Eupelmus

Gary A. P. Gibson & Lucian Fusu, 2016, Revision of the Palaearctic species of Eupelmus (Eupelmus) Dalman (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), Zootaxa 4081 (1), pp. 1-331: 32-35

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4081.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D818A5A7-A279-4E4A-AB6C-86FDD870E518

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D37B8786-7228-6124-FF77-FEC6FA3EF87E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Eupelmus
status

 

Key to Palaearctic species of E. ( Eupelmus  ) based on males

1 Fore wing uniformly setose through basal cell and disc ( Fig. 81hView FIGURE 81); disc bifasciate, with hyaline region behind about apical half of mv having white setae separating brownish regions with dark setae behind stv and behind base of mv and parastigma ( Fig. 81eView FIGURE 81)......................... E. orthopterae (Risbec)  and likely E. fasciatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. (see under species)

- Fore wing dorsally usually with broad bare region (speculum) behind parastigma that extends obliquely behind mv (e.g. Figs 3gView FIGURE 3, 9eView FIGURE 9, 12fView FIGURE 12), though sometimes some setae interrupting region (e.g. Figs 83eView FIGURE 83, 87fView FIGURE 87) or rarely with only slender bare band ( Fig. 21fView FIGURE 21) similar to linea calva of female; disc hyaline or rarely slightly infuscate behind discal venation ( Fig. 21fView FIGURE 21) but not bifasciate.................................................................................................... 2

2(1) Antenna with anellus transverse but a distinct, dull, setose segment having at least two rows of setae ( Fig. 87eView FIGURE 87 insert) and flagellum more-or-less filiform with conspicuous, decumbent, curved setae surrounding all funiculars ( Fig. 87eView FIGURE 87); pedicel about 2.5× as long as apical width and ventrally with row of 7–10 mostly straight, long setae ( Fig. 87eView FIGURE 87); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with setae over almost entire length, including more than one row over apical half ( Fig. 87fView FIGURE 87); lower face and gena posterior to malar sulcus with similarly long setae ( Fig. 87c, dView FIGURE 87); middle and hind legs with femora and tibiae dark, and basal one or two tarsomeres pale ( Fig. 87a, bView FIGURE 87)......................................................... E. pini Taylor 

- Antenna with anellus very strongly transverse (discoidal), shiny, and smooth with at most one row of inconspicuous setae, and pedicel much shorter, subovoid, and with fewer setae (e.g. Figs 26gView FIGURE 26, 38fView FIGURE 38, 47eView FIGURE 47, 83dView FIGURE 83) or, if anellus and pedicel similar to above, then flagellum more distinctly clavate with relatively inconspicuous, short, recumbent setae (e.g. Figs 9fView FIGURE 9, 14dView FIGURE 14, 63cView FIGURE 63, 85cView FIGURE 85, 103eView FIGURE 103, 107eView FIGURE 107); costal cell dorsally with row of setae not extending so extensively along leading margin, and gena posterior to malar sulcus usually with one seta obviously longer and differentiated from other setae (e.g. Figs 12bView FIGURE 12, 30cView FIGURE 30, 47dView FIGURE 47, 63bView FIGURE 63); leg colour variable................................................................................................ 3

3(2) Anellus sometimes subquadrate but if distinctly transverse then similarly dull and setose as subsequent flagellomeres (e.g. Figs 9gView FIGURE 9, 21eView FIGURE 21, 23eView FIGURE 23, 36fView FIGURE 36, 63eView FIGURE 63, 65gView FIGURE 65) and/or flagellum conspicuously clavate ( Figs 63cView FIGURE 63, 98eView FIGURE 98, 103eView FIGURE 103); pedicel elongate-triangular, usually about 2× as long as apical width; flagellum variably distinctly clavate with comparatively inconspicuous, short, recumbent setae and funiculars increasing in width to clava, the clava obviously broader and apical funiculars relatively shorter than basal funiculars (e.g. Figs 9fView FIGURE 9, 14dView FIGURE 14, 21eView FIGURE 21, 63cView FIGURE 63, 66eView FIGURE 66, 85cView FIGURE 85, 103eView FIGURE 103, 107eView FIGURE 107).................................................... 4

- Anellus very strongly transverse (discoidal), smooth and shiny, with at most one, usually inconspicuous, row of setae along extreme apical margin (e.g. Figs 3cView FIGURE 3, 12dView FIGURE 12, 26gView FIGURE 26, 30dView FIGURE 30, 41fView FIGURE 41); pedicel subovoid, at most about 1.5× as long as apical width; flagellum usually elongate-filiform (e.g. Figs 12aView FIGURE 12, 47aView FIGURE 47, 54aView FIGURE 54, 79aView FIGURE 79) to robust-filiform (e.g. Figs 26eView FIGURE 26, 30eView FIGURE 30, 38eView FIGURE 38, 41eView FIGURE 41), with flagellomeres about same width such that clava not distinctly differentiated except in length, and usually conspicuously setose with erect to strongly curved decumbent setae (except males of E. melanostylus  , Fig. 67g –i and E  View FIGURE 67. iris, Fig. 44dView FIGURE 44)................... 15

4(3) Fore wing with mv at most about 2.2× length of stv ( Figs 63dView FIGURE 63, 103fView FIGURE 103) or tegula white to yellowish ( Fig. 107bView FIGURE 107); scape sometimes partly pale basally or along outer, ventral, longitudinal sensory region ( Figs 103eView FIGURE 103, 107cView FIGURE 107); maxillary and labial palps usually white to yellowish-brown............................................................................... 5

- Fore wing with mv at least 2.5× and usually about 3× length of stv; tegula uniformly brown or dark; scape usually entirely dark (except E. ceroplastae  ); maxillary and labial palps at most with apical palpomeres pale.............................. 9

5(4) Legs entirely yellow or at most following distinctly darkened: mesofemur along ventral length in part, anterior surface of metafemur in ventral half, and meso- and metatibiae in apical half ( Fig. 98bView FIGURE 98); head with short but conspicuous white lanceolate setae on parascrobal region and lower face, and gena with slightly more slender but subequally short setae ( Fig. 98dView FIGURE 98); pedicel ventrally without apically curved or numerous distinct setae ( Fig. 98d, eView FIGURE 98); flagellum with fl1 strongly discoidal, all funiculars transverse, and clava obviously longer than half length of funicle ( Fig. 98eView FIGURE 98)...................... E. saharensis Kalina 

- Legs more extensively dark, including front leg; head usually with more slender, hairlike setae on parascrobal region and lower face, but at least gena with one longer, differentiated seta; pedicel ventrally either with apically curved setae or several distinct, long setae; flagellum different than above, fl1 usually subquadrate or at least distinctly setose, funicle sometimes with some oblong funiculars, and clava at most about half length of funicle................................................ 6

6(5) Mesofemur with anterior surface longitudinally pale similar to profemur [ stramineipes  group]......................... 7

- Mesofemur dark except basally and apically, similar to metafemur [ splendens  group]................................ 8

7(6) Flagellum with anellus quadrate, virtually or fully as long as wide, and at least 0.75× length of fl2 ( Fig. 107fView FIGURE 107); stv at angle of at least 40° relative to pmv, and length only about 1.4× distance between posterior margin of stigma and posterior margin of pmv ( Fig. 107dView FIGURE 107).................................................................... E. stramineipes  Nikol’skaya

- Flagellum with anellus sometimes obviously transverse but at least only about half as long as fl2 ( Fig. 85cView FIGURE 85); stv at comparatively more acute angle, about 30° relative to pmv, and length about twice distance between posterior margin of stigma and posterior margin of pmv ( Fig. 85dView FIGURE 85)........................................................ E. phragmitis Erdős 

8(6) Mesotarsus with basal two tarsomeres white ( Fig. 103cView FIGURE 103); lower face and gena on either side of malar sulcus near oral margin at most with relatively sparse apically curved setae ( Fig. 103bView FIGURE 103); funicle with all funiculars uniformly cylindrical and setose ( Fig. 103eView FIGURE 103)............................................................................... E. splendens Giraud 

- Mesotarsus with only basitarsus white in distinct contrast to subsequent brown tarsomeres ( Fig. 63aView FIGURE 63); lower face and gena on either side of malar sulcus near oral margin with obviously longer and denser, apically curved to sinuate setae usually forming quite conspicuous tufts of setae ( Fig. 63bView FIGURE 63); funicle with at least fu2–fu4 and sometime fu1 appearing ventrally flat and asetose ( Fig. 63eView FIGURE 63)............................................................................. E. matranus Erdős  9(4) Protibia dark except narrowly basally and apically ( Fig. 23bView FIGURE 23)......... Eupelmus  sp. nr E. cerris Förster  (see under species)

- Protibia pale or at least longitudinally pale along anterior and often posterior surfaces (e.g. Figs 9bView FIGURE 9, 14bView FIGURE 14, 54aView FIGURE 54, 74bView FIGURE 74)....... 10

10(9) Costal cell dorsally near leading margin without or at most with one seta apically, and ventrally with inconspicuous white setae mostly in single line ( Fig. 36dView FIGURE 36); basal cell at least with inconspicuous white setae ( Fig. 36dView FIGURE 36) and sometimes sparsely setose to almost bare.......................................................... E. gelechiphagus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with several to numerous dark setae apically, and ventrally with conspicuous dark setae along length ( Figs 9eView FIGURE 9, 14hView FIGURE 14, 21fView FIGURE 21, 65fView FIGURE 65, 74gView FIGURE 74); basal cell uniformly setose with distinct dark setae.................... 11

11(10) Lower face sometimes with somewhat longer setae toward malar sulcus, but setae uniformly distributed and comparatively sparse, with longer setae straight to uniformly curved ( Figs 14eView FIGURE 14, 21cView FIGURE 21, 74cView FIGURE 74); mesotibia dark ( Figs 14gView FIGURE 14, 21bView FIGURE 21, 74aView FIGURE 74).......... 12

- Lower face in region between torulus and malar sulcus with region of conspicuously longer, apically sinuately to hook-like curved setae forming denser tuft with convergent or overlapping apices ( Figs 9c, dView FIGURE 9, 65cView FIGURE 65); mesotibia variably extensively pale with at least anterior surface longitudinally pale to or almost to base ( Fig. 9bView FIGURE 9)..................................... 14

12(11) Fore wing with speculum as slender bare band separated from parastigma and marginal vein by several rows of setae ( Fig. 21fView FIGURE 21); pedicel with straight setae projecting at strongly acute angle relative to ventral margin ( Fig. 21eView FIGURE 21); scrobal depression entirely reticulate ( Fig. 21cView FIGURE 21); scape extensively yellowish basally ( Fig. 21cView FIGURE 21); mesotarsus with basal tarsomere brown except apically ( Fig. 21bView FIGURE 21)................................................................... E. ceroplastae (Kalina) 

- Fore wing with speculum as broad bare region behind parastigma and base of marginal vein ( Figs 14hView FIGURE 14, 74gView FIGURE 74); pedicel with several long, apically curved setae projecting ventrally ( Figs 14dView FIGURE 14, 74e, fView FIGURE 74); scrobal depression extensively smooth and shiny; scape dark ( Figs 14dView FIGURE 14, 74eView FIGURE 74); mesotarsus with at least basal tarsomere white............................................ 13

13(12) Costal cell dorsally near leading margin setose apically for distance only slightly greater than length of parastigma, and ventrally with single row of setae over most of length ( Fig. 74gView FIGURE 74); speculum open posterobasally ( Fig. 74gView FIGURE 74); frons finely but distinctly meshlike reticulate, quite obviously roughened ( Fig. 74dView FIGURE 74).............................. E. nitidus  Nikol’skaya

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with numerous dark setae over about apical half to two-thirds, and ventrally with setae at least indistinctly aligned into 2 rows basal to parastigma ( Fig. 14hView FIGURE 14); speculum closed or almost closed posterobasally by row of setae ( Fig. 14hView FIGURE 14); frons meshlike coriaceous, the surface not roughened ( Fig. 14cView FIGURE 14).................. E. azureus Förster 

14(11) Funicle with differentiated region of setae ventrally on fu1, fu2, and fu3 at least basally, under lower magnification in ventral view visible as smoother, paler region among decumbent setae ( Fig. 9fView FIGURE 9 insert); legs with protarsus sometimes entirely infuscate and meso- and metatarsus with at most basal two tarsomeres uniformly pale, at least third and subsequent tarsomeres darker yellowish to infuscate ( Fig. 9a, bView FIGURE 9)........................................................... E. annulatus Nees 

- Funicle with differentiated region of setae ventrally on only fu1 and fu2 basally ( Fig. 65hView FIGURE 65); legs with basal three tarsomeres of all tarsi uniformly pale, whitish.............................................. E. mehrnejadi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

15(3) Head with variably conspicuous white lanceolate setae on at least parascrobal region and lower face ( Figs 54b–dView FIGURE 54, 79c, dView FIGURE 79), and setae behind eye directed anteriorly or at least at an acute angle relative to orbit and sometimes subparallel with orbit ( Figs 54dView FIGURE 54, 79dView FIGURE 79); flagellum conspicuously elongate-filiform ( Figs 54aView FIGURE 54, 79aView FIGURE 79), length of flagellum + pedicel at least about twice head width and fl2 at least about 3× as long as wide ( Fig. 54eView FIGURE 54); maxillary and labial palps brown; legs with at least femora extensively dark; mv only about 2× length of stv ( Figs 54fView FIGURE 54, 79View FIGURE 79, f) [ orientalis  group].......................................... 16

- Head with hairlike setae and setae behind eye directed toward orbit; flagellum often distinctly more robust-filiform with shorter funiculars; maxillary and labial palps sometimes white; legs beyond coxae sometimes entirely or almost entirely pale, white to orange; mv sometimes about 3× length of stv........................................................ 18

16(15) Legs with tibiae yellowish to orange or at most metatibia with obscure subapical infuscate region in about apical third ( Fig. 54aView FIGURE 54); head and mesosoma mostly dark with variably distinct reddish-coppery luster but at most very limited and obscure green luster ( Fig. 54a–dView FIGURE 54)........................................................ E. lanceolatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Legs with at least meso- and usually metatibia having subapical infuscate region in about apical third ( Fig. 79aView FIGURE 79); head and mesosoma often bright green or at least extensively greenish, though head and mesonotum sometimes with variably extensive reddish-coppery luster mesally ( Fig. 79a–dView FIGURE 79)................................................................ 17

17(16) Fore wing with white setae throughout basal cell and disc at least basally or mv at least 1.9× length stv ( Fig. 79fView FIGURE 79); costal cell ventrally with pale, whitish setae and dorsally near leading margin often with setae over apical half or less ( Fig. 79hView FIGURE 79)....................................................................................... E. orientalis (Crawford) 

- Fore wing with conspicuous dark setae throughout basal cell and disc ( Fig. 79gView FIGURE 79); mv often only about 1.6× or less, but at least less than 1.9× length of stv ( Fig. 79eView FIGURE 79); costal cell ventrally usually with dark setae and dorsally near leading margin usually with setae over most of length ( Fig. 79gView FIGURE 79).................................................. E. vuilleti (Crawford) 

18(15) Legs beyond coxae sometimes entirely pale but at least all tibiae entirely white to yellowish or orange ( Figs 41bView FIGURE 41, 47aView FIGURE 47, 7View FIGURE 7 0a, 83a, 124a) and/or tegula pale, white to yellowish (often narrowly opaque yellow along inner margin adjacent to mesoscutum and more extensively hyaline apicolaterally) ( Figs 41a, bView FIGURE 41, 47aView FIGURE 47, 70aView FIGURE 70); scape with at least extreme base and outer, ventral, longitudinal sensory region white to orange ( Figs 41cView FIGURE 41, 70dView FIGURE 70, 124bView FIGURE 124); head with vertex uniformly curved into occiput; lower face with uniformly distributed and comparatively short, straight white setae ( Figs 41cView FIGURE 41, 47c, dView FIGURE 47, 70c, dView FIGURE 70, 124bView FIGURE 124)...................... 19

- Legs with femora and at least meso- and metatibiae at least partly dark apically, and tegula brown to dark; scape usually entirely dark, though rarely outer, ventral, longitudinal sensory region paler; head sometimes with transverse carina differentiating vertex from occiput (e.g. Figs 30eView FIGURE 30, 51eView FIGURE 51, 59cView FIGURE 59); lower face sometimes with conspicuously differentiated denser region of longer and apically abruptly curved or sinuate, usually dark setae (e.g. Figs 30cView FIGURE 30, 44eView FIGURE 44, 51dView FIGURE 51, 59dView FIGURE 59)....................... 23

19(18) Flagellum robust-filiform with all funiculars only about as long as wide ( Fig. 41eView FIGURE 41) and fl2 shorter than pedicel ( Fig. 41fView FIGURE 41); pedi- cel ventrally with short, straight setae ( Fig. 41fView FIGURE 41); gena posterior to malar sulcus without distinctly differentiated long seta ( Fig. 41cView FIGURE 41); legs pale except following dark: apical tarsomeres, usually mesofemur ventrally along much of length, and about basal three-quarters of metafemur ( Fig. 41bView FIGURE 41)...................................... E. infimbriatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. - Flagellum conspicuously elongate-filiform with all funiculars obviously longer than wide ( Figs 47aView FIGURE 47, 70aView FIGURE 70, 83dView FIGURE 83, 124aView FIGURE 124) and fl2 longer than pedicel ( Figs 47eView FIGURE 47, 70eView FIGURE 70, 83dView FIGURE 83, 124fView FIGURE 124); pedicel ventrally with at least 3 long, apically curved setae ( Figs 47eView FIGURE 47, 70eView FIGURE 70, 8 3dView FIGURE 8, 124fView FIGURE 124); gena posterior to malar sulcus with an obviously longer, differentiated seta ( Figs 47dView FIGURE 47, 70dView FIGURE 70, 83c, fView FIGURE 83, 124bView FIGURE 124); legs with different colour pattern.................................................................................. 20

20(19) Fore wing with mv at least about 3× as long as stv ( Figs 83eView FIGURE 83, 124eView FIGURE 124); scape sometimes almost entirely pale but at least inner (mesal) surface extensively orangey to yellowish-brown ( Figs 83c, fView FIGURE 83, 124bView FIGURE 124); tegula yellowish-orange to brown.......... 21

- Fore wing with mv only about 2× as long as stv ( Fig. 70fView FIGURE 70); scape with inner (mesal) surface mostly or entirely dark, though longitudinal sensory region pale ( Fig. 70dView FIGURE 70); tegula always pale................................................. 22

21(20) Head with white setae, including one obviously longer seta on gena near base of mandible ( Fig. 124bView FIGURE 124); head and mesosoma dark green ( Fig. 124a–cView FIGURE 124) to bright bluish-green; fore wing broadly setose to base of mv and sometimes partly along parastigma such that speculum more-or-less L-shaped, broad behind parastigma and more elongate-narrow apically behind base of mv ( Fig. 124d, eView FIGURE 124); head with OOL obviously greater than MPOD [ western Palaearctic ].................... E. vindex Erdős   

- Head with dark setae, and those on gena subequally short ( Fig. 83fView FIGURE 83); head and mesosoma often dark, but at most with slight bluish luster ( Fig. 83a, c, fView FIGURE 83) except usually for propodeum ( Fig. 83b, gView FIGURE 83); fore wing bare along parastigma and with at least a couple of setae mesally within speculum and commonly with 1–3 rows of setae extending obliquely at least partly through speculum ( Fig. 83eView FIGURE 83); head with OOL usually obviously less than MPOD ( Fig. 83bView FIGURE 83) (except for small individuals) [far eastern Palaearctic ]...................................................................... E. peculiaris Narendran   

22(20) Antenna with length of flagellum + pedicel at most only about 1.8× head width, and fl2 less than 2.5× as long as wide ( Fig. 70a, eView FIGURE 70); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with row of setae over at least apical third ( Fig. 70fView FIGURE 70); legs usually with mesotibia and sometimes metatibia darkened apically and usually with one or more femora partly dark ( Fig. 70aView FIGURE 70)............................................................................................ E. microzonus Förster 

- Antenna conspicuously elongate-filiform with length of flagellum + pedicel at least 2× head width, and fl2 at least about 3× as long as wide ( Fig. 47a, eView FIGURE 47); costal cell dorsally bare, without setae near leading margin ( Fig. 47fView FIGURE 47); legs (excluding apical tarsomeres) entirely whitish-yellow to bright yellow beyond coxae except sometimes metafemur partly dark ( Fig. 47aView FIGURE 47)................................................ E. kalinai Gibson & Fusu  and possibly E. iranicus Kalina  (see under species)

23(18) Legs with at least basal half of tibiae yellow ( Fig. 12a, cView FIGURE 12); flagellum conspicuously elongate-filiform with combined length of pedicel + flagellum at least about 1.5× head width, and fl2–fl8 at least 1.5× as long as wide ( Fig. 12a, dView FIGURE 12)................................................................................................ E. atropurpureus Dalman 

- Legs with at least meso- and metatibiae much more extensively dark than described above; flagellum more robust-filiform with shorter flagellomeres.............................................................................. 24

24(23) Head with vertex uniformly curved into occiput, though sometimes with quite strongly, transversely aligned reticulate sculpture................................................................................................ 25

- Head with definite transverse ridge or carina delimiting vertex from occiput ( Figs 30dView FIGURE 30, 49dView FIGURE 49, 51eView FIGURE 51, 59cView FIGURE 59) [ fulvipes  group].... 36

25(24) Lower face with setae often obviously longer toward malar sulcus than mesally, but uniformly arranged, straight to evenly curved, and usually whitish (e.g. Figs 2aView FIGURE 2, 25cView FIGURE 25, 66cView FIGURE 66); meso- and metatarsus with at least basitarsus and often basal 2 or 3 tarsomeres of at least mesotarsus white......................................................................... 26

- Lower face toward malar sulcus with obviously differentiated region of much longer, usually brownish, but at least apically sinuately to abruptly hook-like curved setae with partly overlapping or convergent apices to form tuft of setae that appears flattened apically ( Figs 44eView FIGURE 44, 76bView FIGURE 76, 114dView FIGURE 114, 121cView FIGURE 121); mesotarsus usually and metatarsus often entirely infuscate to dark ( Fig. 121aView FIGURE 121) or almost so ( Figs 76a, c, eView FIGURE 76, 121bView FIGURE 121), but at most both with basal 2 tarsomeres white................................... 33

26(25) Maxilla with apical palpomere pale or mostly so ( Fig. 89bView FIGURE 89); pedicel ventrally with 6–8 setae forming row of apically curved setae ( Fig. 89fView FIGURE 89, left insert) and exterior to these with 5–8 shorter, straight, dark setae in row along most of length ( Fig. 89fView FIGURE 89, right insert); costal cell ventrally with two complete rows of setae along length ( Fig. 89eView FIGURE 89)................ E. pistaciae Al  khatib

- Maxilla with apical palpomere similarly dark as preceding palpomeres (e.g. Figs 3dView FIGURE 3, 26dView FIGURE 26, 111fView FIGURE 111, 116bView FIGURE 116); pedicel ventrally usually with fewer setae forming row of apically curved setae but at least with fewer, most often unobvious, dark setae not extending along length of pedicel; costal cell ventrally sometimes with only single row of setae, at least mesally if not more extensively within basal half..................................................................................... 27

27(26) Pedicel ventrally with row of 6 or 7 long setae ( Fig. 26gView FIGURE 26); pronotum with neck almost vertical ( Fig. 26aView FIGURE 26); costal cell ventrally with single row of setae at least mesally ( Fig. 26hView FIGURE 26) and sometimes over basal half; meso- and metatarsi with at least basal two and often three tarsomeres white in contrast to subsequent tarsomeres ( Fig. 26bView FIGURE 26).................. E. confusus Al  khatib

- Pedicel ventrally with row of 4 or 5 long setae (e.g. Figs 3cView FIGURE 3, 38fView FIGURE 38, 105gView FIGURE 105); pronotum often with neck sloping at about a 45° angle relative to mesonotum (e.g. Figs 3aView FIGURE 3, 38bView FIGURE 38, 94aView FIGURE 94, 111aView FIGURE 111); costal cell ventrally often with two complete rows of setae ( Fig. 38gView FIGURE 38); meso- and metatarsi sometimes with only basitarsus white in contrast to subsequent darker, yellowish-brown to dark brown tarsomeres.......................................................................................... 28

28(27) Flagellum subclavate, the funiculars increasing slightly in width to clava such that basal funiculars oblong but apical funiculars quadrate to slightly transverse, and with subappressed setae removed only slightly from surface ( Fig. 67gView FIGURE 67); clava with broadly oval micropilose sensory region occupying entire ventral surface, and with similarly short setae ventrally on apical two funiculars ( Fig. 67h, iView FIGURE 67)........................................................ E. melanostylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Flagellum robust-filiform, the funiculars of similar length and width to clava, and with dense, outstanding, curved setae (e.g. Figs 38eView FIGURE 38, 94fView FIGURE 94, 105fView FIGURE 105, 111eView FIGURE 111); clava with micropilose sensory region not extending to base, and apical two funiculars uniformly covered with curved setae similar to previous funiculars (e.g. Figs 94fView FIGURE 94, 111gView FIGURE 111)..................................... 29

29(28) Frons meshlike coriaceous to slightly imbricate, at most with a few cells slightly depressed centrally but sculpture not delin- eated by raised ridges ( Fig. 94eView FIGURE 94); scrobal depression, including scrobes, with distinct meshlike sculpture................. E. punctatifrons Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. / E. cerris Förster  [ E. cerris  added at page proof stage; however, males of the two species differ in leg color pattern and costal cell setal pattern, see under respective species.] - Frons variably distinctly reticulate, the sculpture delineated by raised ridges ( Figs 3eView FIGURE 3, 38dView FIGURE 38, 105dView FIGURE 105); scrobal depression with at least scrobes extensively smooth and shiny (e.g. Figs 105dView FIGURE 105, 111cView FIGURE 111).............................................. 30

30(29) Fore wing with speculum completely open posteriorly except for at most 1 seta on cubital fold adjacent to basal fold ( Fig. 3gView FIGURE 3); meso- and metatarsi with only basitarsus white in contrast to subsequent yellowish-brown to dark brown tarsomeres ( Fig. 3aView FIGURE 3); costal cell ventrally with only one row of setae over most of about basal third to half of cell ( Fig. 3gView FIGURE 3).... E. acinellus Askew 

- Fore wing with speculum often more extensively closed posterobasally by setae ( Figs 38gView FIGURE 38, 105eView FIGURE 105), but if widely open then at least mesotarsus and often metatarsus with basal two or three tarsomeres white in contrast to more apical brown tarsomeres ( Figs 38bView FIGURE 38, 105a, bView FIGURE 105); costal cell ventrally often with two complete rows of setae or at least for distinct length basally ( Fig. 38gView FIGURE 38)................................................................................................... 31

31(30) Far eastern Palaearctic; pedicel ventrally with five long setae of which at least basal four curved apically ( Fig. 111eView FIGURE 111); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with less than 12 setae apically; body comparatively dark bluish-green ( Fig. 111a–fView FIGURE 111) with frontovertex usually variably conspicuously bicoloured, dark or with slight violaceous luster mesally and more distinctly bluishgreen along orbits ( Fig. 111cView FIGURE 111); meso- and metatarsi with only apical two tarsomeres similarly dark ( Fig. 111aView FIGURE 111)..................................................................................... E. tanystylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Western Palaearctic; pedicel ventrally almost always with only four long setae ventrally ( Fig. 105gView FIGURE 105), but if with five ( Fig. 3 8fView FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8) then costal cell dorsally near leading margin with more than 12 setae apically ( Fig. 38gView FIGURE 38); body usually brighter and more uniformly green to bluish-green ( Figs 38a–dView FIGURE 38, 105a–dView FIGURE 105); meso- and metatarsi sometimes with apical three or four tarsomeres similarly dark.......................................................................................... 32 

32(31) Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with at least 12 and usually more setae apically, and ventrally with two complete rows of uniformly dark and conspicuous setae ( Fig. 38gView FIGURE 38); meso- and metatarsi often with only one or two basal tarsomeres white ( Fig. 38a, bView FIGURE 38).......................................................... E. gemellus Al  khatib / E. martellii Masi 

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with at most 14 and usually much fewer setae apically ( Fig. 105eView FIGURE 105), and ventrally with a single row of setae for at least a short distance mesally and often more extensive basally, and sometimes paler and therefore less conspicuous basally than apically ( Fig. 105eView FIGURE 105); mesotarsus usually and metatarsus often with basal three tarsomeres white ( Fig. 105a, bView FIGURE 105)........................................................................ E. stenozonus Askew 

33(25) Head and mesosoma dorsally green to somewhat bluish-green with some coppery luster ( Fig. 44a–cView FIGURE 44); flagellum with fl2 nearly twice as long as wide, much longer than fl3 and slightly longer than fl4 ( Fig. 44d, eView FIGURE 44); speculum at least mostly open posterobasally, at most with single seta mesally within bare region; mesotarsus dark ( Fig. 44bView FIGURE 44) [Far eastern Palaearctic].......................................................................................... E. iris Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

- Head and mesosoma dorsally varying from dark blue or purple to black without green luster ( Figs 76a, bView FIGURE 76, 114a–dView FIGURE 114, 121a–dView FIGURE 121); flagellum with fl2 subquadrate to slightly longer than wide, subequal in length to fl3 and shorter than fl4 ( Figs 76dView FIGURE 76, 114gView FIGURE 114, 121fView FIGURE 121); speculum closed posterobasally by setae ( Fig. 121hView FIGURE 121); mesotarsus sometimes partly white ( Figs 76c, eView FIGURE 76, 114a, bView FIGURE 114, 121bView FIGURE 121) [Western Palaearctic]......................................................................................... 34

34(33) Legs with meso- and metatarsi with basal two tarsomeres white and contrasting with subsequent tarsomeres ( Fig. 114a, bView FIGURE 114)........................................................................................ E. tibicinis Bouček 

- Legs with at least mesotarsus having at most basitarsus white ( Figs 76c, eView FIGURE 76, 121bView FIGURE 121) and often mesotarsus and sometimes metatarsus entirely or almost entirely infuscate to dark ( Fig. 121aView FIGURE 121).................................................... 35

35(34) Legs with both meso- and metatarsi entirely infuscate ( Fig. 121aView FIGURE 121) or at least mesobasitarsomere pale only within about basal half, though metatarsus more commonly with basitarsomere entirely white......................................................................... most E. urozonus Dalman  and possibly some E. opacus Delvare  (see under species)

- Legs with both meso- and metabasitarsi entirely white, and metatarsus usually with basal two or three tarsomeres white or at least distinctly paler than more apical tarsomeres ( Fig. 121bView FIGURE 121)................................................................................................ E. opacus Delvare  and some E. urozonus Dalman  (see under species)

36(24) Mesotibial spur dark ( Fig. 116fView FIGURE 116).......................................................... E. tremulae Delvare 

- Mesotibial spur white................................................................................. 37

37(36) Scape with ventral margin distinctly angulate subapically ( Fig. 49c, dView FIGURE 49); lower face with somewhat longer setae toward malar sulcus, but the setae relatively sparse and uniformly distributed and curved ( Fig. 49d, eView FIGURE 49)... E. kamijoi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Scape ovoid, the ventral and dorsal margins evenly curved (e.g. Figs 34eView FIGURE 34, 109a, bView FIGURE 109); lower face usually with more-or-less tuftlike region of denser, apically abruptly curved or sinuate setae ( Figs 30cView FIGURE 30, 51a, bView FIGURE 51, 59dView FIGURE 59, 109cView FIGURE 109).......................... 38

38(37) Propodeum variably sculptured, with or without complete median carina, but at least comparatively finely sculptured without irregular transverse carinae interrupting median carina medially ( Figs 34g, hView FIGURE 34, 52e–hView FIGURE 52); metacoxa in lateral view usually widest near middle to apical two-thirds where dorsal margin more-or-less angulate or denticulate and more apically with dorsal margin usually raised into irregular carina or slender flange ( Figs 34fView FIGURE 34, 51fView FIGURE 51) (structure not conspicuous in smaller individuals); flagellum with fl2 at most as long as wide and as long as pedicel; mesotarsus usually with basal two or three tarsomeres pale ( Figs 34eView FIGURE 34, 51aView FIGURE 51).......................................................... E. kiefferi De Stefani  / E. fulvipes Förster 

- Propodeum almost always with one or more irregular, transverse carinae interrupting median carina so as to be variably distinctly rugose mesally ( Figs 30f, gView FIGURE 30, 59gView FIGURE 59, 109f, hView FIGURE 109); metacoxa in lateral view with dorsal margin sometimes finely carinate, but evenly curved and narrowed apically so as to be broadest within basal half (e.g. Figs 44fView FIGURE 44, 49fView FIGURE 49); flagellum with fl2 noticeably oblong, at least about 1.2× as long as wide, and usually definitely longer than pedicel ( Figs 30dView FIGURE 30, 59hView FIGURE 59, 100gView FIGURE 100); mesotarsus with at most basitarsus pale or at least subsequent tarsomeres darker yellow to brown ( Figs 30aView FIGURE 30, 109eView FIGURE 109)....................................... E. flavicrurus Yang  / E. formosae Ashmead  / E. luteipes Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. / E. tachardiae (Howard)