Eupelmus

Gary A. P. Gibson & Lucian Fusu, 2016, Revision of the Palaearctic species of Eupelmus (Eupelmus) Dalman (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), Zootaxa 4081 (1), pp. 1-331: 22-32

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4081.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D818A5A7-A279-4E4A-AB6C-86FDD870E518

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D37B8786-7222-6119-FF77-FDD9FA34FEE8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Eupelmus
status

 

Key to subgenera and Palaearctic species of E. ( Eupelmus  ) based on females

1 Brachypterous, apex of fore wing extending at most to second gastral tergite ( Figs 10c–e View Figure , 16a, b View Figure )...................... 2

- Macropterous, apex of fore wing extending to apex of gaster................................................... 4

2(1) Metanotum transverse with convex dorsellum covering apex of scutellum; propodeum with broadly V- to U-shaped plical depression medially ( Figs 10f View Figure , 16e View Figure ); pronotal collar without transverse ridge ( Figs 10f View Figure , 16e View Figure )............. E. ( Eupelmus  ) 3

- Metanotum large, flattened, and more-or-less concave posterior to apex of scutellum; propodeum very strongly transverse medially and with at most a flat, inconspicuously differentiated plical region ( Gibson 1990, figs 18, 20‾23); pronotal collar with transverse ridge or crest ( Gibson 1990, fig. 34)................ E. ( Macroneura  ) (see Kalina 1981 for key to species)

3(2) Body, including usually most of legs and ovipositor sheaths, dark with only quite obscure, somewhat violaceous metallic luster ( Fig. 10b–f View Figure ), except often blue to greenish on frons along inner orbits ( Fig. 10a View Figure ); fore wing extending over base of gaster only slightly, flat and slightly emarginate to broadly rounded apically, and with basal cell bare and disc uniformly setose ( Fig. 10c– e, g View Figure ); venation with stv at a right angle to mv and pmv short to rudimentary ( Fig. 10g View Figure )... E. atropurpureus Dalman  (in part)

- Body with legs and ovipositor sheaths dark but head with evident metallic luster, variably green to coppery except frontovertex extensively bluish-green to blue and occipital margin with transverse blue to violet stripe ( Fig. 16c, d View Figure ), and mesosoma similar in colour to head but less brightly coloured ( Fig. 16e View Figure ); fore wing longer, extending at least to posterior margin of first gastral tergite ( Fig. 16a View Figure ), with subparallel margins and acutely rounded apically, and with basal cell setose and disc with evident linea calva ( Fig. 16f View Figure ); venation with stv at acute angle to comparatively long pmv ( Fig. 16f View Figure )..................................................................................................... E. brachypterus Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

4(1) Dorsellum posteriorly protuberant such that posterior margin essentially contiguous with emarginate anterior margin of propodeum; mesotarsus with yellowish to reddish pegs, the pegs often almost concolourous with tarsomeres and almost always in single even row on either side of tarsomeres; mesotibia apically with at most needle-like spines; fore wing with pmv more than 1.5× length of stv and if very rarely infuscate then completely infuscate............................ E. ( Episolindelia  )

- Dorsellum with posterior margin usually almost transverse though sometimes slightly protuberant over variably distinct V- to U-shaped plical depression (e.g. Figs 2e View Figure , 8c View Figure , 46e View Figure , 68d View Figure , 82g View Figure ); mesotarsus sometimes densely setose without pegs ventrally ( Figs 42f View Figure , 46g View Figure ), but when present pegs usually dark and usually contrasting with whitish tarsomeres (e.g. Figs 2h View Figure , 6g View Figure , 11a View Figure ), and basitarsus usually with pegs partly differentiated into double row or asymmetrically arranged on either side (e.g. Figs 2h View Figure , 35h View Figure , 86h View Figure ); mesotibia apically usually with row of pegs similar to those on mesotarsus (e.g. Figs 2h View Figure , 6g View Figure , 35h View Figure ); fore wing with pmv at most 1.5× length of stv (except some E. memnonius  ) and sometimes with infuscate bands or darkly infuscate only beyond level of base of parastigma or between parastigma and apex of pmv..................................... E. ( Eupelmus  ) 5

5(4) Middle leg without mesotibial apical pegs, but mesotarsus ventrally with distinct pegs (e.g. Figs 27h View Figure , 40d View Figure , 82h View Figure )........... 6

- Middle leg with mesotibial apical pegs, the pegs usually dark and contrasting distinctly with tibia (e.g. Figs 2h View Figure , 8d View Figure , 69g View Figure ), but if yellowish to orange and only obscurely differentiated from tibia then mesotarsus ventrally without pegs ( Figs 5h View Figure , 42f View Figure , 46g View Figure )..19

6(5) Flagellum bicoloured, at least fl1 (anellus) and fl2 brown and at least fl6–fl8 white ( Fig. 82c View Figure ); prepectus entirely, conspicuously setose ( Fig. 82f View Figure ); syntergum in dorsal view projecting V-like on either side of anal sclerite ( Fig. 82j View Figure )................................................................................................ E. peculiaris Narendran 

- Flagellum uniformly dark or at most with fl1 (anellus) white; prepectus often bare; syntergum not projecting on either side of anal sclerite, posteriorly flattened over sheaths to vertically truncate above sheaths.................................. 7

7(6) Fore wing without linea calva and distinctly bifasciate, with hyaline band having white setae behind about apical half of mv abruptly separating brownish-infuscate regions having dark setae behind parastigma and about basal half of mv, and behind stv and pmv ( Figs 28f, g View Figure , 80i View Figure ); mesosoma dark ( Figs 28a, b View Figure , 80a–c View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with at most 4 setae apically, the setae not extending basally beyond parastigma.................................................... 8

- Fore wing with linea calva and/or either hyaline or if variably infuscate then discal setae similarly dark in infuscate and more hyaline regions ( Figs 15e View Figure , 19g View Figure , 27g View Figure , 62f View Figure ); mesosoma sometimes distinctly bicoloured, mostly or entirely green dorsally but with one or more of prepectus, tegula and acropleuron yellowish to orangey-brown ( Figs 15b–d View Figure , 19c–f View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin usually with more numerous setae extending basally beyond parastigma.......................... 9

8(7) Ovipositor sheath uniformly dark, yellowish-brown to dark brown except often slightly paler apically ( Fig. 28h View Figure ); prepectus with 1–8, though often inconspicuous setae ( Fig. 28i View Figure ).............................. E. fasciatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. - Ovipositor sheath with third valvula abruptly and extensively pale beyond dark second valvifer, though often darker brown along ventral margin and gradually darker brown apically ( Fig. 80h View Figure ); prepectus bare ( Fig. 80g View Figure )..... E. orthopterae (Risbec) 

9(7) Mesoscutum with posteromedial depressed region usually mostly much smoother and shinier than convex part of medial lobe ( Figs 62d View Figure , 102h View Figure ), but at least inclined inner surface of lateral lobe much smoother if narrow band of sculpture extending mediolongitudinally to transscutal articulation ( Fig. 19e View Figure ); frons often almost polished ( Figs 15a View Figure , 19b View Figure , 62a View Figure , 102f View Figure ); fore wing often at least obscurely bifasciate (behind base of mv and often also behind stv) ( Figs 19g View Figure , 62f View Figure , 102d View Figure ), though sometimes similar to below ( Fig. 15e View Figure ); mesosoma sometimes quite distinctly bicoloured, mostly or entirely metallic green dorsally but with one or more of prepectus, tegula, acropleuron and axillae yellowish to orangey-brown ( Figs 15b–d View Figure , 19c–f View Figure , 102b View Figure ) [ splendens  group]............................................................................................. 10

- Mesoscutum with posteromedial depressed region similarly meshlike coriaceous to reticulate as anteromedial convex region and scutellum; frons uniformly coriaceous to coriaceous-reticulate; fore wing hyaline to more-or-less uniformly infuscate from parastigma to wing apex; mesosoma dark with variably distinctly metallic green to bluish lusters except tegula sometimes bright yellow........................................................................................ 13

10(9) Scutellar-axillar complex with axillae yellow, contrasting with green or at least dark scutellum ( Fig. 19c–e View Figure ).................................................................................................. E. bulgaricus Kalina 

- Scutellar-axillar complex uniformly green ( Figs 15d View Figure , 62d View Figure , 102h View Figure )............................................... 11

11(10) Fore wing with basal cell mostly bare behind smv except for a few setae basally ( Fig. 15e, f View Figure ); body conspicuously bicoloured with mesonotum bright green and pronotum (except paramedially), prepectus, tegula and acropleuron yellowish-orange ( Fig. 15b–d View Figure ).................................................................... E. bicolor Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Fore wing with basal cell entirely setose, though setae white and usually inconspicuous ( Figs 62f View Figure , 102i View Figure ); body sometimes with mesosoma more-or-less uniformly coloured or if conspicuously bicoloured similar to above then at least dorsal surface of pronotum greenish similar to mesonotum ( Figs 62d View Figure , 102h View Figure )....................................................... 12

12(11) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula about 0.8–1.0× length of metatibia and 1.2–1.3× length of mv ( Fig. 102b, j View Figure ); mesosoma sometimes distinctly bicoloured with acropleuron and/or lateral panel of pronotum, prepectus and tegula yellowish to orangeybrown in distinct contrast to much darker, metallic green mesonotum ( Fig. 102b View Figure )................... E. splendens Giraud 

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula about 0.5–0.7× length of metatibia and 0.7–1.0× length of mv ( Fig. 62e View Figure ); mesosoma similarly dark metallic green except sometimes tegula and/or prepectus ( Fig. 62e View Figure )....................... E. matranus Erdős 

13(9) Ovipositor sheath uniformly dark or gradually paler apically, but very long with third valvula at least 3× length of mv ( Fig. 68a, b View Figure ); body, excluding legs, uniformly dark with at most slight greenish luster ( Fig. 68a–e View Figure ); fore wing hyaline ( Fig. 68f View Figure )..................................................................................... E. memnonius Dalman 

- Ovipositor sheath variable in colour, often abruptly pale beyond base or distinctly banded (dark-pale-dark), but at least apparent sheath length at most about 1.5× length of mv; body, excluding legs, sometimes with quite distinct metallic green luster or partly yellowish to orangey-brown; fore wing sometimes partly infuscate........................................ 14

14(13) Apparent length of ovipositor sheath slightly longer than metatibia and about 1.5× length of mv ( Fig. 27d View Figure ); head with interocular distance about 0.3× head width ( Fig. 27a, b View Figure ); legs with femora and tibiae mostly dark, the tibiae apically and knees narrowly pale ( Fig. 27d View Figure )...................................................................... E. curvator Yang 

- Apparent length of ovipositor sheath distinctly shorter than metatibia and at most as long as mv ( Figs 24b View Figure , 40e View Figure , 55b View Figure , 84b View Figure , 106b View Figure ); head with interocular distance at least 0.35× head width ( Figs 40b View Figure , 55a View Figure , 84a View Figure , 106a View Figure ); legs often more extensively light coloured, sometimes entirely or almost entirely pale ( Fig. 106b View Figure )................................................ 15

15(14) Fore wing with marginal fringe absent beyond venation or at most present along posteroapical margin, and disc with white setae ( Fig. 40f View Figure ); propodeum with very broadly U-shaped plical depression extending to posterior margin, hence plical region linear medially posterior to depression ( Fig. 40h View Figure ); flagellum with anellus very small, but white ( Fig. 40a, b View Figure ); scrobal depression similarly finely meshlike as frontovertex ( Fig. 40b View Figure )............................. E. infimbriatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Fore wing with complete marginal fringe and disc with setae yellowish to yellowish-brown ( Figs 24f View Figure , 55e View Figure , 84d View Figure ); propodeum with V-shaped plical depression, often extending only about half distance to posterior margin such that distinct dorsal surface visible posterior to depression ( Figs 24h View Figure , 84j View Figure , 106j View Figure ); flagellum with anellus sometimes longer than wide, but at least similarly dark as rest of funicle; scrobal depression obviously more deeply punctate-reticulate than frontovertex ( Figs 84a View Figure , 106a View Figure )... 1 6

16(15) Antenna with scape at least partly yellowish but flagellum brown; basal cell with inconspicuous white setae along mediocubital fold and apically, but mostly bare anteriorly behind smv ( Fig. 24g View Figure ); fore wing disc with distinct brownish infuscation from base of parastigma to about level of apex of pmv ( Fig. 24f View Figure )............................. E. claviger  Nikol’skaya

- Antenna with scape entirely dark ( Figs 84g, h View Figure , 106i View Figure ) and flagellum sometimes with clava distinctly lighter than funicle ( Fig. 84g View Figure ); basal cell completely, uniformly, similarly as setose as disc ( Figs 55g View Figure , 84d View Figure ); fore wing often uniformly hyaline ( Figs 55e View Figure , 106b View Figure ) [ stramineipes  group]............................................................................. 17

17(15) Fore wing dorsally with broad bare region (speculum) behind base of parastigma separating setae of basal cell and disc such that linea calva open basally ( Fig. 55g View Figure ) (with very short, inconspicuous setae over ventral surface of speculum); flagellum with fu1 obviously longer than wide and clava similarly dark as funicle ( Fig. 55i View Figure ); legs with pro- and metafemora extensively darkened, and mesofemur yellow; mv only about 2.3× length of stv................................. E. levis  Nikol’skaya

- Fore wing dorsally with basal cell and disc uniformly setose except for linea calva ( Fig. 84d View Figure ); flagellum sometimes with fu1 transverse or clava sometimes white or at least obviously lighter than funicle ( Fig. 84g View Figure ); legs sometimes with all femora similarly yellow ( Fig. 106b View Figure ); mv sometimes much longer relative to stv............................................. 18

18(17) Flagellum with fu1 longer than wide and clava similarly dark as funicle ( Fig. 106i View Figure ); body generally bright green and legs with all femora yellow ( Fig. 106b, f View Figure ); tegula obviously lighter in colour than prepectus and variably distinctly bicoloured, narrowly opaque yellow along much of inner margin adjacent to mesoscutal margin and more hyaline-yellowish to yellowish-brown lat- erally and apically ( Fig. 106e View Figure )..................................................... E. stramineipes  Nikol’skaya - Flagellum with fu1 transverse ( Fig. 84g, h View Figure ) and clava usually white or at least conspicuously lighter than funicle ( Fig. 84g View Figure ) (colour difference often not apparent if clava strongly collapsed); body, particularly mesosoma, darker green to bluish-green and legs usually variably extensively but obviously darkened ( Fig. 84b, c View Figure ); tegula sometimes similarly dark brown as prepectus but at least uniformly brownish-yellow to yellow............................................ E. phragmitis Erdős 

19(5) Head and body extensively covered with obvious though variably broadly flattened, white lanceolate setae ( Figs 53b–e View Figure , 77a– d View Figure ), including along outer orbit where setae directed anteriorly so as to be almost parallel with outer orbit ( Fig. 53b View Figure ); flagellum with reflective white setae on anellus and on at least following two funiculars contrasting with dark setae of other flagellomeres ( Figs 53a, b View Figure , 77c View Figure ) [ orientalis  group].................................................................. 20

- Head and body often with setae white but hairlike or only inconspicuously lanceolate, including behind outer orbit where directed toward orbit at right or strongly oblique angle (e.g. Figs 123a View Figure , 126c View Figure ); flagellum with uniformly dark setae....... 22

20(19) Head with elongate-lanceolate white setae on lower face and gena, but hairlike, dark setae above level of scrobal depression ( Fig. 53a–e View Figure ); mesonotum with elongate-lanceolate white setae except scutellar-axillar complex and most or all of convex part of anteromedial mesoscutal lobe with dark hairlike setae ( Fig. 53e View Figure ); head and mesosoma uniformly dark with dull reddish to coppery luster ( Fig. 53a–e View Figure )................................................. E. lanceolatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Head and mesonotum completely covered with comparatively broadly lanceolate white setae ( Fig. 77a–d View Figure ); head and at least acropleuron mesally with quite distinct metallic green luster ( Fig. 77a–d View Figure )........................................ 21

21(20) Fore wing basal cell often with some brown setae basally ( Figs 77g View Figure , 78a, d View Figure ), though usually mostly covered with white to yellowish-white setae ( Figs 77g View Figure , 78a View Figure ) in contrast to dark brown setae beyond about level of middle of parastigma or base of mv, and often distinctly infuscate behind venation ( Fig. 77e View Figure ) (sometimes brown setae extending through much of basal cell, but at least separated from brown discal setae by yellowish-white to white setae apically in basal cell and basally on disc behind base of parastigma, Fig. 78d View Figure ); mesotarsus sometimes with a 2/1 or 2/2 peg pattern on second tarsomere and/or third tarsomere without pegs ( Fig. 78f View Figure )................................................................. E. orientalis (Crawford) 

- Fore wing basal cell often with a few white setae basally ( Figs 77h View Figure , 78b,c View Figure ) though usually mostly or entirely covered with brownish setae ( Figs 77h View Figure , 78b View Figure ) similar to discal setae and hyaline or with only a slight yellowish to brownish tinge behind venation ( Fig. 77f View Figure ) (sometimes whitish setae extending apically within basal cell for variable extent, but at least apically with brown setae extending continuously onto disc except often for more-or-less circular isolated region of white setae behind parastigma, Fig. 78b, c View Figure ); mesotarsus usually with at least a 3/3–5/5 peg pattern on second tarsomere of both legs and third tarsomere with at least a 1/1 peg pattern ( Fig. 78g View Figure )............................................ E. vuilleti (Crawford) 

22(19) Mesotarsus densely setose without pegs ventrally, though basitarsus with row of 2–4 longer, yellowish to slightly reddish, setalike spines ( Figs 5h View Figure , 42f View Figure , 46g View Figure ) [ iranicus  group]............................................................. 23

- Mesotarsus ventrally usually with complete row of pegs along either side but at least with a few pegs arranged in asymmetrical pattern on either side of basitarsus, and one or more subsequent tarsomeres also with pegs ( Fig. 69g View Figure ).................. 25

23(22) Tegula brownish, not contrasting with surrounding sclerites ( Fig. 5c, d View Figure ); mesosoma mostly brownish with variably extensive coppery to reddish-violaceous lusters ( Fig. 5a–d View Figure ), though mesonotum sometimes partly green; acropleuron with sculpture delineated by only very slightly raised ridges, almost coriaceous posteriorly ( Fig. 5d View Figure ); fore wing with at least slight, though variably distinct brownish infuscation behind mv and stv ( Fig. 5f, g View Figure )............................. E. africanus Kalina 

- Tegula yellow, contrasting distinctly with surrounding sclerites ( Figs 42h View Figure , 46d View Figure ); mesosoma usually mostly bright green to bluish ( Figs 42b–d, g, h View Figure ); acropleuron quite distinctly reticulate, including posteriorly ( Figs 42h View Figure , 46d View Figure ); fore wing hyaline ( Fig. 46h View Figure )............................................................................................... 24

24(22) Ovipositor sheaths banded, pale medially ( Fig. 42b, c, g View Figure ); legs entirely pale or at most posterior surface of profemur with diffuse brown region ( Fig. 42c, g View Figure )............................................................ E. iranicus Kalina 

- Ovipositor sheaths entirely dark ( Fig. 46b, c, f View Figure ); legs usually with at least metafemur and sometimes other femora variably extensively dark brown ( Fig. 46c View Figure ), though rarely entirely pale...................... E. kalinai Gibson & Fusu  n. name

25(22) Mesotarsus ventrally with asymmetrical pattern of 4–9 pegs along anterior margin and 1–4 pegs on posterior margin of basitarsus, and subsequent tarsomeres without pegs or second tarsomere with only 1 or rarely 2 pegs apically on either side ( Fig. 69g, i View Figure ); tegula usually noticeably bicoloured, with at least about basal two-thirds of inner margin variably broadly pale but brown apically and/or laterally ( Fig. 69d View Figure ) (pattern not obvious if almost entirely yellow or if pale band very narrow and overlain by mesoscutal margin).................................................................. E. microzonus Förster 

- Mesotarsus ventrally with numerous pegs arranged in symmetrical pattern along both sides of basitarsus, and subsequent two or three tarsomeres with pegs on either side; tegula usually completely dark...................................... 26

26(25) Scutellum strongly arched with tuft of long dark bristles mesally ( Fig. 20b, f View Figure ); fore wing mostly infuscate with dark setae except for hyaline band with white setae behind about apical half of smv basal to parastigma, and basal cell infuscate with tuft of long dark setae basal to hyaline band ( Fig. 20g, i View Figure )........................................ E. ceroplastae (Kalina) 

- Scutellum variably broad and highly convex, but setae either uniformly distributed or more lateral so as to be bare mediolongitudinally; fore wing often hyaline, but if extensively infuscate ( Figs 57d View Figure , 97f View Figure ) then basal cell lacking tuft of long dark setae 27

27(26) Ovipositor sheaths more-or-less uniformly dark, often becoming somewhat paler apically but at most with only tip abruptly pale ( Figs 10h View Figure , 57a View Figure , 66h View Figure , 125a, b View Figure )........................................................................ 28

- Ovipositor sheath colour pattern variable, usually distinctly banded or variably pale beyond basal dark region, but if mostly dark then at least with a short pale region extending across sheath submedially.................................... 33

28(27) Fore wing disc without linea calva and strongly infuscate from base of parastigma to somewhat beyond level of pmv ( Fig. 5 7dView FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7; Kalina 1988, plate II, fig. 1); tarsi fuscous ( Fig. 57a View Figure ); mesoscutum with anteromedial lobe finely reticulate but posteromedial depressed region smooth and shiny except narrowly mediolongitudinally ( Fig. 57f View Figure )............... E. longicaudus Kalina 

- Fore wing disc at least with distinct linea calva, and often hyaline; tarsi with at least meso- and metatarsi partly pale; mesoscu- tum with posteromedial depressed region distinctly meshlike sculptured (e.g. Figs 10f View Figure , 60d View Figure , 126a View Figure ).................... 29 29(28) Ovipositor sheaths short, second valvulae not extending beyond gastral apex and apparent sheath length at most only slightly longer than half length of metatibia ( Figs 10b View Figure , 125a, b View Figure )....................................................... 30

- Ovipositor sheaths obviously elongate, second valvulae extending distinctly beyond gastral apex and apparent sheath length at least as long as metatibia............................................................................... 31

30(29) Fore wing with mv at most about 2.5× as long as stv ( Fig. 10b View Figure ), and basal cell bare or with only a few setae basally ( Fig. 10h View Figure ); head with scrobal depression, including scrobes, distinctly sculptured, reticulate to transversely strigose-reticulate, and frons at least somewhat roughened, from transversely alutaceous to alutaceous-reticulate or coriaceous-reticulate ( Fig. 10a View Figure ); ocelli conspicuously small, OOL at least about 2× maximum posterior ocellus diameter ( Fig. 10e View Figure ); costal cell dorsally usually bare, without setae near leading margin................................................ E. atropurpureus Dalman  (in part)

- Fore wing with mv more than 3× as long as stv, and basal cell entirely setose; scrobal depression with almost subeffaced sculpture or at least scrobes smooth and shiny, and frons entirely meshlike coriaceous ( Fig. 125d–f View Figure ); ocelli not conspicuously small, OOL at most about 1.4× maximum posterior ocellus diameter ( Fig. 125e, f View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with row of dark setae apically for distance at least equal to length of parastigma............ E. weilli Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

31(29) Fore wing conspicuously infuscate from base of parastigma to about level of apex of pmv; costal cell dorsally bare, without setae near leading margin ( Fig. 60a, h View Figure ); mesonotum finely coriaceous-reticulate, quite shiny ( Fig. 60d View Figure ); callus with setae so dense as to form white reflective surface obscuring cuticle ( Fig. 60f View Figure )....................................................................................... E. magdalenae Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (possibly in part, see under species)

- Fore wing hyaline ( Figs 66b View Figure , 104g View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with row of setae apically for at least half length; mesonotum distinctly reticulate ( Figs 66e View Figure , 104d View Figure ); callus with comparatively sparse white setae not obscuring cuticle ( Figs 66f View Figure , 104f View Figure ).............................................................................................. 32

32(31) Head and mesosoma dark- to bright-green with some coppery luster at least within posteromedial depressed region of mesoscutum ( Fig. 104a–f View Figure ); ovipositor sheath with third valvula at most about 1.4× length of mv.................................................................................................... E. stenozonus Askew  (in part)

- Head and mesosoma bluish to partly purple or if somewhat greenish under some angles of light at least without coppery luster ( Fig. 66a–f View Figure ); ovipositor sheath with third valvula typically 1.6× or greater, but at least 1.5× length of mv ( Fig. 66a, b View Figure ) [Arabian Peninsula]............................................................ E. melanostylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

33(27) Mesosoma mostly yellowish to orange except mesoscutum posterolaterally and laterally along margin, and scutellum green ( Fig. 97a, b, e View Figure ); fore wing bifasciate with more hyaline band behind about apical half of mv having paler to whitish setae separating infuscate regions with dark setae behind parastigma and base of mv, and behind stv and pmv ( Fig. 97b, f View Figure ).............................................................................................. E. saharensis Kalina 

- Mesosoma usually entirely or mostly dark and fore wing often hyaline, but if scutellar-axillar complex with axillae variably distinctly yellowish and scutellum green ( Fig. 118c View Figure ) then fore wing uniformly infuscate with dark setae between about base of parastigma to somewhat beyond apex of pmv ( Figs 33c View Figure , 57e View Figure , 60h View Figure , 117d View Figure ),........................................ 34

34(33) Costal cell dorsally bare, without row of setae near leading margin (not to be confused with setae on fold adjacent to parastigma) ( Figs 60i View Figure , 117e, f View Figure ) and fore wing with brownish infuscation from base of parastigma to level somewhat beyond apex of pmv (sometimes also faintly brownish basally but most of basal cell and disc apically quite abruptly hyaline) ( Figs 33c View Figure , 57e View Figure , 60h View Figure , 117d View Figure ); mesoscutum with posteromedial depressed region often at least partly smoother and shinier than anteromedial convex region, usually at least with inclined inner surface of lateral lobe with much finer to subeffaced sculpture ( Figs 33a, b View Figure , 57f View Figure ), though mesoscutum sometimes almost uniformly, finely coriaceous-reticulate ( Fig. 60d View Figure )........................ 35

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with row of setae apically for distance at least equal to length of parastigma (setae sometimes white and then inconspicuous) or fore wing hyaline (if partly infuscate then not as strongly or as abruptly delineated as above); mesoscutum with posteromedial depressed region similarly strongly sculptured as anteromedial convex region, usually distinctly meshlike reticulate........................................................................ 37

35(34) Ovipositor sheaths slightly longer than metatibia ( Fig. 60a View Figure ) and with second valvifers projecting conspicuously beyond apex of gaster ( Fig. 60g View Figure ); prepectus setose ( Fig. 60f View Figure ); axillae with very sparse, inconspicuous, hairlike setae ( Fig. 60d, f View Figure ); posterior depressed region of mesoscutum with meshlike sculpture finer on inclined surface of lateral lobe than mediolongitudinally, but distinct ( Fig. 60d View Figure )................................................ E. magdalenae Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths at most only slightly longer than half length of metatibia, and gaster extending over base of third valvulae, in dorsal view concealing second valvifers ( Figs 32a, b View Figure , 117a, b View Figure ); prepectus bare ( Fig. 32h View Figure ); axillae with slender-lanceolate, anteriorly projecting setae typically so dense as to form reflective patch over about posterior two-thirds ( Figs 32e View Figure , 118d View Figure ) (not obvious for some E. tryapitzini  , Fig. 118b View Figure ); posterior depressed region of mesoscutum entirely smooth and shiny or at least inclined surface of lateral lobe with at most subeffaced sculpture, smooth and shiny or almost so ( Figs 33a, b View Figure , 118a, b View Figure ) [ fulgens  group, part]......................................................................................... 36

36(35) Fore wing uniformly setose without linea calva; scutellar-axillar complex uniformly dark ( Figs 32c View Figure , 33a, b View Figure )................................................................................................. E. fulgens  Nikol’skaya

- Fore wing disc with at least very short and slender linea calva behind base of mv ( Fig. 117f View Figure ); scutellar-axillar complex sometimes with axillae variably extensively and distinctly paler, yellowish-orange, than dark scutellum ( Fig. 118c View Figure )................................................................................................. E. tryapitzini Kalina 

37(34) Fore wing disc uniformly setose without linea calva ( Figs 72g View Figure , 86e View Figure )............................................. 38

- Fore wing disc with at least a short, slender, linea calva behind base of mv (e.g. Figs 2g View Figure , 35d View Figure )........................ 39

38(37) Fore wing hyaline with uniformly dark setae ( Fig. 86e View Figure ); body green to greenish-blue with some blue or purple but at most obscure reddish luster ( Fig. 86a–d View Figure ); acropleuron posteriorly strongly meshlike reticulate ( Fig. 86f, i View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae dark............................................................................ E. pini Taylor 

- Fore wing with basal cell hyaline and with white setae except basally, and disc variably distinctly infuscate, at least behind base of mv and behind stv ( Fig. 72g View Figure ); body with variably extensive but distinct reddish-violaceous lusters, at least on frontovertex, pronotum and mesoscutum ( Fig. 72c–e View Figure ); acropleuron posteriorly finely, longitudinally strigose-reticulate ( Fig. 72f View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae white ( Fig. 72e View Figure ).............................................. E. mirabilis Kalina 

39(37) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least as long as marginal vein and 0.85× length of metatibia; frons coriaceous (e.g. Figs 13h View Figure , 22a, b View Figure , 35a View Figure , 113a View Figure ) unless sheaths at least 1.1× length of marginal vein and 0.9× length of metatibia ( Figs 2d View Figure , 104e View Figure , 110c View Figure ).................................................................................................... 40

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula usually at least slightly shorter than marginal vein and 0.85× length of metatibia or if slightly longer then frons at least slightly roughened, imbricate to reticulate-imbricate.............................. 55

40(39) Antenna with scape contrasting in colour with flagellum, usually yellow to orange or orangey-brown ( Figs 22a View Figure , 92c View Figure , 122c View Figure ), but at least with inner surface mediolongitudinally ( Fig. 93f View Figure ) or apically and basally ( Fig. 93g View Figure ) obviously lighter, orangey to orangey-brown, so as to contrast with flagellum............................................................ 41

- Antenna with scape at least uniformly brown so as not to contrast with flagellum and usually entirely dark with variably distinct metallic lusters (e.g. Figs 2a View Figure , 35a View Figure , 104a View Figure , 110a View Figure ).......................................................... 43

41(40) Mesofemur similarly dark as pro- and metafemora, and mesotibia extensively dark ( Fig. 22c View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths with apical darker region extending neither completely to apex nor to dorsal and ventral margins of sheath, which are narrowly pale ( Fig. 22h View Figure ); frons entirely coriaceous ( Fig. 22b View Figure ); scutellum and axillae contrasting in colour, the scutellum greenish or green with coppery or reddish-coppery lusters but axillae mostly to entirely blue or purple ( Fig. 22e View Figure )............... E. cerris Förster 

- Mesofemur and mesotibia both pale ( Figs 92a View Figure , 122b View Figure ); ovipositor sheath with apical dark region extending completely to apex and dorsal and ventral margins, thus with three distinct bands ( Fig. 122h View Figure ); frons noticeably roughened along inner orbits below posterior ocelli, imbricate to reticulate-imbricate ( Figs 92c View Figure , 122e View Figure ); scutellum and axillae similarly dark greenish-blue though scutellum with some coppery luster ( Figs 92b View Figure , 122f View Figure )......................................................... 42

42(41) Ovipositor sheaths with third valvula only about 0.9× length of metatibia 1.1× length of mv ( Fig. 122h View Figure ); pronotum with brown to dark admarginal setae ( Fig. 122f View Figure ); head in frontal view mostly dark, including scrobal depression and frons mesally below anterior ocellus, except for greenish band along inner orbits ( Fig. 122c, e View Figure ); metafemur with about basal two-thirds entirely dark ( Fig. 122b View Figure ).............................................................. E. vanharteni Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

- Ovipositor sheaths with third valvula about 1.1× length of metatibia and 1.3× length of mv ( Fig. 93e View Figure ); admarginal setae pale, whitish (cf Fig. 37e View Figure ) (setae mesally may appear light brownish if in shadow of head, Fig. 92d View Figure ); head in frontal view usually quite extensively green, with some coppery luster in scrobal depression, and more bluish to purple on frons along inner orbits ( Fig. 92c View Figure ); metafemur often pale ( Fig. 92a View Figure ) but at least pale along dorsal margin ( Fig. 93b View Figure )................................................................................................ E. punctatifrons Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

43(40) Costal cell dorsally bare, without row of setae near leading margin (not to be confused with setae on fold adjacent to parastigma) ( Fig. 35f View Figure ); fore wing basally with white, relatively inconspicuous setae of basal cell separated from discal setae by bare oblique band (speculum) extending from base of parastigma through cubital fold ( Fig. 35d, f View Figure ); mesosoma and usually head mostly reddish-coppery to reddish-violaceous with only limited green luster under some angles of light ( Fig. 35a, e, g View Figure ); prepectus with at most 7 setae within dorsal half ( Fig. 35g View Figure )..................... E. gelechiphagus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with row of setae at least apically anterior to parastigma and often for half or more length of costal cell (e.g. Figs 8a, b View Figure , 13f View Figure , 64f View Figure ); fore wing basally with setae sometimes dark but at least basal cell and disc uniformly setose; mesosoma and head usually mostly green to blue or purple with only limited reddish-coppery luster (e.g. Figs 45b, g View Figure , 113b View Figure , 115c, e View Figure ); prepectus sometimes much more extensively to almost entirely setose......................... 44

44(43) Frons reticulate, the meshlike sculpture delineated by variably distinctly raised ridges ( Figs 2b View Figure , 104b View Figure , 110b View Figure ) and ovipositor sheath with second valvifer extending obviously beyond gastral apex such that apparent sheath length at least 1.5× length of mv and 1.1× length of metatibia ( Figs 2d View Figure , 104e View Figure , 110c View Figure )........................................................ 45

- Frons coriaceous, the meshlike sculpture delineated by engraved lines (e.g. Figs 7f View Figure , 13h View Figure , 64d View Figure , 113a View Figure ), and/or ovipositor sheath with second valvifer extending only slightly beyond gastral apex such that apparent sheath length obviously shorter than described above...................................................................................... 47

45(44) Scrobal depression punctate-reticulate to transversely reticulate-rugulose ( Fig. 2b View Figure ); head and mesosoma mostly bluish to purple (if mesoscutum indistinctly greenish in part then without coppery luster) ( Fig. 2a–f View Figure ); hind leg with femur and tibia basally uniformly dark or with knee at most only very slightly lighter in colour, not distinctly contrasting ( Fig. 2d View Figure )..................................................................................................... E. acinellus Askew 

- Scrobal depression quite shiny and variably extensively smooth to finely coriaceous or at most very shallowly reticulate dorsally ( Figs 104b View Figure , 110b View Figure ); head and mesosoma mostly dark to bright green (at least mesoscutum sometimes with some coppery to reddish-violaceous luster) ( Figs 104a–f View Figure , 110a–f View Figure ); hind leg with knee pale in distinct contrast to most of femur and tibia ( Figs 104c View Figure , 110c View Figure )......................................................................................... 46

46(45) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at most about 1.4× length of mv ( Fig. 104e View Figure ); middle leg with femur almost always brownish to similarly dark as pro- and metafemora, and tibia usually with variably conspicuous and extensive brownish region subbasally to mesally ( Fig. 104e View Figure ) [western Palaearctic]................................... E. stenozonus Askew  (in part)

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least about 1.5× length of mv ( Fig. 110c View Figure ); middle leg with femur and tibia similarly pale, yellowish to orangey except for paler knee, and obviously lighter than pro- and metafemora ( Fig. 110c View Figure ) [far eastern Palaearctic].............................................................. E. tanystylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

47(44) Middle and hind legs pale beyond coxa except anterior (outer) surface of metafemur sometimes partly brown ( Fig. 45c–f View Figure ); scrobal depression smooth and shiny ( Fig. 45a, b View Figure ); prepectus sparsely setose (few known females with up to 5 setae)..................................................................................... E. janstai Delvare & Gibson 

- Middle and hind legs often with femora similarly dark and/or one or both of tibiae partly dark ( Figs 13c View Figure , 64b View Figure , 113b View Figure ); scrobal depression variable, but sometimes meshlike coriaceous to reticulate over at least dorsal half, excluding scrobes ( Figs 7f View Figure , 48a View Figure , 64c View Figure , 115e View Figure ); prepectus sometimes much more extensively setose................................................ 48 48(47) Gaster elongate-slender, length excluding ovipositor sheaths at least 1.15× combined length of head + mesosoma and about 2.4× length of metatibia ( Fig. 113b View Figure ); head with at least vertex and occiput plus mesonotum mostly dark blue to purple ( Fig. 113b–d View Figure ) (face and/or posteromedial depressed region of mesoscutum sometimes more distinctly green); metatibia with medial dark band obviously longer than apical pale band............................................. E. tibicinis Bouček 

- Gaster shorter and more robust, length excluding ovipositor sheaths at most about as long as combined length of head + mesosoma and only about twice as long as metatibia; head and mesonotum usually variably greenish to greenish-blue with some coppery luster, to almost entirely reddish-coppery; metatibia sometimes mostly pale except subbasally................. 49

49(48) Scrobal depression smooth and shiny except possibly along extreme dorsal margin ( Fig. 13g, h View Figure ); mesofemur extensively dark similar to pro- and metafemora ( Fig. 13c View Figure ); fore wing hyaline ( Fig. 13e View Figure ).......................... E. azureus Ratzeburg 

- Scrobal depression reticulate to at least about level of interantennal prominence ( Figs 7f View Figure , 48a View Figure , 64c View Figure , 115e View Figure ); mesofemur colour variable, but often similarly pale as tibia or at least conspicuously lighter than pro- and/or metafemora; fore wing sometimes variably distinctly infuscate behind mv and/or stv ( Figs 7c View Figure , 8b View Figure )................................................ 50

50(48) Head in dorsal view with sometimes fine, but definite transverse carina behind posterior ocelli differentiating vertex from occiput (e.g. Figs 17d View Figure , 29i View Figure , 48b, e View Figure , 50f View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths sometimes with four distinct bands, the sheath pale apically beyond a relatively short dark region subapically, and with a longer pale band between subapical and basal dark bands ( Fig. 48h View Figure ).. 51

- Head in dorsal view uniformly curved into occiput behind posterior ocelli, at most with sculpture transversely aligned into fine, concentric, obscurely raised lines; ovipositor sheaths sometimes almost uniformly pale beyond basal dark band or only gradually darkened apically, but at most with three distinct bands composed of a dark basal and apical band on either side of medial pale band..................................................................................... 52

51(50) Ovipositor sheaths with four distinct bands, the sheath pale apically beyond a relatively short, dark subapical band, and with a longer pale band between subapical and basal dark bands ( Fig. 48h View Figure ); interorbital distance usually conspicuously less than 0.4× head width ( Fig. 48a, b View Figure ); distance between inner ventral margin of torulus and oral margin subequal to distance between inner mesal margins of toruli [far eastern Palaearctic; parasitoid of Cynipidae  ]......... E. kamijoi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths with three distinct bands composed of a dark basal and a dark apical band on either side of medial pale band ( Fig. 115a, b View Figure ); interorbital distance about 4.0× head width ( Fig. 115e View Figure ); distance between ventral inner margin of torulus and oral margin at least 1.2× distance between inner mesal margins of toruli [western Palaearctic; parasitoid of Cecidomyiidae  ]......................................................... E. tremulae Delvare  (possibly in part, see under species)

52(50) Metatibia entirely pale ( Fig. 115a, b View Figure ); distance between oral margin and inner ventral margin of torulus at least 1.2× distance between inner mesal margins of toruli; fore wing hyaline and with basal cell uniformly setose ( Fig. 115f View Figure ).............................................................................................. E. tremulae Delvare  (in part)

- Metatibia almost always partly darkened mesally to submesally at least dorsally ( Figs 7g, h View Figure , 64b View Figure ); distance between oral margin and inner ventral margin of torulus at most equal to distance between inner mesal margins of toruli; fore wing sometimes partly infuscate ( Figs 7c View Figure , 8b View Figure ) or sometimes with basal cell extensively bare ( Fig. 64f View Figure )............................... 53

53(52) Scrobal depression strongly reticulate to reticulate-rugulose ( Figs 7b View Figure , 64c View Figure ); mesofemur distinctly lighter than and contrasting with dark pro- and metafemora, and/or fore wing partly infuscate; ovipositor sheaths usually uniformly pale beyond dark base or only gradually darker yellowish- to orangey-brown apically without abruptly delineated apical dark band ( Figs 7g, h View Figure , 64b View Figure ); frons entirely coriaceous ( Figs 7b View Figure , 64d View Figure ) (common).......................................................... 54

- Scrobal depression comparatively weakly meshlike reticulate and/or femora similarly dark; fore wing always hyaline; ovipositor sheaths with quite abruptly and distinctly delineated dark apical band; frons usually with at least some slightly raised ridges delineating some sculpture, often most evident laterad anterior ocellus toward inner orbit (best observed from oblique angle) (rare).............................................................................................. 74

54(53) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least 1.25× length of mv; fore wing comparatively inconspicuously setose basally, the basal cell variably sparsely setose with white setae, and with broad, posteriorly open bare region behind apex of smv and base of parastigma separating basal cell from discal setae ( Fig. 64f View Figure ); smv with at most light yellowish-white setae in contrast to darker brown setae on disc and discal veins ( Fig. 64f View Figure ); disc at most with only very slight brownish infuscation behind venation....................................................................... E. mehrnejadi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at most 1.2× length of mv; other features variable, but usually basal cell, disc and all veins with similarly brown setae, and/or fore wing continuously setose from basal cell onto disc ( Fig. 8a, b View Figure ) (though sometimes with circular bare region behind base of parastigma or rarely with even more extensive bare region as described above)............................................................................................... E. annulatus Nees 

55(39) Scrobal depression shiny and appearing smooth except sometimes along margins ( Figs 71a View Figure , 73c View Figure , 75a View Figure , 90a View Figure , 95a View Figure , 100a View Figure , 120a View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths not conspicuously short, apparent length at least about 0.7× length of mv; vertex uniformly curved into occiput though typically with transversely alutaceous-imbricate to somewhat imbricate-strigose sculpture because sharp edges of sculpture transversely aligned; scape dark [western Palaearctic].............................................. 56

- Scrobal depression variably distinctly (e.g. cf Fig. 125e, f View Figure ) but usually quite obviously reticulate (e.g. Figs 4c View Figure , 25d View Figure , 43c View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths sometimes quite conspicuously short such that apparent sheath length only about 0.6× or less length of mv (e.g. Fig. 125a, b View Figure ); vertex sometimes with variably distinct transverse carina or ridge (e.g. Figs 17d View Figure , 29i View Figure , 50f View Figure ); scape sometimes at least partly pale, yellowish to orange [western or far eastern Palaearctic ]......................................... 63 

56(55) Legs with all femora and tibiae extensively and similarly dark, the tibiae with medial dark regions obviously longer than basal or apical pale regions at least in dorsal view ( Fig. 73a, b View Figure ); mesotarsus similar in length to mesotibia, at least about 0.8× length of tibia; mesosoma dorsally often with variably extensive, bright reddish-violaceous to reddish-coppery lusters, most commonly laterally on pronotum and sometimes extensively on mesonotum ( Fig. 73f, g View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae white (cf Fig. 37e View Figure ).......................................................................... E. nitidus  Nikol’skaya - Legs variably extensively dark, but if all femora similarly dark then at least mesotibia with subbasal dark region, if present, shorter than more extensive apical pale region ( Figs 71d View Figure , 75f View Figure , 90c, h View Figure , 95d View Figure , 100d View Figure ), and protibia with apical pale region obviously extending more basally along anterior and posterior surfaces; mesotarsus distinctly shorter, less than 0.75× length of mesotibia; mesosoma dorsally usually mostly green (e.g. Figs 71f, g View Figure , 90e View Figure , 100e View Figure ), and then often with some coppery luster, or bluish to purple, including pronotum laterally (e.g. Figs 75h View Figure , 90d View Figure , 95e View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae sometimes brownish to dark (e.g. Figs 25g View Figure , 120e View Figure ) [ urozonus  group].................................................................... 57

57(56) Pronotum with admarginal setae all white ( Fig. 119h View Figure ) and mesoscutum and pronotum similarly coloured (usually mostly greenish to bluish-green and often with variably distinct and extensive coppery luster, Figs 119h View Figure , 120 View Figure , c, d), but at least pronotum laterally not distinctly contrasting in colour with mesoscutum ( Figs 119h View Figure , 120b View Figure )...................................................................................................... E. urozonus Dalman  (in part, common)

- Pronotum with admarginal setae brownish to dark (e.g. Figs 90f View Figure , 91d–f View Figure , 95e View Figure ) and/or laterally dark blue, purple to reddish-violaceous, in contrast to more distinctly greenish mesoscutum (e.g. Figs 75h View Figure , 90d View Figure , 95f, g View Figure )............................... 58

58(57) Pronotal collar in dorsolateral view extensively to entirely purple to blue or reddish-violaceous laterally on collar and dorsally on panel so as to contrast distinctly with mostly greenish mesonotum ( Figs 75h View Figure , 90d View Figure , 91d–f View Figure , 95e View Figure , 96c View Figure , 101f, h View Figure )........... 59

- Pronotal collar in dorsolateral view more-or-less greenish or if variably distinctly blue or even if with some purple or reddishviolaceous luster along posterolateral margin then mesonotum similarly coloured so as not to contrast distinctly in colour ( Figs 71f, g View Figure , 120d–h View Figure )...................................................................................... 62

59(58) Legs usually with both meso- and metatibiae distinctly dark within about basal half, though sometimes reduced to only distinct, dark annulus subbasally on mesotibia ( Figs 75f View Figure , 90c, h View Figure ), and often mesofemur similarly dark as pro- and metafemur; pronotum with admarginal setae dark; vertex green or with some coppery luster, but not contrasting distinctly with frons ( Figs 75b View Figure , 90b View Figure )........................................................................................... 60

- Legs not as extensively dark, usually at least meso- and metatibiae pale and mesofemur, at least in dorsal view, also much paler than pro- and metafemora ( Figs 96a, d View Figure , 100d View Figure , 101a View Figure ) (if both tibiae or only metatibia darkened subbasally and/or mesofemur dark then pronotal admarginal setae extensively pale or vertex extensively purple to reddish-violaceous between orbits so as to contrast distinctly with mostly green frons)................................................................ 61

60(59) Prepectus with at most 4 setae; head in dorsal view with interocular distance about 0.45× head width..... E. opacus Delvare 

- Prepectus with at least 7 setae; head in dorsal view with interocular distance usually about 0.4×, though rarely up to about 0.45× head width...................................................................... E. priotoni Delvare 

61(59) Pronotum with admarginal setae white at least laterally, though mesal setae usually pale apically and darker basally ( Fig. 101f, h View Figure ); prepectus with less than 9 setae; head with vertex green with slight coppery luster ( Figs 100b View Figure , 101d View Figure ) or at most with slight purplish luster under some angles of light and mesoscutal lateral lobe in lateral view green with bluish luster at most within posterior half ( Figs 100f View Figure , 101f, h View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin often with two definite rows of setae, including row along most of length and shorter row of at least a few setae mesally ( Figs 100g, h View Figure , 101c View Figure )........... E. simizonus Al  khatib

- Pronotum with admarginal setae dark ( Figs 95e View Figure , 96c, f, h View Figure ); prepectus with at least 9 setae; head with vertex quite distinctly though variably extensively purple to reddish-violaceous, at least laterally and often more extensively ( Figs 95b View Figure , 96b View Figure ), and mesoscutal lateral lobe in lateral view usually extensively blue to purple along margin ( Figs 95e View Figure , 96c View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with only one distinct row of setae over at most about apical two thirds.. E. purpuricollis Fusu & Al  khatib

62(58) Pronotum with admarginal setae brownish to dark ( Fig. 71g View Figure ); eye comparatively small ( Fig. 71a View Figure ), height at most about 1.6× length of malar space; distance between oral margin and inner ventral margin of torulus at least about 1.15× distance between inner mesal margins of toruli; metatibia pale, at most orangey between paler basal and apical regions, and mesofemur either pale or if partly brownish then definitely lighter in colour than pro- and mesofemora.............. E. minozonus Delvare 

- Pronotum with at least some pale admarginal setae laterally ( Fig. 120d View Figure ) or if all setae brownish to dark ( Fig. 120e View Figure ) then eye larger, height at least 1.65× length of malar space; distance between oral fossa and inner ventral margin of torulus at most 1.15× distance between inner mesal margins of toruli; metatibia sometimes distinctly brown to dark between paler basal and apical regions, and mesofemur sometimes similarly dark as pro- and metafemora................... E. urozonus Dalman 

63(55) Fore wing with conspicuously elongate linea calva extending at least to level of base of parastigma and often more-or-less obviously to basal and cubital folds ( Fig. 56e View Figure ); pmv at least noticeably and usually obviously (1.3–1.4×) longer than stv ( Fig. 56f, g View Figure ); legs with all femora dark except narrowly apically, and tibiae extensively dark, including mesotibia at least subbasally ( Fig. 56a, b View Figure ); scape similarly dark as flagellum; head comparatively dark, usually bluish-green to blue except lateral surface of scrobe often violaceous to purple ( Fig. 56h View Figure ); mesosoma dorsally comparatively dark with dull bluish to greenish lusters ( Fig. 56a–d View Figure )............................................................. E. longicalvus Al  khatib & Fusu (in part)

- Fore wing with linea calva extending to level only about equal with apex or middle of parastigma and distinctly separated from basal and cubital folds (e.g. Figs 4g View Figure , 58i View Figure , 99f View Figure ); pmv usually at most only slightly longer than stv (e.g. Figs 4g View Figure , 58i View Figure , 99f View Figure ); legs sometimes with one or more of femora and/or tibiae mostly to entirely pale; scape sometimes yellowish to orange; head sometimes with distinct reddish-violaceous luster on parascrobal region, interantennal prominence and scrobal depression (e.g. Fig. 89c–e View Figure ); mesosoma dorsally sometimes with bright metallic lusters.............................................. 64

64(63) Body with tegula, legs beyond coxae and scape yellow, contrasting with comparatively bright green to bluish-green head and mesonotum having quite conspicuous though only slightly lanceolate white setae ( Fig. 99a–e View Figure ); frons distinctly reticulate ( Fig. 99c View Figure ) and vertex evenly curved into occiput; gaster extending over base of third valvulae, the latter almost 0.9× length of mv, but apparent sheath length only about 0.75× mv; ovipositor sheaths dark basally but mostly pale beyond gaster, somewhat darker, yellowish to brownish-yellow apically but not distinctly banded ( Fig. 99g, h View Figure ) [Arabian peninsula]........................................................................................... E. setosus Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

- Body with at least tegula dark and often legs variably extensively and/or scape dark, and with less conspicuous, hairlike setae at least on mesonotum; frons sometimes coriaceous or only partly reticulate-imbricate and/or vertex and occiput differentiated by variably developed transverse carina or ridge; gaster usually extending only to base of third valvulae or ovipositor sheaths with different colour pattern............................................................................ 65 65(64) Ovipositor sheaths short, apparent sheath length at most about 0.5× length of mv and almost entirely dark, with only very short pale region subbasally ( Fig. 125a, b View Figure ); legs with all femora extensively and tibiae at least partly dark ( Fig. 125b View Figure ); head in lateral view comparatively highly convex ( Fig. 126c View Figure ) and in frontal view scrobal depression with fine, almost subeffaced sculpture or at least scrobes entirely smooth and shiny ( Fig. 125c, d View Figure ); syntergum with posterolateral angles inflexed anteromesally toward base of sheaths such that anal sclerite appears more-or-less Ω-like ‘flattened’ over sheaths ( Fig. 126d, f View Figure ) or in dorsal view somewhat V-like protuberant on either side of anal sclerite...................... E. weilli Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths usually distinctly longer and/or more extensively pale; legs often less extensively dark with one or more femora or tibiae pale; head in lateral view usually lenticular and in frontal view usually with scrobal depression more distinctly sculptured; syntergum sometimes with posterolateral angles abruptly inflexed such that in dorsal view syntergum V-like angulate on either side of anal plate ( Fig. 123h View Figure ), but usually recurved at nearly right-angle to midline to form vertical or obliquely angled but truncate surface between anal sclerite and ovipositor sheaths......................................... 66

66(65) Syntergum with posterolateral angles abruptly inflexed anteromesally to form V-like angle on either side of anal sclerite ( Fig. 123h View Figure ); gaster extending over base of comparatively short and thick third valvulae such that line of division between second valvifers and third valvulae, if visible in ventral view, obviously basal to gastral apex ( Fig. 123g View Figure ); head in lateral view distinctively flat-lenticular to subtriangular with frontovertex and most of parascrobal region forming slightly convex, relatively long surface angled to much shorter combined surface of ventral-most part of parascrobal region and lower face ( Fig. 123b View Figure ); head and mesosoma mostly comparatively dark green to bluish-green but usually legs extensively and often scape pale ( Fig. 123a– e View Figure )..................................................................................... E. vindex Erdős 

- Syntergum with posterolateral angles recurved at nearly right-angle to midline to form vertical to obliquely angled but almost truncate surface between ovipositor sheaths and anal sclerite; apex of gaster usually extending only to base of third valvulae; head in lateral view lenticular to more convexly triangular; colour pattern of head, mesosoma, legs and scape variable..... 67

67(66) Scape dark with metallic luster to uniformly brown but similar to and not contrasting with flagellum................... 68

- Scape at least not uniformly, similarly coloured as flagellum, often mostly or entirely yellow to orange ( Figs 29c, i View Figure , 34c View Figure , 43c View Figure , 108a View Figure , 112c View Figure , 127a, b View Figure ), though sometimes paler only apically or somewhat paler, orangey-brown, only on inner surface mediolongitudinally compared to darker dorsal and ventral margins ( Figs 43d View Figure , 108b View Figure , 93f View Figure )................................ 85

68(67) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at most 0.6× length of mv ( Fig. 17a View Figure ); legs with pro- and metafemora extensively dark but metatibia entirely pale or at most light brownish mesally ( Fig. 17a View Figure ); mesonotum mostly blue or with some purple luster ( Fig. 17e View Figure ), except sometimes dark violaceous anteriorly and scutellum sometimes with slight greenish luster; vertex differentiated from occiput by fine but usually distinct U-shaped carina ( Fig. 17d View Figure ); frons uniformly, finely meshlike coriaceous ( Fig. 17c View Figure )........................................................................ E. brachystylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least 0.6× length of mv, and usually obviously longer; legs sometimes with pro- and/or metafemur pale or metatibia dark mesally; mesonotum sometimes bright or at least distinctly green; occiput sometimes smoothly rounded into occiput; frons sometimes roughened, at least in part reticulate-imbricate to reticulate laterally along inner orbits.......................................................................................... 69

69(68) Legs sometimes with all femora extensively darkened, but at least pro- and metafemora extensively dark and metatibia partly darkened........................................................................................... 70

- Legs often either entirely pale beyond coxa or only profemur extensively dark, but if both pro- and metafemur partly dark then metatibia pale....................................................................................... 81

70(69) Vertex differentiated from occiput by a variably distinct, often somewhat irregular transverse or arcuate ridge or carina (e.g. Figs 17d View Figure , 29i View Figure , 48b View Figure , 50f View Figure )................................................................................ 71

- Vertex uniformly rounded into occiput, the margins of reticulate-imbricate sculpture often sharp and sometimes more-or-less aligned, but not coalesced into differentiated ridge or carina................................................... 74

71(70) Ovipositor sheaths less than 0.8× length of mv ( Fig. 128a, b View Figure ) and with four distinct bands, including basal and subapical dark regions and subbasal and apical pale regions ( Fig. 128i View Figure ) [South Korea]............ E. zebra Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths at least 0.9× length of mv or with only three distinct bands, a dark basal, extensively pale mesal, and dark apical band (apical dark region sometimes somewhat lightened in colour at extreme tip)............................ 72

72(71) Ovipositor sheaths at least 0.9× length of mv and with four distinct bands: dark basally, extensively pale subbasally, variably dark brown subapically, and pale apically ( Fig. 48h View Figure )......................... E. kamijoi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths only about 0.8× length of mv or less and often with only three distinct bands: dark basally, extensively pale mesally, and dark apically (e.g. Figs 25a, b View Figure , 37a, b View Figure , 39b View Figure ), though extreme tip sometimes also somewhat lighter to pale (e.g. Figs 4a View Figure , 6i View Figure , 112i View Figure )......................................................................................... 73

73(72) Scape uniformly and completely dark with metallic luster ( Fig. 50c View Figure ); frons uniformly coriaceous ( Fig. 50e View Figure ) [trans-Palaearctic]............................................................................ E. kiefferi De Stefani  (in part)

- Scape brownish ( Fig. 108c View Figure ) or at least slightly lighter mediolongitudinally than along dorsal and ventral margins ( Fig. 108b View Figure ); frons at least very finely reticulate along inner orbits below posterior ocelli, the sculpture formed by slightly raised though fine ridges ( Fig. 108i View Figure ) [far eastern Palaearctic only]................................... E. tachardiae (Howard)  (in part)

74(53, 70)Pronotum with admarginal setae brownish to black at least mesally, though laterally often with some setae white ( Fig. 25g View Figure ) and sometimes with dark mesal setae paler apically; pronotum blue or violet to purple dorsolaterally, at least along posterior margin, so as to usually contrast quite distinctly with variably dark green to coppery-green or bluish-green mesonotum (e.g. Figs 25e, g View Figure , 39e View Figure , 50h View Figure , 128g View Figure )............................................................................ 75

- Pronotum with admarginal setae uniformly pale ( Fig. 37e View Figure ); pronotum dorsolaterally not distinctly contrasting with mesoscu- tum, usually both similarly green to coppery-green or bluish-green (e.g. Figs 6b, e View Figure , 18h View Figure , 37f View Figure ) or, more rarely, bluish (e.g. Figs 4e View Figure , 37e View Figure )............................................................................................ 79 75(74) Ovipositor sheaths at most only about 0.75× length of mv ( Fig. 128b View Figure ) and with four distinct bands, a short dark region basally, a longer pale region subbasally, a shorter brown region subapically, and an even shorter but distinct pale region apically ( Fig. 128i View Figure ); fore wing with basal cell setae white relative to darker, yellowish to brown discal setae ( Fig. 128h View Figure )...................................................................................... E. zebra Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths distinctly longer than 0.75× length of mv and/or with only three distinct bands, a pale region medially between dark basal and apical dark regions ( Figs 25a, b View Figure , 50a View Figure ), though apical dark region often with extreme tip lighter; fore wing sometimes with setae uniformly yellowish to brownish................................................. 76

76(75) Protibia dark except narrowly basally and apically; face mostly dark green to bluish-green except more distinctly bluish to partly purple in scrobal depression ( Fig. 56h View Figure ); fore wing with uniformly dark brown setae ( Fig. 56e, g View Figure )...................................................................................... E. longicalvus Al  khatib & Fusu (in part)

- Protibia paler antero- and posterolongitudinally for all or most of length so as to usually differentiate separated or at least largely separated dorso- and ventrolongitudinal dark bands; face more-or-less extensively green to bluish-green except at least interantennal prominence and parascrobal region contrastingly dark to bright reddish-violaceous or very rarely purple or coppery, and scrobal depression similarly coloured or often partly green under some angles of light (commonly on lateral wall of scrobe) ( Figs 25c, d View Figure , 39c View Figure , 50c–f View Figure , 128c, d View Figure ); fore wing often with pale to white setae, at least within basal cell............. 77

77(76) Ovipositor sheath with posterior margin of medial pale region extending only to about half length of sheath, the pale region shorter than basal dark band and only about half as long as apical dark band ( Fig. 39g View Figure ); mesofemur pale ( Fig. 39a, b View Figure ); frons uniformly coriaceous ( Fig. 39d View Figure ).................................................. E. hayei Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Ovipositor sheath with posterior margin of medial pale band extending obviously beyond half length of sheath, the pale region longer than basal dark band and at least as long as more apical band(s) ( Figs 25a, b View Figure , 50a, b View Figure , 128b View Figure ); mesofemur sometimes similarly dark as pro- and metafemora ( Fig. 128b View Figure ); frons usually with meshlike sculpture at least obscurely defined by slightly raised ridges and often variably distinctly reticulate to reticulate-imbricate (e.g. Fig. 25c, d View Figure ), at least laterad anterior ocellus toward inner orbit.................................................................................... 78

78(77) Mesofemur always pale ( Fig. 50a View Figure ); head in dorsal to posterodorsal view with vertex and occiput differentiated by at least an obscure, fine, transverse or arched ridge; scrobal depression with scrobes usually mostly reticulate or at least with quite distinct sculpture along most of length ( Fig. 50c View Figure ); frons uniformly coriaceous ( Fig. 50e View Figure ); fore wing setae uniformly yellowish to brownish.......................................................... E. kiefferi De Stefani  (in part, uncommon)

- Mesofemur varying from pale to similarly dark as pro- and metafemora; head with vertex uniformly curved into occiput with transverse reticulate-imbricate sculpture forming irregular concentric lines; scrobal depression less distinctly and extensively sculptured than above, the scrobes mostly to entirely shiny with at most slight indication of subeffaced meshlike sculpture ( Fig. 25c View Figure ); frons with meshlike sculpture usually at least obscurely defined by slightly raised ridges and often variably distinctly reticulate to reticulate-imbricate ( Fig. 25c, d View Figure ), at least laterad anterior ocellus toward inner orbit; fore wing often with basal cell setae white or at least obviously paler compared to darker discal setae ( Fig. 25f View Figure ).......... E. confusus Al  khatib (common)

79(74) Front and middle legs almost entirely pale, at most posterior surface of profemur somewhat brownish and protibia at most dorsally dark subbasally ( Fig. 89a, b View Figure ); head ( Fig. 89c, d View Figure ) and mesosoma often with extensive coppery luster but at least pronotum laterally greenish with a slight coppery luster ( Fig. 89e, f View Figure ); scape usually with at least extreme base somewhat lighter in colour............................................................................ E. pistaciae Al  khatib (in part)

- Legs with at least pro- and metafemora extensively dark and protibia with dorso- and ventrolongitudinal dark bands, and often mesofemur also variably extensively dark ( Figs 37b, g View Figure , 61b, c View Figure ); head and mesosoma often blue to bluish-green ( Fig. 37f, h View Figure ), though sometimes similar to above ( Fig. 37d, g View Figure ); scape always uniformly dark.................................... 80

80(79) Head blue to purple at least along inner orbits and sometimes extensively on mesonotum, though mesonotum often only bluish-green to green and then often with at least slight coppery luster ( Fig. 37c–h View Figure )................... E. gemellus Al  khatib

- Head and mesonotum greenish without distinct bluish luster ( Fig. 61a–f View Figure )............................. E. martellii Masi 

81(69) Ovipositor sheaths at least 0.9× length of mv and with four distinct bands composed of an extensive pale region between a dark basal region and variably dark brown subapical region, and a pale apical region ( Fig. 48h View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae dark ( Fig. 48b, f View Figure ); legs with pro- and mesofemora extensively dark and protibia at least with dark band ventrolongitudinally ( Fig. 48f View Figure )........................................................... E. kamijoi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. (in part)

- Ovipositor sheaths conspicuously shorter than above ( Figs 18b View Figure , 50a View Figure , 58a View Figure ) and/or with only three distinct bands composed of a dark basal, extensively pale mesal, and dark apical band (extreme tip often somewhat paler but not as distinct region, Figs 6i View Figure , 18i View Figure ); pronotum sometimes with admarginal setae pale; legs sometimes more extensively pale, including protibia entirely.. 82

82(81) Mesosoma in dorsal view with pronotum laterally blue to purple or reddish-violaceous ( Figs 50g View Figure , 58e, g View Figure ), and mesoscutum anteriorly sometimes also bluish to purple or at least differentiated in colour from otherwise mostly green to bluish-green mesoscutum; head with frontovertex often variably extensively multicoloured with dark reddish-violaceous, blue to bluishgreen and/or coppery lusters ( Fig. 50e, f View Figure ).................................................................. 83

- Mesosoma in dorsal view with pronotum and mesoscutum mostly to entirely bright green or green with coppery luster, the mesonotum at most with very limited bluish luster under some angles of light ( Figs 6b View Figure , 18a View Figure ); head with frons green to bluishgreen with coppery luster ( Figs 6c View Figure , 18c View Figure ) but vertex and occiput more distinctly blue ( Figs 6d View Figure , 18d View Figure ) under some angles of light................................................................................................... 84

83(82) Frons quite obviously roughened, at least shallowly and usually distinctly reticulate to reticulate-imbricate ( Fig. 58f View Figure ) [far eastern Palaearctic]...................................................... E. luteipes Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

- Frons smooth or virtually so, the meshlike sculpture usually engraved (coriaceous) or at most delineated by only very fine, slightly raised ridges ( Fig. 50e View Figure ) [trans-Palaearctic].............. E. kiefferi De Stefani  (in part, see ‘Remarks’ for species)

84(82) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula about 0.6× length of mv ( Fig. 18b View Figure ); pro- and metafemora extensively dark and protibia basally dark dorso- and ventrolongitudinally ( Fig. 18b View Figure ).......................... E. brachyurus Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least about 0.8× length of mv ( Fig. 6a View Figure ); profemur pale or with posterior surface only light brownish in part, metafemur with only anterior surface variably distinct brownish mesally, and protibia uniformly pale ( Fig. 6a View Figure )............................................................... E. angustifrons Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

85(67) Body with at least slight coppery to reddish-coppery luster on pronotum laterally ( Fig. 89f View Figure ) and within scrobal depression ( Fig. 89c, d View Figure ), and typically much more extensively on mesosoma and head ( Fig. 89a–f View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae usually pale ( Fig. 89e, f View Figure ); frons always quite distinctly roughened ( Fig. 89d View Figure ); head with vertex uniformly curved into occiput and transversely alutaceous-imbricate to imbricate-strigose, the sharp edges of sculpture typically aligned transversely but not differentiated into ridge or carina ( Fig. 89e View Figure ) [western Palaearctic].............................. E. pistaciae Al  khatib (in part)

- Body usually mostly green to bluish-green or blue to purple with very limited coppery to reddish-coppery lusters, including within scrobal depression (e.g. Figs 29h View Figure , 34c, d View Figure , 50c View Figure ), but at least pronotum laterally blue to purple or violaceous ( Figs 4e View Figure , 43g View Figure , 112f View Figure , 127d View Figure ); pronotum with admarginal setae dark at least mesal to level of spiracles ( Figs 43h View Figure , 112f View Figure ); frons sometimes similar to above but often entirely coriaceous (e.g. Figs 4d View Figure , 127e, f View Figure ) or only comparatively narrowly roughened along inner orbit (e.g. Fig. 29f View Figure ); head sometimes with vertex differentiated from occiput by variably distinctly differentiated transverse carina or irregular ridge ( Figs 29i View Figure , 48b View Figure , 50f View Figure )....................................................................... 86

86(85) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula slightly less than 0.6× less than length of mv and with four distinct bands, including subbasal and apical pale regions that are shorter than basal and subapical dark regions ( Fig. 112i View Figure ); head and mesosoma dorsally mostly dark blue to purple ( Fig. 112a–f View Figure ); head with vertex smoothly rounded into occiput; legs with pro- and metafemora partly dark.............................................................. E. tetrazostus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least slightly longer than 0.6× length of mv and if with four distinct bands, including apical pale region, then subbasal pale region obviously longer than basal dark region (e.g. Fig. 4a, b View Figure ); head sometimes with at least frons and mesonotum sometimes mostly greenish, and then often with some coppery luster; head sometimes with vertex and occiput distinguished by transverse carina or ridge (e.g. Figs 29i View Figure , 50f View Figure ); legs sometimes with profemur and/or metafemur entirely pale........................................................................................ 87

87(86) Legs essentially or entirely pale beyond coxae ( Fig. 34b View Figure ) or if posterior surface of profemur partly brownish then metafemur pale or at most with similarly brownish tinge as profemur..................................................... 88

- Legs often with pro- and metafemora both extensively dark ( Figs 108d–f View Figure , 127a, c View Figure ), but if profemur pale or mostly pale then at least metafemur obviously darkened within basal half ( Figs 4a, b View Figure , 43b View Figure , 31c, d View Figure ).................................... 92

88(87) Frons smooth, uniformly meshlike coriaceous ( Fig. 50c View Figure ); scape at most dark orangey with some metallic luster ( Fig. 50d View Figure ).................................................................... E. kiefferi De Stefani  (in part, extremely rare)

- Frons at least partly roughened, sometimes extensively reticulate ( Fig. 58f View Figure ) but at least imbricate to reticulate-imbricate laterally along inner orbit below level of posterior ocellus ( Figs 29f View Figure , 31i View Figure , 34d View Figure ); scape usually extensively pale (e.g. Figs 29i View Figure , 34c View Figure ).................................................................................................... 89

89(88) Frons entirely or almost entirely reticulate to reticulate-imbricate between level of posterior ocelli and scrobal depression, somewhat more finely sculptured only in narrow band below anterior ocellus ( Fig. 58f View Figure ); head with vertex rounded into occiput with at most only obscurely differentiated vertexal carina [far eastern Palaearctic]...................................................................................................... E. luteipes Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. (in part)

- Frons often more finely but at least less extensively sculptured, usually most conspicuously reticulate to reticulate-imbricate only laterally along inner orbit below posterior ocellus, often not completely to scrobal depression, and more finely sculptured, coriaceous to coriaceous-imbricate in broad band below anterior ocellus ( Figs 29f View Figure , 31i View Figure , 34d View Figure ); head usually with vertex and occiput differentiated by quite obvious vertexal carina (e.g. Figs 29i View Figure , 50f View Figure )........................................ 90

90(89) Western Palaearctic..................................................................... E. fulvipes Förster   

- Far eastern Palaearctic................................................................................. 91

91(90) Ovipositor sheath with third valvula at least about 0.8× length of mv.............................. E. flavicrurus Yang 

- Ovipositor sheath with third valvula only about 0.75× or less length of mv........... E. formosae Ashmead  (in part, rare)

92(87) Front leg entirely or mostly yellow, at most posterior surface of femur partly brownish mesally ( Fig. 29e View Figure )....................................................................................... E. formosae Ashmead  (in part, most)

- Front leg with profemur dark except narrowly apically and basally (e.g. Figs 108d–f View Figure , 127a, c View Figure )........................ 93

93(92) Fore wing disc slightly but distinctly brownish beyond hyaline basal cell ( Fig. 4g, h View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths less than 0.65× length of mv; legs with pro- and metafemora extensively dark except apically, and metatibia with elongate brownish region at least along posterior margin ( Fig. 4a, b View Figure )................................... E. (Eupelmus) adustus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Fore wing disc and basal cell uniformly hyaline; ovipositor sheaths sometimes more than 0.7× length of mv; legs sometimes with metafemur much less extensively dark and/or metatibia pale.............................................. 94

94(93) Vertex uniformly rounded into occiput, often with sharp edges of transverse-imbricate sculpture obvious but not coalesced into apparent ridge or carina ( Fig. 43g View Figure ); mesonotum mostly bright green, usually posteromedial depressed region with some coppery luster but at most with bluish luster only anteriorly on anteromedial lobe and posterolaterally on lateral lobe above tegula ( Fig. 43f View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths at most 0.7× length of mv and usually shorter [Far eastern Palaearctic]............................................................................................ Eupelmus iris Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

- Vertex often differentiated from occiput by at least slightly though variably distinctly developed, often somewhat irregular, transverse or arcuate ridge or carina (e.g. Figs 29i View Figure , 50f View Figure ); mesonotum more extensively blue to purple, usually over most of anteromedial lobe and along length of lateral lobe above tegula and prepectus ( Figs 108h View Figure , 127d View Figure ); ovipositor sheaths sometimes greater than 0.7× length of mv.......................................................................... 95

95(94) Western Palaearctic......................................................... E. xenium Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. 

- Far eastern Palaearctic................................................................................. 96

96(95) Protibia subbasally with differentiated darker region ventro- and/or dorsolongitudinally ( Fig. 108d, f View Figure ).............................................................................................. E. tachardiae (Howard)  (in part)

- Protibia pale, lacking distinctly darker region subbasally ( Fig. 31e View Figure ).................................................................................................... E. formosae Ashmead  (possibly in part, see under species)