suspect that this was either E. abjecta  or E. fusca  .

Erythrodiplax connata  form d. Calvert, 1906. Probable reference to Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  .

Erythrodiplax connata  fusca (Rambur, 1842)  . See Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  .

Erythrodiplax erichsoni (Kirby, 1894)  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax kimminsi Borror, 1942  .

Erythrodiplax lenti Ris, 1919  (part). Synonym of Erythrodiplax amazonica Sjöstedt, 1918  .

Erythrodiplax leontina (Brauer, 1865)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Erythrodiplax media Borror, 1942  . Publ. Recs. ECU: Tsuda (1986, 1991). We have no idea what the source of these records are. Paulson (2003) stated that the true E. media  is restricted to southern Brazil, Paraguay and eastern Bolivia.

Erythrodiplax ochracea (Burmeister, 1839)  . Publ. Recs.- CR: Campos (1922); CB: Campos (1922); GY: Campos (1922). Synonym of Erythrodiplax fervida (Borror, 1942)  .

Erythrodiplax ponderosa Karsch, 1891  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax abjecta (Rambur, 1842)  .

Fylgia amazonica  lychnitina De Marmels, 1989. Synonym of Fylgia amazonica Kirby, 1889  .

Leptetrum merida (Selys, 1868)  . Synonym of Cannaphila vibex (Hagen, 1861)  .

Leptetrum vibex (Hagen, 1861)  . See Cannaphila vibex (Hagen, 1861)  .

Lepthemis cultriformis Hagen, 1861  . See Orthemis cultriformis (Hagen, 1861)  .

Lepthemis haematogastra (Burmeister, 1839)  . See Erythemis haematogastra (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Lepthemis verbenata Hagen, 1861  . Synonym of Erythemis plebeja (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula abbreviata Rambur, 1842  . See Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula abdominalis Rambur, 1842  . See Tramea abdominalis (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula abjecta Rambur, 1842  . See Erythrodiplax abjecta (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula americana Linnaeus, 1758  . Synonym of Zenithoptera fasciata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula attala Selys in Sagra, 1857  . See Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Libellula annulata Rambur, 1842  (nec Palisot de Beauvois, 1805). Synonym of Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Libellula analis Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)  .

Libellula annulosa Selys in Sagra, 1857  . Synonym of Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Libellula basalis Hagen, 1875  . Synonym of Tramea cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  .

Libellula basalis Burmeister, 1839  (nec Stephens, 1835). Synonym of Tramea abdominalis (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula bicolor Erichson in Schomburgk, 1848  . Synonym of Erythemis peruviana (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula binotata Rambur, 1842  . See Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula cardinalis Erichson in Schomburgk, 1848  . See Rhodopygia cardinalis (Erichson in Schomburgk, 1848)  .

Libellula castanea Burmeister, 1839  . See Erythrodiplax castanea (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula chloropleura Brauer, 1865  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Libellula communis Rambur, 1842  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Libellua connata Burmeister, 1839  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Libellula cophysa Hagen, 1861  . See Tramea cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  .

Libellula discolor Selys, 1857  . See Orthemis discolor (Selys, 1857)  .

Libellula distinguenda Rambur, 1942  (pars). Synonym of Erythrodiplax fervida (Erichson, 1848)  .

Libellula didyma Selys in Sagra, 1857  . See Micrathyria didyma (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Libellula domitia Drury, 1773  . See Perithemis domitia (Drury, 1773)  .

Libellula erratica Erichson in Schomburgk, 1848  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, 1897)  .

Libellula fallax Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula fasciata Linnaeus, 1758  . See Zenithoptera fasciata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula fastigiata Burmeister, 1839  . See Uracis fastigiata (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula fervida Erichson, 1848  . See Erythrodiplax fervida (Erichson in Schomburgk, 1848)  .

Libellula flavescens Fabricius, 1798  . See Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)  .

Libellula flavicans Rambur, 1842  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula funerea Hagen, 1861  . See Erythrodiplax funerea (Hagen, 1861)  .

Libellula fusca Rambur, 1842  . See Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula fuscofasciata (Blanchard, 1845)  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula guttata Erichson, 1848  . See Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Libellula haematogastra Burmeister, 1839  . See Erythemis haematogastra (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula hemichlora Burmeister, 1839  . See Macrothemis hemichlora (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula herbida Gundlach, 1889  . See Brachymesia herbida (Gundlach, 1889)  .

Libellula hymenaea Say, 1840  . See Pantala hymenaea (Say, 1840)  .

Libellula imbuta Burmeister, 1839  . See Uracis imbuta (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula incompta Rambur, 1842  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula infumata Rambur, 1842  . See Uracis infumata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula  justinea Selys in Sagra, 1957. Synonym of Erythrodiplax fervida (Erichson, 1848)  .

Libellula lais Perty, 1834  . See Perithemis lais (Perty, 1934)  .

Libellula leontina Brauer, 1865  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Libellula marcella Selys in Sagra, 1857  . See Miathyria marcella (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Libellula merida Selys, 1868  . Synonym of Cannaphila vibex (Hagen, 1861)  .

Libellula metella Selys in Sagra, 1857  . Synonym of Perithemis domitia (Drury, 1773)  .

Libellula mithra Selys in Sagra, 1857  . Synonym of Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Libellula nubecula Rambur, 1842  . See Brechmorhoga nubecula (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula ochracea (Burmeister, 1839)  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax fervida (Borror, 1942)  .

Libellula plebeja Burmeister, 1839  . See Erythemis plebeja (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula pulla Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Libellula pullata Burmeister, 1839  . See Diastatops pullata (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula phryne Perty, 1834  . See Nephepeltia phryne (Perty, 1834)  .

Libellula rubriventris Blanchard (1845)  . Synonym of Erythemis peruviana (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula ruralis Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula sallaei (Selys, 1868)  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga pertinax (Hagen, 1961)  .

Libellula simplex Rambur, 1842  . See Miathyria simplex (Rambur, 1842)  .

Libellula subfasciata Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula terminalis Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)  .

Libellula tessellata Burmeister, 1839  , See Macrothemis tessellata (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Libellula tripartita Burmeister, 1839  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linneaus, 1758)  .

Libellula umbrata (Linneaus, 1758)  . See Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linneaus, 1758)  .

Libellula unimaculata De Geer, 1773  . See Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Libellula unifasciata De Geer, 1773  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula vibex Hagen, 1861  . See Cannaphila vibex (Hagen, 1861)  .

Libellula violacea De Geer, 1773  . Synonym of Zenithoptera fasciata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Libellula viridula Beauvois, 1807  . Synonym of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)  .

Macrothemis catharina Karsch, 1890  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga nubecula (Rambur, 1842)  .

Macrothemis cydippe Calvert, 1898  . Synonym of Macrothemis hemichlora (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Macrothemis  leucozona Ris, 1913. Synonym of Macrothemis imitans Karsch, 1890  .

Macrothemis newtoni  Costa, 1990. Publ. Recs. BRA: (H06), (P11). We have not seen any specimens of this species and do not know the source of the records. It is possible that these records were obtained from an article in the Dragonfly Society of the Americas newsletter ARGIA  mentioning a specimen tentatively identified as this species then later determined to be possibly M. idalia  .

Macrothemis pumila Karsch, 1890  . See Gynothemis pumila (Karsch, 1890)  .

Macrothemis pumila var. axillata Navás, 1924  . Synonym of Gynothemis pumila (Karsch, 1890)  .

Macrothemis tessellata  inequiunguis Calvert, 1895  . Synonym of Macrothemis inequiunguis Calvert, 1895  .

Macrothemis tessellata  tessellata (Burmeister, 1939)  . Synonym of Macrothemis tessellata (Burmeister, 1839)  . Macrothemis tessellata (Burmeister, 1939)  was recognized as a separate species distinct from M. inequiunguis  by both Paulson (2011) and Garrison et al. (2006), but recently Rosser Garrison (pers. comm., 2019) thinks they might represent one species.

Macrothemis uniseries Calvert, 1909  . Synonym of Macrothemis musiva Calvert, 1898  .

Macrothemis vulgipes Calvert, 1898  . Synonym of Macrothemis inequiunguis Calvert, 1895  .

Mesothemis abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  . See Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Mesothemis annulata (Martin, 1896)  . Synonym of Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Mesothemis attala (Hagen, 1861)  . See Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Mesothemis chloropleaura (Brauer, 1865). See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Mesothemis connata (Burmeister, 1839)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Mesothemis leontina (Brauer, 1865)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Mesothemis mithra (Hagen, 1861)  . Synonym of Erythemis attala (Selys, 1857)  .

Mesothemis mithroides Brauer, 1900  . See Erythemis mithroides (Brauer, 1900)  .

Mesothemis poeyi Scudder, 1866. Synonym of Micrathyria didyma (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Mesothemis verbenata (Hagen, 1861)  . Synonym of Erythemis plebeja (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Miathyria pusilla Kirby, 1889 Synonym  of Miathyria simplex (Rambur, 1842)  .

Micrathyria attenuata (Kirby, 1889)  . See Erythrodiplax attenuata (Kirby, 1889)  .

Micrathyria basalis Kirby, 1897  . See Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, 1897)  .

Micrathyria carlota Needham, 1942  . Synonym of Micrathyria ocellata Martin, 1897  .

Micrathyria didyma  didyma (Selys, 1861)  . Synonym of Micrathyria didyma Selys, 1861  .

Micrathyria didyma  laevigata Calvert, 1909  . Synonym of Micrathyria laevigata (Calvert, 1909)  .

Micrathyria dythemoides Calvert, 1909  . Publ. Recs. ECU: (H06), (P11), (H14). Also PER, SUR, TTO: (H06), (P11). Paulson (pers. comm., 2011) reports that this was a mis-identification and therefore it is not included on the list. WAH (pers. comm., 2017) indicated that he copied it from Dennis Paulson’s list.

Micrathyria hemimelaena Karsch, 1890  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Micrathyria mengeri  mengeri Ris, 1919  . Synonym of Micrathyria mengeri Ris, 1919  .

Micrathyria ocellata  ocellata Martin, 1897  . Synonym of Micrathyria ocellata Martin, 1897  .

Micrathyria ocellata  dentiens Calvert, 1909. Synonym of Micrathyria ocellata Martin, 1897  .

Micrathyria ocellata  quicha Calvert, 1909. Synonym of Micrathyria ocellata Martin, 1897  .

Micrathyria pruinosa Kirby, 1894  . Synonym of Micrathyria didyma (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Micrathyria septima Selys, 1900  . Synonym of Micrathyria aequalis (Hagen, 1861)  .

Neothemis flavifrons Karsch, 1889  . See Nephepeltia flavifrons (Karsch, 1889)  .

Nannophya semiaurea Hagen, 1861  (nomen nudum). Synonym of Nephepeltia phryne (Perty, 1834)  .

Nannothemis  inermis Hagen, 1867 (nomen nudum). Synonym of Nephepeltia flavifrons (Karsch, 1889)  .

Nannothemis prodita Hagen, 1861  (nomen nudum). Synonym of Nephepeltia flavifrons (Karsch, 1889)  .

Nannothemis semiaurea Karsch, 1889  . Synonym of Fylgia amazonica Kirby, 1889  .

Neurothemis affinis Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax funerea (Hagen, 1861)  .

Nephepeltia phryne  phryne (Perty, 1834)  . Synonym of Nephepeltia phryne (Perty, 1834)  .

Nephepeltia phryne  tupiensis Santos, 1950. Synonym of Nephepeltia phryne (Perty, 1834)  .

Nothemis apollinaris Navás, 1915  . Synonym of Brechmorhoga rapax Calvert, 1898  .

Nothifixis laxa Navás, 1916. Synonym of Miathyria simplex (Rambur, 1842)  .

Oligoclada abbreviata  abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  . Synonym of Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Oligoclada abbreviata  limnophila Machado & Machado, 1993. Synonym of Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Oligoclada raineyi Ris, 1911  . Synonym of Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Orthemis anthracina De Marmels, 1989  . Publ. Recs. ECU: (H14—as O. cf. anthracina  ). Also PER, VEN: (H06), (P16); plus CO, SU, TTO: (P16). von Ellenrieder (2009) did not list it from Ecuador, but its range might include eastern Ecuador. WAH (pers. comm 2016) “When I first keyed this one out, I had only one specimen. Now that we have more, I am convinced these are all O. aciculata  , and that we have not yet collected O. anthracina  in Ecuador.”

Orthemis concolor Ris, 1919  . Publ. Recs. ECU: (H06).Also BRA, GUF, GUY, PER, SUR, TTO, VEN: (H06), (P16); plus PER (H06). The source of this single published record is unknown. It is similar in some respects to O. cinnamomea  and the distribution is eastern Atlantic coastal areas of South America (von Ellenrieder 2009). It is not included in our list.

Orthemis ferruginea (Fabricius, 1775)  . Publ. Recs. ECU: Paulson (1983), Tsuda (1986, 1991). Prior to the 1990’s all references to O. ferruginea  in South America (except var sulphurata  ) should be O. discolor (Burmeister, 1839)  . Donnelly (1995), De Marmels (1988) and Paulson (1998) all showed that Costa Rica is the southern-most limit for O. ferruginea  . Hoffmann (2010) however reported a collection of O. ferruginea  in Peru in 2001 and then a breeding population discovered in 2006 on the Pacific slope at 1200m. There is no mention who vetted these Peruvian records.

Orthemis ferruginea var sulphurata (Hagen, 1868)  . See Orthemis sulphurata (Hagen, 1868)  .

Orthemis flavopicta Kirby, 1889  . Publ Recs. ES: Campos (1922 “por Dr. Ris” in the Selys collection). Also BRA, CEN, GUF, PER: (H06), (P11). This is a dubious record according to von Ellenrieder (2009); she listed it from eastern Brazil and from Central America.

Orthemis sibylla Ris, 1919  . Synonym of Orthemis ambirufa Calvert, 1909  .

Orthemis tambopatae von Ellenrieder, 2009  . Publ. Recs. ECU: (H14). W. A. Haber (pers. comm., 2016) wrote “ 1 ♂, Shiripuno Lodge, det by Dennis Paulson (from photo only). I do not have the specimen, so cannot verify it with Natalia’s [von Ellenrieder] key. Maybe best to leave it out until we get another record or I can key out this specimen.” von Ellenrieder (2009, 2012) reports it only from southern Peru.

Perithemis austeni Kirby, 1897  . Synonym of Perithemis bella Kirby, 1889  .

Perithemis cloe Hagen, 1861  (nomen nudum). Synonym of Perithemis mooma Kirby, 1889  .

Perithemis domitia var. iris Hagen, 1861  . Synonym of Perithemis domitia (Drury, 1773)  .

Perithemis domitia  tenera (Say, 1840)  . Synonym of P. domitia (Drury, 1773)  . Subspecies name used by Muttkowski (1910). No other reference could be found.

Perithemis intensa Kirby, 1889  . Listed from the Galapagos *Calvert (1906). Needham et al. (2014) list it from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico south to Jalisco. Unlikely to be found in Ecuador.

Perithemis midasi  ms. Gloyd manuscript name which was never published but there are specimens in various museums which may have labels with this name. Later described by Hoffman (1990) with the name Perithemis parzefalli  .

Perithemis mooma var. octoxantha Ris, 1910  . Synonym of Perithemis mooma Kirby, 1889  .

Perithemis naias Ris, 1910  . Synonym of Perithemis lais (Perty, 1934)  .

Perithemis piperi Hoffmann, 1987  . Synonym of Perithemis mooma Kirby, 1889  .

Perithemis pocahontas Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Perithemis domitia (Drury, 1773)  .

Perithemis tenera  tenera (Say, 1840)  . Listed by Steinmann (1997b). This is an incorrect reference to P. domitia (Drury, 1883)  ; P. tenera  is a North American species.

Pronomaja mimetica Förster, 1909. Synonym of Uracis ovipositrix Calvert, 1909  .

Rhodopygia cardinalis var. colorata Navás, 1923  . Synonym of Rhodopygia cardinalis (Erichson, 1848)  .

Sympetrum  castaneum (Burmeister, 1839). See Erythrodiplax castanea (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Sympetrum illotum (Hagen, 1861)  . See discussion under Sympetrum gilvum (Selys, 1884)  .

Sympetrum illotum  gilvum (Selys, 1884)  . See Sympetrum gilvum (Selys, 1884)  .

Sympetrum tandicola Singh, 1955  . Synonym of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)  .

Tauriphila nycteris Karsch, 1890  . Synonym of Tauriphila argo (Hagen, 1869)  .

Tramea argo Hagen, 1869  . See Tauriphila argo (Hagen, 1869)  .

Tramea australis Hagen, 1867  . See Tauriphila australis (Hagen, 1867)  .

Tramea basalis (Hagen, 1875)  . Synonym of Tramea cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  .

Tramea brasiliana Brauer, 1867  . Synonym of Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Tramea cophysa  darwini Kirby, 1889  . See Tramea cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  .

Tramea cophysa  form “ a ” Ris, 1913. This is Tramea calverti Muttkowski, 1911  .

Tramea cophysa  ? (in part) Calvert, 1909. This is Tramea calverti Muttkowski, 1911  .

Tramea darwini Kirby, 1889  . Synonym of Tramea cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  .

Tramea huanacina Förster, 1909  . Synonym of Pantala  hymenea (Say, 1840).

Tramea iphigenia (Kirby, 1890)  . Synonym of Tauriphila australis (Hagen, 1867)  .

Tramea longicauda Brauer, 1867  . Synonym of Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Tramea marcella Hagen, 1867  . See Miathyria marcella (Selys in Sagra, 1857)  .

Tramea paulina Förster, 1910  . Synonym of Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Tramea simplex (Rambur, 1842)  . See Miathyria simplex (Rambur, 1842)  .

Tramea subbinotata Brauer, 1867  . Synonym of Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Tramea walkeri Whitehouse, 1943  . Synonym of Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Trapezostigma binotata (Rambur, 1844)  . See Tramea binotata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Trapezostigmas cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  . See Tramea cophysa (Hagen, 1861)  .

Trithemis abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  . See Oligoclada abbreviata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Trithemis abjecta Kirby, 1890  ). See Erythrodiplax abjecta (Rambur, 1842)  .

Trithemis attenuata Kirby, 1889  . See Erythrodiplax attenuata (Kirby, 1889)  .

Trithemis basifusca Calvert, 1895  . See Erythrodiplax basifusca (Calvert, 1895)  in this appendix.

Trithemis communis (Rambur, 1842)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Trithemis connata (Burmeister, 1839)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Trithemis erichsoni Kirby, 1894  (pars). Synonym of Erythrodiplax kimminsi Borror, 1942  .

Trithemis fraterna (Hagen, 1873)  . See Erythrodiplax connata (Burmeister, 1839)  in this appendix.

Trithemis funerea (Hagen, 1861)  . See Erythrodiplax funerea (Hagen, 1861)  .

Trithemis fusca (Rambur, 1842)  . See Erythrodiplax fusca (Rambur, 1842)  .

Trithemis montezuma Calvert, 1899  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

Trithemis ochracea Kirby, 1890  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax fervida (Borror, 1942)  .

Trithemis pulla (Burmeister, 1839)  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Trithemis tyleri Kirby, 1899  . Synonym of Erythrodiplax funerea (Hagen, 1861)  .

Trithemis umbrata (Linneaus, 1758)  . See Erythrodiplax umbrata (Linneaus, 1758)  .

Trithemis unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  . See Erythrodiplax unimaculata (De Geer, 1773)  .

Uracis fastigiata  aberration pura Förster, 1909. Synonym of Uracis fastigiata (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Uracis fastigiata  forma machadina Förster, 1910  . Synonym of Uracis fastigiata (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Uracis quadra Rambur, 1842  . Synonym of Uracis imbuta (Burmeister, 1839)  .

Uracis guttata (Erichson, 1848)  . See Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Uracis ovata Calvert, 1909  . Synonym of Uracis infumata (Rambur, 1842)  .

Urothemis guttata (Erichson, 1848)  . See Anatya guttata (Erichson, 1848)  .

Zenithoptera americana (Linnaeus, 1758)  . Synonym of Zenithoptera fasciata (Linnaeus, 1758)  .

APPENDIX B. Localities often listed in literature: A partial list identifying province and/ or Canton for each. (Source- Google maps and/or Maplandia)

Abitagua: Pastaza, near Mera, 43 km E of Baños, 5 km W of Mera

Agua Clara: Guayas, near Perlengue

Aguamo: Pastaza, Pastaza

Alluriquin: Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas (formerly Pichincha)

Angamarca: Cotopaxi, Pujili Canton

Babahoyo: Los Ríos

Balzapampa: Bolivar Province, San Miguel Canton

Balzar: Guayas

Barraganetal: Guayas

Batan: Guayas

Bobonaza: Pastaza

Bombaini-yacu:—as “ Napo ” by Garrison (2006). “trail between main road and Río Bombaini-Yacu, 25 Mar. 1941 ” (Wm. Clarke MacIntyre), {probably pastaza?}

Bucay: Guayas Province, Naranjal

Casiguana: just east of Guayaquil, Guayas

Cerro Azul: just W of Guayaquil, Guayas

Chambo: Chimborazo

Chimbo: Guayas, Milagro Canton, Hacienda Venecia de Chimbo

Chonta-Yacu: Napo

Cotocollao: Pinchincha, Quito Canton

Cotopino: Cotapino, Napo W of Loreto

Cotundo: Napo, Archidona on Baesa–Tena Hwy

Daule: Guayas

Duran: Guayas, just east of Guayaquil

Gauilanes: near Río Yana Yacu where it flows into the Río Anzu

Gualaquiza: Morano-Santiago (formerly part of Azuay)

Guayupe: Imbabura

Hacienda Ila: Napo, on the Río Anzu

Intag, Intaj, Intaq: Imbabura, Cotacachi Canton: “Intag” -[Apuela, NE on Apuela-Cuicocha road, along Río Intag and tributaries between 1800-2800m, 0.358817, -78.450904 at jct of Río Intag and tributary]

El Morro: Guayas, W of Guayaquil

El Salada: Carchi

Jatun Yacu: Napo

La Palmera: Tungurahua, -1.25, -78.12 on Río Pastaza, a hacienda

Las Palmas: Napo, SW of Tena on Río Anzu, -1.03, -77.48 from Clark-Mcintyre notes

Latacunga: Cotopaxi

Limoncocha: Sucumbíos (formerly Napo Province)

Macuma: Morano-Santiago, E of Macas

Mangosisa: Morano-Santiago

Manual Cornego: Pichincha, near Tandapi

Machachi: Pichincha, Mejía Canton

Nanegal: Pichincha

Naranjapata: Chimborazo Province, Cumandá

Naranjito: Guayas

Quevedo: Los Ríos

Quebrada: Napo, on the Sapalloyacu off of the Jatun Yuca

Pacayacu: Pastaza, 20 km downstream from Canelos

Palanque: Los Ríos

Palmar: Manabí

Paramba: Imbabura Province, Ibarra Canton

Pifo: Pichincha, on road to Baeza

Posorja: Guayas, SW of Guayaquil

Primavera:—as Napo by Dunkle. Could be Sucumbíos or Orelano

Reventador: Sucumbíos [N of Baeza just past provincial border on road to Lago Agrío = Sucumbíos

Pacai-yacu: Pastaza on Río Bobonaza

Partidero: Pastaza on Río Anzu

Puna Vieja: Guayas Proovine, Guayaquil Canton

Riobamba: Chimborazo

Río Anzu: Río Napo watershed, headwaters in Pastaza N of Mera, larger “white-water” section in Napo Province NW of Tena. It is presumed that Clark-Macintyre collected in the Pastaza portion

Río Bobonaza: Pastaza

Río Chucapi: Napo, near Hacienda Ila

Río Churi-Yacu: Pastaza

Río Huagra-Yacu: Pastaza

Río Jatun Yacu: Napo, approx. 20 km W of Tena

Río Leon: Azuay,—as “ Río Negro ” by mistake during 1997 trip

Río Papayacu: Pastaza, E of Puyo

Río Shicai-yacu: Río Chaca-yacu, Pastaza watershed, NE of Tena, 900m

Río Salado: Napo, El Chaco, between Baeza and San Rafael 

Río Topo: Tungurahua, 31 km E of Baños

Río Tuyano: Napo, 30 km SE of Tena

Río Upano: Morano-Santiago, near Mangosisa

Río Yanamanaca: Pastaza, trib to Río Anzu near El Partidero

Tandapi: Pichincha, Mejía Canton

Tinalandia: Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas (formerly Pichincha)

Sabanilla: Guayas, Pedro-Carbo Canton, near Pedro-Carbo

Sapallo Yacu: Napo, Tena, near Jatun Satcha

San Antonio de Curaray: Pastaza, 3100m

San Rafael: Carchi

Santa Elena: Guayas, western part near Pacific

Santa Inez: Tungurahua, Santa ines on the Río Pastaza, 27 km E of Baños  

Sarayacu: Pastaza, 35 km downstream from Canelos

Venecia: Guayas, (also mistakenly listed as “Verecia” on some labels)

Yaguachi: Guayas, just E of Guayaquil

Yanamanaca: Pastaza, near Partidero on the Río Anzu

Zumba: Zamora-Chinchipe

APPENDIX C. Useful resources for further studies