Protoneura sulfurata Donnelly, 1989

Ellenrieder, Natalia Von & Garrison, Rosser W., 2017, A synopsis of the Neotropical genus Protoneura (Odonata: Coenagrionidae), Zootaxa 4361 (1), pp. 1-76: 38-39

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Protoneura sulfurata Donnelly, 1989


Protoneura sulfurata Donnelly, 1989 

Figs. 19View FIGURES17–20 (♂ habitus), 43 (♀ habitus), 65 (♀ mes. plate), 89 (gen. lig.), 115 (♂ app.), 123 (map)

Protoneura sulfurata Donnelly, 1989: 439  –441 ( Figs. 1–2View FIGURES 1–4, 5, 7View FIGURES 5–8; description of ♂ and ♀, illustrations ♂ S10 and pterothorax, ♀ mesostigmal plate, diagnosis from P. aurantiaca  , discussion of relationships);— Daigle (2002: 14; Nicaragua);— Paulson (2009g; IUCN assessment);— Garrison et al. (2010: 379).

Primary types. Holotype ♂. Costa Rica, Limón Prov., Pacuarito River , 3 km E of Siquirres, 9–12 vi 1986, T. W. A. Donnelly leg. [ FSCA]  .

Specimens examined. 7 ♂ 2 ♀: COSTA RICA  , Heredia Prov.: 1 ♂, Puerto Viejo, La Selva Biological Station (10°28' N, 84°1' W), 21 v 1988, C. Esquivel H. leg. [RWG]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, same data but stream in primary forest and grassy area, 27 xi 1988 [RWG]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, same data but stream in grassy area, 28 iv 1988 [ FSCA]GoogleMaps  ; Limón Prov.: 1 ♂ paratype, Pacuarito River, 3 km E of Siquirres {10°5' N, 8°29' W, 56 m}, 9–12 vi 1986, T.W. Donnelly leg. [ USNM]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂ paratype, same data but [RWG]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂ paratype, same data but [ FSCA]GoogleMaps  ; Puntarenas Prov.: 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (paratypes) vicinity of Rincón de Osa {8°42' N, 83°29' W, 270 m}, 10 iii 1967, D.R. & M.L. Paulson leg. [ FSCA]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, Península de Osa, reserve N of Sierpe River’s mouth, small tributary {8°37' N, 83°44' W, 50 m}, 3 iv 2008, E. Cruz leg. [RWG].GoogleMaps 

Characterization. Male: Epicranium black, black stripes on thorax, dorsum of S1, S3–10 brown to black; pale colors bright yellow to pale yellow ventrally ( Fig. 19View FIGURES17–20). Pronotum anterior lobe black with medial and lateral yellow spots, middle lobe with dorsum yellow, and posterior lobe entirely yellow. Mesepisternum bright yellow with middorsal carina black and a narrow black stripe along distal 1/4 of mesepisternal-mesepimeral suture; mesepimeron yellow anteriorly and black posteriorly; metepisternum yellow with black along posterior margin; metepimeron entirely pale bright to pale yellow. Leg pale yellow with tip of femur, tibia, and tarsi dark brown, sometimes with two diffuse brownish rings subbasally and subapically on each femur and tibia; tibial spurs shorter than twice intervening spaces. Genital ligula lacking lateral lobes and with a slightly concave distal margin, with lateral margins of distal segment spiculate and laterodistal corners not projected ventrally ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 85–91). Cercus shorter than S10 length, about as long as paraproct, about as long as wide, with a depression on external dorsolateral surface and a longitudinal split along ventrodistal portion, dorsal margin with a distal concavity and ventral margin slightly convex in lateral view ( Fig. 115aView FIGURES 115–118), with medial surface concave and with a small blunt ventrobasal tooth and two apical dorso-ventral ridges, one on distal margin and one on medial surface, visible in mediodorsal view ( Fig. 115bView FIGURES 115–118), with tips appearing as pointed teeth in dorsal view ( Fig. 115cView FIGURES 115–118). Paraproct shorter than S10 length, at midlength narrowing to half its basal width and ending in a triangular tip ( Fig. 115View FIGURES 115–118). TL 35; Hw 15.5–17.

Female: As male but middle lobe of pronotum with yellow restricted to a lateral band, posterior lobe black with yellow medial and lateral spots; mesepisternum black with yellow antehumeral stripe along basal 2/3, mesepimeron black with a yellow stripe along medial 3/4 of mesepisternal metepimeral suture separated from a dorsal yellow spot, and all abdominal segments black dorsally; pale lateral area of S9 extended medially to about 1/ 3 of segment height ( Fig. 43View FIGURES 41–44). Middle lobe of pronotum lacking pronounced lateral depressions; posterior lobe entire, with sides straight converging to a smoothly convex tip, directed dorsally. Mesostigmal plate approximately triangular and flat with a central shallow concavity, anterior margin carinate and straight, and posteromedial corner merging into a low tubercle on mesepisternum (Fig. 65). TL 31.5; Hw 17.25–17.75.

Diagnosis. Among the species with male paraproct no longer than S10 length, P. sulfurata  shares male cercus approximately quadrangular, about as long as wide, with a ventrodistal longitudinal split and depression on external dorsolateral surface, concave medial surface, and two short apical teeth in dorsal view ( Figs. 98View FIGURES 97–99; 99; 105; 115), and genital ligula distal segment with lateral margins spiculate ( Figs. 72View FIGURES 71–78; 73; 79; 89) with P. amatoria  , P. aurantiaca  , and P. cupida  . It can be distinguished from them by its bright yellow color and by the two apical dorsoventral ridges on medial surface of male cercus ( Fig. 115bView FIGURES 115–118), which are represented by two dorsal teeth in the other three species ( Figs. 98bView FIGURES 97–99; 99b; 105b). Female mesostigmal plate triangular with posteromedial corner merging into a low mesepisternal tubercle is unique for this species (Fig. 65).

Habitat and biology. Shallow and heavily vegetated small streams.

Distribution. Nicaragua and Costa Rica ( Fig. 123View FIGURES 123–124). Assessed as Least Concern by IUCN ( Paulson 2009g).


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Protoneura sulfurata Donnelly, 1989

Ellenrieder, Natalia Von & Garrison, Rosser W. 2017

Protoneura sulfurata

Garrison 2010: 379
Donnelly 1989: 439