Eupelmus

Gary A. P. Gibson & Lucian Fusu, 2016, Revision of the Palaearctic species of Eupelmus (Eupelmus) Dalman (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eupelmidae), Zootaxa 4081 (1), pp. 1-331: 32-35

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4081.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D818A5A7-A279-4E4A-AB6C-86FDD870E518

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D37B8786-7228-6124-FF77-FEC6FA3EF87E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Eupelmus
status

 

Key to Palaearctic species of E. ( Eupelmus  ) based on males

1 Fore wing uniformly setose through basal cell and disc ( Fig. 81h View Figure ); disc bifasciate, with hyaline region behind about apical half of mv having white setae separating brownish regions with dark setae behind stv and behind base of mv and parastigma ( Fig. 81e View Figure )......................... E. orthopterae (Risbec)  and likely E. fasciatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. (see under species)

- Fore wing dorsally usually with broad bare region (speculum) behind parastigma that extends obliquely behind mv (e.g. Figs 3g View Figure , 9e View Figure , 12f View Figure ), though sometimes some setae interrupting region (e.g. Figs 83e View Figure , 87f View Figure ) or rarely with only slender bare band ( Fig. 21f View Figure ) similar to linea calva of female; disc hyaline or rarely slightly infuscate behind discal venation ( Fig. 21f View Figure ) but not bifasciate.................................................................................................... 2

2(1) Antenna with anellus transverse but a distinct, dull, setose segment having at least two rows of setae ( Fig. 87e View Figure insert) and flagellum more-or-less filiform with conspicuous, decumbent, curved setae surrounding all funiculars ( Fig. 87e View Figure ); pedicel about 2.5× as long as apical width and ventrally with row of 7–10 mostly straight, long setae ( Fig. 87e View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with setae over almost entire length, including more than one row over apical half ( Fig. 87f View Figure ); lower face and gena posterior to malar sulcus with similarly long setae ( Fig. 87c, d View Figure ); middle and hind legs with femora and tibiae dark, and basal one or two tarsomeres pale ( Fig. 87a, b View Figure )......................................................... E. pini Taylor 

- Antenna with anellus very strongly transverse (discoidal), shiny, and smooth with at most one row of inconspicuous setae, and pedicel much shorter, subovoid, and with fewer setae (e.g. Figs 26g View Figure , 38f View Figure , 47e View Figure , 83d View Figure ) or, if anellus and pedicel similar to above, then flagellum more distinctly clavate with relatively inconspicuous, short, recumbent setae (e.g. Figs 9f View Figure , 14d View Figure , 63c View Figure , 85c View Figure , 103e View Figure , 107e View Figure ); costal cell dorsally with row of setae not extending so extensively along leading margin, and gena posterior to malar sulcus usually with one seta obviously longer and differentiated from other setae (e.g. Figs 12b View Figure , 30c View Figure , 47d View Figure , 63b View Figure ); leg colour variable................................................................................................ 3

3(2) Anellus sometimes subquadrate but if distinctly transverse then similarly dull and setose as subsequent flagellomeres (e.g. Figs 9g View Figure , 21e View Figure , 23e View Figure , 36f View Figure , 63e View Figure , 65g View Figure ) and/or flagellum conspicuously clavate ( Figs 63c View Figure , 98e View Figure , 103e View Figure ); pedicel elongate-triangular, usually about 2× as long as apical width; flagellum variably distinctly clavate with comparatively inconspicuous, short, recumbent setae and funiculars increasing in width to clava, the clava obviously broader and apical funiculars relatively shorter than basal funiculars (e.g. Figs 9f View Figure , 14d View Figure , 21e View Figure , 63c View Figure , 66e View Figure , 85c View Figure , 103e View Figure , 107e View Figure ).................................................... 4

- Anellus very strongly transverse (discoidal), smooth and shiny, with at most one, usually inconspicuous, row of setae along extreme apical margin (e.g. Figs 3c View Figure , 12d View Figure , 26g View Figure , 30d View Figure , 41f View Figure ); pedicel subovoid, at most about 1.5× as long as apical width; flagellum usually elongate-filiform (e.g. Figs 12a View Figure , 47a View Figure , 54a View Figure , 79a View Figure ) to robust-filiform (e.g. Figs 26e View Figure , 30e View Figure , 38e View Figure , 41e View Figure ), with flagellomeres about same width such that clava not distinctly differentiated except in length, and usually conspicuously setose with erect to strongly curved decumbent setae (except males of E. melanostylus  , Fig. 67g –i and E  View Figure . iris, Fig. 44d View Figure )................... 15

4(3) Fore wing with mv at most about 2.2× length of stv ( Figs 63d View Figure , 103f View Figure ) or tegula white to yellowish ( Fig. 107b View Figure ); scape sometimes partly pale basally or along outer, ventral, longitudinal sensory region ( Figs 103e View Figure , 107c View Figure ); maxillary and labial palps usually white to yellowish-brown............................................................................... 5

- Fore wing with mv at least 2.5× and usually about 3× length of stv; tegula uniformly brown or dark; scape usually entirely dark (except E. ceroplastae  ); maxillary and labial palps at most with apical palpomeres pale.............................. 9

5(4) Legs entirely yellow or at most following distinctly darkened: mesofemur along ventral length in part, anterior surface of metafemur in ventral half, and meso- and metatibiae in apical half ( Fig. 98b View Figure ); head with short but conspicuous white lanceolate setae on parascrobal region and lower face, and gena with slightly more slender but subequally short setae ( Fig. 98d View Figure ); pedicel ventrally without apically curved or numerous distinct setae ( Fig. 98d, e View Figure ); flagellum with fl1 strongly discoidal, all funiculars transverse, and clava obviously longer than half length of funicle ( Fig. 98e View Figure )...................... E. saharensis Kalina 

- Legs more extensively dark, including front leg; head usually with more slender, hairlike setae on parascrobal region and lower face, but at least gena with one longer, differentiated seta; pedicel ventrally either with apically curved setae or several distinct, long setae; flagellum different than above, fl1 usually subquadrate or at least distinctly setose, funicle sometimes with some oblong funiculars, and clava at most about half length of funicle................................................ 6

6(5) Mesofemur with anterior surface longitudinally pale similar to profemur [ stramineipes  group]......................... 7

- Mesofemur dark except basally and apically, similar to metafemur [ splendens  group]................................ 8

7(6) Flagellum with anellus quadrate, virtually or fully as long as wide, and at least 0.75× length of fl2 ( Fig. 107f View Figure ); stv at angle of at least 40° relative to pmv, and length only about 1.4× distance between posterior margin of stigma and posterior margin of pmv ( Fig. 107d View Figure ).................................................................... E. stramineipes  Nikol’skaya

- Flagellum with anellus sometimes obviously transverse but at least only about half as long as fl2 ( Fig. 85c View Figure ); stv at comparatively more acute angle, about 30° relative to pmv, and length about twice distance between posterior margin of stigma and posterior margin of pmv ( Fig. 85d View Figure )........................................................ E. phragmitis Erdős 

8(6) Mesotarsus with basal two tarsomeres white ( Fig. 103c View Figure ); lower face and gena on either side of malar sulcus near oral margin at most with relatively sparse apically curved setae ( Fig. 103b View Figure ); funicle with all funiculars uniformly cylindrical and setose ( Fig. 103e View Figure )............................................................................... E. splendens Giraud 

- Mesotarsus with only basitarsus white in distinct contrast to subsequent brown tarsomeres ( Fig. 63a View Figure ); lower face and gena on either side of malar sulcus near oral margin with obviously longer and denser, apically curved to sinuate setae usually forming quite conspicuous tufts of setae ( Fig. 63b View Figure ); funicle with at least fu2–fu4 and sometime fu1 appearing ventrally flat and asetose ( Fig. 63e View Figure )............................................................................. E. matranus Erdős  9(4) Protibia dark except narrowly basally and apically ( Fig. 23b View Figure )......... Eupelmus  sp. nr E. cerris Förster  (see under species)

- Protibia pale or at least longitudinally pale along anterior and often posterior surfaces (e.g. Figs 9b View Figure , 14b View Figure , 54a View Figure , 74b View Figure )....... 10

10(9) Costal cell dorsally near leading margin without or at most with one seta apically, and ventrally with inconspicuous white setae mostly in single line ( Fig. 36d View Figure ); basal cell at least with inconspicuous white setae ( Fig. 36d View Figure ) and sometimes sparsely setose to almost bare.......................................................... E. gelechiphagus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with several to numerous dark setae apically, and ventrally with conspicuous dark setae along length ( Figs 9e View Figure , 14h View Figure , 21f View Figure , 65f View Figure , 74g View Figure ); basal cell uniformly setose with distinct dark setae.................... 11

11(10) Lower face sometimes with somewhat longer setae toward malar sulcus, but setae uniformly distributed and comparatively sparse, with longer setae straight to uniformly curved ( Figs 14e View Figure , 21c View Figure , 74c View Figure ); mesotibia dark ( Figs 14g View Figure , 21b View Figure , 74a View Figure ).......... 12

- Lower face in region between torulus and malar sulcus with region of conspicuously longer, apically sinuately to hook-like curved setae forming denser tuft with convergent or overlapping apices ( Figs 9c, d View Figure , 65c View Figure ); mesotibia variably extensively pale with at least anterior surface longitudinally pale to or almost to base ( Fig. 9b View Figure )..................................... 14

12(11) Fore wing with speculum as slender bare band separated from parastigma and marginal vein by several rows of setae ( Fig. 21f View Figure ); pedicel with straight setae projecting at strongly acute angle relative to ventral margin ( Fig. 21e View Figure ); scrobal depression entirely reticulate ( Fig. 21c View Figure ); scape extensively yellowish basally ( Fig. 21c View Figure ); mesotarsus with basal tarsomere brown except apically ( Fig. 21b View Figure )................................................................... E. ceroplastae (Kalina) 

- Fore wing with speculum as broad bare region behind parastigma and base of marginal vein ( Figs 14h View Figure , 74g View Figure ); pedicel with several long, apically curved setae projecting ventrally ( Figs 14d View Figure , 74e, f View Figure ); scrobal depression extensively smooth and shiny; scape dark ( Figs 14d View Figure , 74e View Figure ); mesotarsus with at least basal tarsomere white............................................ 13

13(12) Costal cell dorsally near leading margin setose apically for distance only slightly greater than length of parastigma, and ventrally with single row of setae over most of length ( Fig. 74g View Figure ); speculum open posterobasally ( Fig. 74g View Figure ); frons finely but distinctly meshlike reticulate, quite obviously roughened ( Fig. 74d View Figure ).............................. E. nitidus  Nikol’skaya

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with numerous dark setae over about apical half to two-thirds, and ventrally with setae at least indistinctly aligned into 2 rows basal to parastigma ( Fig. 14h View Figure ); speculum closed or almost closed posterobasally by row of setae ( Fig. 14h View Figure ); frons meshlike coriaceous, the surface not roughened ( Fig. 14c View Figure ).................. E. azureus Förster 

14(11) Funicle with differentiated region of setae ventrally on fu1, fu2, and fu3 at least basally, under lower magnification in ventral view visible as smoother, paler region among decumbent setae ( Fig. 9f View Figure insert); legs with protarsus sometimes entirely infuscate and meso- and metatarsus with at most basal two tarsomeres uniformly pale, at least third and subsequent tarsomeres darker yellowish to infuscate ( Fig. 9a, b View Figure )........................................................... E. annulatus Nees 

- Funicle with differentiated region of setae ventrally on only fu1 and fu2 basally ( Fig. 65h View Figure ); legs with basal three tarsomeres of all tarsi uniformly pale, whitish.............................................. E. mehrnejadi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

15(3) Head with variably conspicuous white lanceolate setae on at least parascrobal region and lower face ( Figs 54b–d View Figure , 79c, d View Figure ), and setae behind eye directed anteriorly or at least at an acute angle relative to orbit and sometimes subparallel with orbit ( Figs 54d View Figure , 79d View Figure ); flagellum conspicuously elongate-filiform ( Figs 54a View Figure , 79a View Figure ), length of flagellum + pedicel at least about twice head width and fl2 at least about 3× as long as wide ( Fig. 54e View Figure ); maxillary and labial palps brown; legs with at least femora extensively dark; mv only about 2× length of stv ( Figs 54f View Figure , 79 View Figure , f) [ orientalis  group].......................................... 16

- Head with hairlike setae and setae behind eye directed toward orbit; flagellum often distinctly more robust-filiform with shorter funiculars; maxillary and labial palps sometimes white; legs beyond coxae sometimes entirely or almost entirely pale, white to orange; mv sometimes about 3× length of stv........................................................ 18

16(15) Legs with tibiae yellowish to orange or at most metatibia with obscure subapical infuscate region in about apical third ( Fig. 54a View Figure ); head and mesosoma mostly dark with variably distinct reddish-coppery luster but at most very limited and obscure green luster ( Fig. 54a–d View Figure )........................................................ E. lanceolatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Legs with at least meso- and usually metatibia having subapical infuscate region in about apical third ( Fig. 79a View Figure ); head and mesosoma often bright green or at least extensively greenish, though head and mesonotum sometimes with variably extensive reddish-coppery luster mesally ( Fig. 79a–d View Figure )................................................................ 17

17(16) Fore wing with white setae throughout basal cell and disc at least basally or mv at least 1.9× length stv ( Fig. 79f View Figure ); costal cell ventrally with pale, whitish setae and dorsally near leading margin often with setae over apical half or less ( Fig. 79h View Figure )....................................................................................... E. orientalis (Crawford) 

- Fore wing with conspicuous dark setae throughout basal cell and disc ( Fig. 79g View Figure ); mv often only about 1.6× or less, but at least less than 1.9× length of stv ( Fig. 79e View Figure ); costal cell ventrally usually with dark setae and dorsally near leading margin usually with setae over most of length ( Fig. 79g View Figure ).................................................. E. vuilleti (Crawford) 

18(15) Legs beyond coxae sometimes entirely pale but at least all tibiae entirely white to yellowish or orange ( Figs 41b View Figure , 47a View Figure , 7 View Figure 0a, 83a, 124a) and/or tegula pale, white to yellowish (often narrowly opaque yellow along inner margin adjacent to mesoscutum and more extensively hyaline apicolaterally) ( Figs 41a, b View Figure , 47a View Figure , 70a View Figure ); scape with at least extreme base and outer, ventral, longitudinal sensory region white to orange ( Figs 41c View Figure , 70d View Figure , 124b View Figure ); head with vertex uniformly curved into occiput; lower face with uniformly distributed and comparatively short, straight white setae ( Figs 41c View Figure , 47c, d View Figure , 70c, d View Figure , 124b View Figure )...................... 19

- Legs with femora and at least meso- and metatibiae at least partly dark apically, and tegula brown to dark; scape usually entirely dark, though rarely outer, ventral, longitudinal sensory region paler; head sometimes with transverse carina differentiating vertex from occiput (e.g. Figs 30e View Figure , 51e View Figure , 59c View Figure ); lower face sometimes with conspicuously differentiated denser region of longer and apically abruptly curved or sinuate, usually dark setae (e.g. Figs 30c View Figure , 44e View Figure , 51d View Figure , 59d View Figure )....................... 23

19(18) Flagellum robust-filiform with all funiculars only about as long as wide ( Fig. 41e View Figure ) and fl2 shorter than pedicel ( Fig. 41f View Figure ); pedi- cel ventrally with short, straight setae ( Fig. 41f View Figure ); gena posterior to malar sulcus without distinctly differentiated long seta ( Fig. 41c View Figure ); legs pale except following dark: apical tarsomeres, usually mesofemur ventrally along much of length, and about basal three-quarters of metafemur ( Fig. 41b View Figure )...................................... E. infimbriatus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp. - Flagellum conspicuously elongate-filiform with all funiculars obviously longer than wide ( Figs 47a View Figure , 70a View Figure , 83d View Figure , 124a View Figure ) and fl2 longer than pedicel ( Figs 47e View Figure , 70e View Figure , 83d View Figure , 124f View Figure ); pedicel ventrally with at least 3 long, apically curved setae ( Figs 47e View Figure , 70e View Figure , 8 3d View Figure , 124f View Figure ); gena posterior to malar sulcus with an obviously longer, differentiated seta ( Figs 47d View Figure , 70d View Figure , 83c, f View Figure , 124b View Figure ); legs with different colour pattern.................................................................................. 20

20(19) Fore wing with mv at least about 3× as long as stv ( Figs 83e View Figure , 124e View Figure ); scape sometimes almost entirely pale but at least inner (mesal) surface extensively orangey to yellowish-brown ( Figs 83c, f View Figure , 124b View Figure ); tegula yellowish-orange to brown.......... 21

- Fore wing with mv only about 2× as long as stv ( Fig. 70f View Figure ); scape with inner (mesal) surface mostly or entirely dark, though longitudinal sensory region pale ( Fig. 70d View Figure ); tegula always pale................................................. 22

21(20) Head with white setae, including one obviously longer seta on gena near base of mandible ( Fig. 124b View Figure ); head and mesosoma dark green ( Fig. 124a–c View Figure ) to bright bluish-green; fore wing broadly setose to base of mv and sometimes partly along parastigma such that speculum more-or-less L-shaped, broad behind parastigma and more elongate-narrow apically behind base of mv ( Fig. 124d, e View Figure ); head with OOL obviously greater than MPOD [ western Palaearctic ].................... E. vindex Erdős   

- Head with dark setae, and those on gena subequally short ( Fig. 83f View Figure ); head and mesosoma often dark, but at most with slight bluish luster ( Fig. 83a, c, f View Figure ) except usually for propodeum ( Fig. 83b, g View Figure ); fore wing bare along parastigma and with at least a couple of setae mesally within speculum and commonly with 1–3 rows of setae extending obliquely at least partly through speculum ( Fig. 83e View Figure ); head with OOL usually obviously less than MPOD ( Fig. 83b View Figure ) (except for small individuals) [far eastern Palaearctic ]...................................................................... E. peculiaris Narendran   

22(20) Antenna with length of flagellum + pedicel at most only about 1.8× head width, and fl2 less than 2.5× as long as wide ( Fig. 70a, e View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with row of setae over at least apical third ( Fig. 70f View Figure ); legs usually with mesotibia and sometimes metatibia darkened apically and usually with one or more femora partly dark ( Fig. 70a View Figure )............................................................................................ E. microzonus Förster 

- Antenna conspicuously elongate-filiform with length of flagellum + pedicel at least 2× head width, and fl2 at least about 3× as long as wide ( Fig. 47a, e View Figure ); costal cell dorsally bare, without setae near leading margin ( Fig. 47f View Figure ); legs (excluding apical tarsomeres) entirely whitish-yellow to bright yellow beyond coxae except sometimes metafemur partly dark ( Fig. 47a View Figure )................................................ E. kalinai Gibson & Fusu  and possibly E. iranicus Kalina  (see under species)

23(18) Legs with at least basal half of tibiae yellow ( Fig. 12a, c View Figure ); flagellum conspicuously elongate-filiform with combined length of pedicel + flagellum at least about 1.5× head width, and fl2–fl8 at least 1.5× as long as wide ( Fig. 12a, d View Figure )................................................................................................ E. atropurpureus Dalman 

- Legs with at least meso- and metatibiae much more extensively dark than described above; flagellum more robust-filiform with shorter flagellomeres.............................................................................. 24

24(23) Head with vertex uniformly curved into occiput, though sometimes with quite strongly, transversely aligned reticulate sculpture................................................................................................ 25

- Head with definite transverse ridge or carina delimiting vertex from occiput ( Figs 30d View Figure , 49d View Figure , 51e View Figure , 59c View Figure ) [ fulvipes  group].... 36

25(24) Lower face with setae often obviously longer toward malar sulcus than mesally, but uniformly arranged, straight to evenly curved, and usually whitish (e.g. Figs 2a View Figure , 25c View Figure , 66c View Figure ); meso- and metatarsus with at least basitarsus and often basal 2 or 3 tarsomeres of at least mesotarsus white......................................................................... 26

- Lower face toward malar sulcus with obviously differentiated region of much longer, usually brownish, but at least apically sinuately to abruptly hook-like curved setae with partly overlapping or convergent apices to form tuft of setae that appears flattened apically ( Figs 44e View Figure , 76b View Figure , 114d View Figure , 121c View Figure ); mesotarsus usually and metatarsus often entirely infuscate to dark ( Fig. 121a View Figure ) or almost so ( Figs 76a, c, e View Figure , 121b View Figure ), but at most both with basal 2 tarsomeres white................................... 33

26(25) Maxilla with apical palpomere pale or mostly so ( Fig. 89b View Figure ); pedicel ventrally with 6–8 setae forming row of apically curved setae ( Fig. 89f View Figure , left insert) and exterior to these with 5–8 shorter, straight, dark setae in row along most of length ( Fig. 89f View Figure , right insert); costal cell ventrally with two complete rows of setae along length ( Fig. 89e View Figure )................ E. pistaciae Al  khatib

- Maxilla with apical palpomere similarly dark as preceding palpomeres (e.g. Figs 3d View Figure , 26d View Figure , 111f View Figure , 116b View Figure ); pedicel ventrally usually with fewer setae forming row of apically curved setae but at least with fewer, most often unobvious, dark setae not extending along length of pedicel; costal cell ventrally sometimes with only single row of setae, at least mesally if not more extensively within basal half..................................................................................... 27

27(26) Pedicel ventrally with row of 6 or 7 long setae ( Fig. 26g View Figure ); pronotum with neck almost vertical ( Fig. 26a View Figure ); costal cell ventrally with single row of setae at least mesally ( Fig. 26h View Figure ) and sometimes over basal half; meso- and metatarsi with at least basal two and often three tarsomeres white in contrast to subsequent tarsomeres ( Fig. 26b View Figure ).................. E. confusus Al  khatib

- Pedicel ventrally with row of 4 or 5 long setae (e.g. Figs 3c View Figure , 38f View Figure , 105g View Figure ); pronotum often with neck sloping at about a 45° angle relative to mesonotum (e.g. Figs 3a View Figure , 38b View Figure , 94a View Figure , 111a View Figure ); costal cell ventrally often with two complete rows of setae ( Fig. 38g View Figure ); meso- and metatarsi sometimes with only basitarsus white in contrast to subsequent darker, yellowish-brown to dark brown tarsomeres.......................................................................................... 28

28(27) Flagellum subclavate, the funiculars increasing slightly in width to clava such that basal funiculars oblong but apical funiculars quadrate to slightly transverse, and with subappressed setae removed only slightly from surface ( Fig. 67g View Figure ); clava with broadly oval micropilose sensory region occupying entire ventral surface, and with similarly short setae ventrally on apical two funiculars ( Fig. 67h, i View Figure )........................................................ E. melanostylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Flagellum robust-filiform, the funiculars of similar length and width to clava, and with dense, outstanding, curved setae (e.g. Figs 38e View Figure , 94f View Figure , 105f View Figure , 111e View Figure ); clava with micropilose sensory region not extending to base, and apical two funiculars uniformly covered with curved setae similar to previous funiculars (e.g. Figs 94f View Figure , 111g View Figure )..................................... 29

29(28) Frons meshlike coriaceous to slightly imbricate, at most with a few cells slightly depressed centrally but sculpture not delin- eated by raised ridges ( Fig. 94e View Figure ); scrobal depression, including scrobes, with distinct meshlike sculpture................. E. punctatifrons Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. / E. cerris Förster  [ E. cerris  added at page proof stage; however, males of the two species differ in leg color pattern and costal cell setal pattern, see under respective species.] - Frons variably distinctly reticulate, the sculpture delineated by raised ridges ( Figs 3e View Figure , 38d View Figure , 105d View Figure ); scrobal depression with at least scrobes extensively smooth and shiny (e.g. Figs 105d View Figure , 111c View Figure ).............................................. 30

30(29) Fore wing with speculum completely open posteriorly except for at most 1 seta on cubital fold adjacent to basal fold ( Fig. 3g View Figure ); meso- and metatarsi with only basitarsus white in contrast to subsequent yellowish-brown to dark brown tarsomeres ( Fig. 3a View Figure ); costal cell ventrally with only one row of setae over most of about basal third to half of cell ( Fig. 3g View Figure ).... E. acinellus Askew 

- Fore wing with speculum often more extensively closed posterobasally by setae ( Figs 38g View Figure , 105e View Figure ), but if widely open then at least mesotarsus and often metatarsus with basal two or three tarsomeres white in contrast to more apical brown tarsomeres ( Figs 38b View Figure , 105a, b View Figure ); costal cell ventrally often with two complete rows of setae or at least for distinct length basally ( Fig. 38g View Figure )................................................................................................... 31

31(30) Far eastern Palaearctic; pedicel ventrally with five long setae of which at least basal four curved apically ( Fig. 111e View Figure ); costal cell dorsally near leading margin with less than 12 setae apically; body comparatively dark bluish-green ( Fig. 111a–f View Figure ) with frontovertex usually variably conspicuously bicoloured, dark or with slight violaceous luster mesally and more distinctly bluishgreen along orbits ( Fig. 111c View Figure ); meso- and metatarsi with only apical two tarsomeres similarly dark ( Fig. 111a View Figure )..................................................................................... E. tanystylus Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Western Palaearctic; pedicel ventrally almost always with only four long setae ventrally ( Fig. 105g View Figure ), but if with five ( Fig. 3 8fView FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8) then costal cell dorsally near leading margin with more than 12 setae apically ( Fig. 38g View Figure ); body usually brighter and more uniformly green to bluish-green ( Figs 38a–d View Figure , 105a–d View Figure ); meso- and metatarsi sometimes with apical three or four tarsomeres similarly dark.......................................................................................... 32 

32(31) Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with at least 12 and usually more setae apically, and ventrally with two complete rows of uniformly dark and conspicuous setae ( Fig. 38g View Figure ); meso- and metatarsi often with only one or two basal tarsomeres white ( Fig. 38a, b View Figure ).......................................................... E. gemellus Al  khatib / E. martellii Masi 

- Costal cell dorsally near leading margin with at most 14 and usually much fewer setae apically ( Fig. 105e View Figure ), and ventrally with a single row of setae for at least a short distance mesally and often more extensive basally, and sometimes paler and therefore less conspicuous basally than apically ( Fig. 105e View Figure ); mesotarsus usually and metatarsus often with basal three tarsomeres white ( Fig. 105a, b View Figure )........................................................................ E. stenozonus Askew 

33(25) Head and mesosoma dorsally green to somewhat bluish-green with some coppery luster ( Fig. 44a–c View Figure ); flagellum with fl2 nearly twice as long as wide, much longer than fl3 and slightly longer than fl4 ( Fig. 44d, e View Figure ); speculum at least mostly open posterobasally, at most with single seta mesally within bare region; mesotarsus dark ( Fig. 44b View Figure ) [Far eastern Palaearctic].......................................................................................... E. iris Fusu & Gibson  n. sp.

- Head and mesosoma dorsally varying from dark blue or purple to black without green luster ( Figs 76a, b View Figure , 114a–d View Figure , 121a–d View Figure ); flagellum with fl2 subquadrate to slightly longer than wide, subequal in length to fl3 and shorter than fl4 ( Figs 76d View Figure , 114g View Figure , 121f View Figure ); speculum closed posterobasally by setae ( Fig. 121h View Figure ); mesotarsus sometimes partly white ( Figs 76c, e View Figure , 114a, b View Figure , 121b View Figure ) [Western Palaearctic]......................................................................................... 34

34(33) Legs with meso- and metatarsi with basal two tarsomeres white and contrasting with subsequent tarsomeres ( Fig. 114a, b View Figure )........................................................................................ E. tibicinis Bouček 

- Legs with at least mesotarsus having at most basitarsus white ( Figs 76c, e View Figure , 121b View Figure ) and often mesotarsus and sometimes metatarsus entirely or almost entirely infuscate to dark ( Fig. 121a View Figure ).................................................... 35

35(34) Legs with both meso- and metatarsi entirely infuscate ( Fig. 121a View Figure ) or at least mesobasitarsomere pale only within about basal half, though metatarsus more commonly with basitarsomere entirely white......................................................................... most E. urozonus Dalman  and possibly some E. opacus Delvare  (see under species)

- Legs with both meso- and metabasitarsi entirely white, and metatarsus usually with basal two or three tarsomeres white or at least distinctly paler than more apical tarsomeres ( Fig. 121b View Figure )................................................................................................ E. opacus Delvare  and some E. urozonus Dalman  (see under species)

36(24) Mesotibial spur dark ( Fig. 116f View Figure ).......................................................... E. tremulae Delvare 

- Mesotibial spur white................................................................................. 37

37(36) Scape with ventral margin distinctly angulate subapically ( Fig. 49c, d View Figure ); lower face with somewhat longer setae toward malar sulcus, but the setae relatively sparse and uniformly distributed and curved ( Fig. 49d, e View Figure )... E. kamijoi Gibson & Fusu  n. sp.

- Scape ovoid, the ventral and dorsal margins evenly curved (e.g. Figs 34e View Figure , 109a, b View Figure ); lower face usually with more-or-less tuftlike region of denser, apically abruptly curved or sinuate setae ( Figs 30c View Figure , 51a, b View Figure , 59d View Figure , 109c View Figure ).......................... 38

38(37) Propodeum variably sculptured, with or without complete median carina, but at least comparatively finely sculptured without irregular transverse carinae interrupting median carina medially ( Figs 34g, h View Figure , 52e–h View Figure ); metacoxa in lateral view usually widest near middle to apical two-thirds where dorsal margin more-or-less angulate or denticulate and more apically with dorsal margin usually raised into irregular carina or slender flange ( Figs 34f View Figure , 51f View Figure ) (structure not conspicuous in smaller individuals); flagellum with fl2 at most as long as wide and as long as pedicel; mesotarsus usually with basal two or three tarsomeres pale ( Figs 34e View Figure , 51a View Figure ).......................................................... E. kiefferi De Stefani  / E. fulvipes Förster 

- Propodeum almost always with one or more irregular, transverse carinae interrupting median carina so as to be variably distinctly rugose mesally ( Figs 30f, g View Figure , 59g View Figure , 109f, h View Figure ); metacoxa in lateral view with dorsal margin sometimes finely carinate, but evenly curved and narrowed apically so as to be broadest within basal half (e.g. Figs 44f View Figure , 49f View Figure ); flagellum with fl2 noticeably oblong, at least about 1.2× as long as wide, and usually definitely longer than pedicel ( Figs 30d View Figure , 59h View Figure , 100g View Figure ); mesotarsus with at most basitarsus pale or at least subsequent tarsomeres darker yellow to brown ( Figs 30a View Figure , 109e View Figure )....................................... E. flavicrurus Yang  / E. formosae Ashmead  / E. luteipes Fusu & Gibson  n. sp. / E. tachardiae (Howard)