Tradescantia mundula Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 83. 1843.

Pellegrini, Marco O. O., 2018, Wandering throughout South America: Taxonomic revision of Tradescantiasubg. Austrotradescantia (D. R. Hunt) M. Pell. (Commelinaceae), PhytoKeys 104, pp. 1-97: 32-36

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.104.28484

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D401A6FB-4D95-1B67-D59F-BB2FFFD8E691

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scientific name

Tradescantia mundula Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 83. 1843.
status

 

9. Tradescantia mundula Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 83. 1843.  Figs 24, 25

Tradescantia mundula Kunth var. mundula  . Holotype. URUGUAY. Montevideo: s.loc., fl., Dec 1836, F. Sellow 2103 (B barcode B100247279!).

Tradescantia fluminensis f. bicolor  Voss in Siebert & Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 1143. 1895. Type. not found. Syn. nov.

Description.

Herbs ca. 5-30 cm tall, with an indefinite base, terrestrial, rupicolous or epiphytes. Stems prostrate with ascending apex, delicate to slightly succulent, little to densely branched; internodes 1 –6.2(– 9.3) cm long at base, distally shorter, medium to dark green or vinaceous, strigose, generally with a leaf-opposed longitudinal line of short, uniseriate, hyaline hairs. Leaves distichously-alternate, basal leaves subpetiolate; ptyxis involute; sheaths 0.5-1.2 cm long, green to vinaceous, strigose, margin sparsely setose to densely setose, hairs hyaline to light brown; petiole 0.2 –0.5(–1– 1.3) cm long to indistinct; blades 1.1 –6.7(–7.8– 13.4) × 0.6-3.4 cm, lanceolate to elliptic, rarely ovate, flat, chartaceous, adaxially glabrous to sparsely strigose to strigose, abaxially to sparsely strigose to strigose, rarely glabrous, adaxially medium to dark green, abaxially light to medium green or vinaceous, turning olive-green to medium brown when dry, base cuneate, rarely obtuse, margins green, ciliolate, slightly revolute, apex acute to acuminate; midvein conspicuous, adaxially impressed, secondary veins conspicuous, adaxially impressed, abaxially inconspicuous, becoming more evident on both sides when dry. Synflorescences terminal or axillar in the distal portion of the stems, composed of a solitary main florescence, 1 per leaf axis. Inflorescences (main florescences) consisting of a pedunculate double-cincinni fused back to back; peduncles 1.4 –5.3(– 9.3) cm long, medium to dark green or vinaceous, glabrous to sparsely strigose, with a dense longitudinal line of short, uniseriate, hyaline hairs; cincinni bracts 2.2 –5.3(–8.7– 10.6) × 1-2.1 cm, similar to each other, broadly elliptic to ovate, leaf-like, adaxially glabrous to sparsely strigose to strigose, abaxially sparsely strigose to strigose, adaxially green, abaxially light to medium green or vinaceous, base cordate to obtuse, saccate, margin ciliolate, slightly revolute, apex acute to acuminate; double-cincinni 6-8-flowered. Flowers 1-1.4 cm diam., pedicels 0.9-1.7 cm long, medium to dark green or vinaceous, velutine, sometimes with some odd glandular hairs, hairs hyaline; floral buds ovoid; sepals 5.1-7.5 × 2.4-4.1 mm, dorsally keeled, green, velutine, hairs generally caducous when dry, persistent only along the keel, hyaline; petals 6.3-7.6 × 3.8-5.1 mm, flat, white; filaments 4.4-5.6 mm long, anthers 1-1.2 × 0.8-1 mm; ovary 1.4-1.9 × 1-1.3 cm, style 3-5 mm long; pistil the same length as the stamens. Capsules 2.7-3.6 × 2.3-2.7 cm. Seeds 1-1.7 × 0.9-1.3 mm, testa greyish-brown to grey, not cleft towards the embryotega, costate; hilum equal ½ the length of the seed.

Specimens seen.

ARGENTINA. Without province: NE Argentina, fl., s.dat., s.leg. s.n. (K). Buenos Aires: Punta Lara, Selva marginal de La Plata, fl., 31 Oct 1948, A.B. Joly s.n. (IPA no. 69118, SPF no. 17142). Chaco: 1° de Mayo, Colonia Benítez, fl., 4 Oct 1973, A.G. Schulz 18472 (CORD, CTES); General Vedia, fl., fr., Oct 1939, A. Schinini 9329 (CTES); fl., 25 Aug 1974, A. Schinini 18801 (CORD, CTES). Corrientes: Santo Tomé, Arroyo Chimiray, fl., 23 Sep 1974, A. Krapovickas et al. 26247 (CORD, CTES); ruta 40 y Arroyo Chimiray, fl., fr., 8 Oct 1980, A. Schinini & O. Ahumada 20823 (CTES); Garruchos, Estancia San Juan Bautista, fl., 20 Sep 1974, Krapovickas et al. 25805 (CORD, CTES); Río Uruguay y Arroyo Chimiray, fl., 9 Oct 1980, A. Schinini & O. Ahumada 20931 (CTES). Entre Rios: Concordia, Parque Concordia, fl., s.dat., s.leg. s.n. (K); Salto Grande, fl., 21 Sep 1951, A.L. Cabrera 10773 (LP). Misiones: Apóstoles, San José, Bosque de Urunday, fl., fr., 3 Oct 1980, R. Martínez Crovetto 11473 (CTES); Concepción de la Sierra, fl., 3 Feb 1948, A. Schinini 6979a (CTES); Guaraní, Predio Guaraní, rumbo a Arroyo Paraíso, limite con IPS, fl., 16 Sep 1997, S.G. Tressens et al. 6037 (CORD, CTES); Iguazú, Puerto Peninsula, fl., 17 Feb 1971, A. Krapovickas et al. 18333a (CORD, CTES). BRAZIL. Without province: s.loc., fl., fr., s.dat., F. Sellow s.n. (B, P barcode P02173557). Minas Gerais: s.loc., fl., fr., 1816-1821, A. Saint-Hilaire B1 11 (P); Camanducaia, Monte Verde, fl., fr., 22 Aug 2001, L.D. Meireles et al. 511 (RB, UEC); fl., 20 Sep 2001, L.D. Meireles et al. 616 (RB, UEC); fl., fr., 19 Oct 2002, L.D. Meireles et al. 1191 (RB, UEC); trilha sentido Pedra Partida, fl., fr., 14 Oct 2014, D.Q. Domingos & B.C. Mourão 531 (ESAL, RB). Paraná: Antônia, Reserva Natural do Cachoeira, fl., 11 Sep 2009, B.D. Kellermann et al. 42 (FURB, JOI, UPCB); Araucária, Rio Iguaçú, fl., 13 Oct 1976, R. Kummrow 1160 (MBM, US); Balsa Nova, Serra S’Ana, fl., 11 Jan 1969, G Hatschbach 22790 (MBM, MO, US); Bocaiúva do Sul, Tunas, fl., 4 Oct 1977, G. Hatschbach 40210 (MBM, MG, US); Campo Largo, viaduto da Santa Rodovia de Café, fl., Sep 1971, L.T. Dombrowski 3829 (MBM, US); São Luiz do Purunã, fl., fr., 22 Sep 1976, L.T. Dombrowski 6424 (K, MBM); Colombo, Granja Esperança, fl., 9 Sep 1967, N. Imaguire 146 (K, MBM); Curitiba, Capanema, fl., 8 Jan 1948, G. Tessmann s.n. (MBM no. 265885, US barcode US00045774); estrada Curitiba-Ponta Grossa, km 38, Serra São Luiz de Purunã, fl., 18 Oct 1961, E. Pereira et al. 6093 (R, RB); Guabirotuba, fl., fr., 14 Dec 1978, G. Hatschbach 41895 (INPA, MBM, US); Parque Barigui, fl., 10 Oct 1973, L.T. Dombrowski 4930 (MBM, US); Parque Municipal Capão da Embuia, fl., fr., 25 Sep 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 409 (RB); Uberaba, fl., 2 Oct 1983, G. Hatschbach 47158 (MBM, US); General Carneiro, Fazenda Lageado Grande, fl., 1 Oct 2004, A.C. Cervi 8680 (UPCB); Guarapuava, Serra da Esperança, fl., 20 Oct 1969, G. Hatschbach 22517 (CORD, NY, MBM, US); Jaguariaíva, Fazenda Chapada do Restingão, fl., 21 Oct 1999, M.K.F. Souza s.n. (UPCB no. 43238); Lapa, próximo à ponte junto ao Rio Passa Dois, fl., 4 Oct 2012, F. Santos-Silva et al. 149 (RB, UPCB); Londrina, distrito de Tamarana, Estância Dourados, fl., fr., 22 May 2008, V.M. Cotarelli 122 (FUEL); Sítio Casa das Pedras, fl., 20 Aug 1984, I.T. Takahara s.n. (FUEL no. 246); Marumby, Rio Taquaral, fl., 15 Nov 1943, G. Hatschbach 70 (RB); Serra do Mar, fl., fr., 11 Sep 1976, Y.S. Kuniyoshi 3154 (K, MBM); Mauá da Serra, Estância Manain, fl., 27 Aug 2008, V.M. Cotarelli & E.M. Francisco 251 (FUEL); Mata do Pinhão, fl., 1 Oct 2008, V.M. Cotarelli et al. 352A (FUEL); Morretes, Véu de Noiva, fl., 21 Aug 1985, J. Cordeiro & J.M. Silva 116 (HUEFS, MBM, RB, US); Palmeira, Córrego da Anta, fl., 30 Sep 1982, G. Hatschbach 45494 (INPA, MBM, US); Pato Branco, Loteamento Vila Campagna, fl., 7 Oct 2013, G. Felitto 867 (FURB); Ponta Grossa, fl., 17 Oct 1918, P. Dusén 10322 (K, S); fl., fr., 21 Sep 1971, L. Krieger 10815 (CESJ, K); Vila Velha, fl., Oct 1969, L. Krieger 7327 (CESJ, RB); fl., 25 Sep 1975, G. Hatschbach 38080 (MBM, US); próximo a Vila Velha, fl., fr., 11 Oct 1976, L.T. Dombrowski 6341 (K, MBM); Rio Branco do Sul, N of Rio Branco do Sul, fl., 28 Aug 1966, J.C. Lindeman & J.H. Haas 2385 (EFC, U, US); São Mateus do Sul, Fazenda do Durgo, fl., 31 Oct 1985, R.M. Britez 175 (UPCB); Telêmaco Borca, Fazenda Monte Alegre, à beira do Ribeirão Varanal, fl., fr., 9 Nov 2005, T.I.N. Azevedo et al. 232 (FUEL); fl., fr., 1 Nov 2006, T.I.N. Azevedo & S.I. Azevedo 534 (FUEL); Tibagí, Salto de Santa Rosa, fl., fr., 9 Oct 1994, A.C.S. Azevedo s.n. (FUEL no. 29802); fl., 27 Oct 1995, G.C. Barbosa et al. s.n. (FUEL no. 18422); Tijucas do Sul, Rincão, fl., 21 Oct 1977, G. Hatschbach 40482 (MBM, MG, US); União da Vitória, Rio do Tigre, fl., 27 Oct 1956, G. Hatschbach 3426 (MBM, US); Ventania, Fazenda Califórnia, fl., fr., 30 Aug 2005, D.A. Estevan et al. 978A (FUEL); Fazenda Santa Inês, fl., 17 Sep 2005, D.A. Estevan et al. 978B (FUEL). Rio Grande do Sul: s.loc., fl., 1833, C. Gaudichaud 269 (P); Augusto Pena, fl., 21 Aug 1953, P.J. Pivetta 962 (HRCB, PACA); Capão da Canoa, Estrada entre Riozinho e Maquiné, ca. 22 km E de Riozinho, fl., 23 Nov 2005, M.C. Machado & L.Y.S. Aona 594 (HUEFS, UEC); Caxias do Sul, estrada para Mulada, fl., fr., 10 Dec 2005, M.C. Machado & L.Y.S. Aona 740 (HUEFS, UEC); Esmeralda, Estação Ecológica Esmeralda, fl., Nov 1981, L.A. Cestaro 1 (HAS); Farroupilha, São José, fl., fr., 21 Oct 1984, R.A. Wasum et al. 480 (ALCB, HUCS, PACA); Palmeira das Missões, fl., 1957, K. Hagelund s.n. (CORD no. 467190, SI no. 26288a); Pelotas, Horto Botânico Irmão Teodoro Luiz, fl., Nov 1985, N. Mattos & M.H. Bassan s.n. (HAS no. 67814); Santana da Boa Vista, 60 km NE de Santana da Boa Vista, estrada para Passo do Marinheiro, fl., 10 Nov 2006, L.P. Queiroz & M.C. Machado 12344 (HUEFS); Santo Augusto, Estação Experimental Fitotécnica, fl., Oct 1981, J. Mattos & N. Mattos 22678 (HAS); fl., Nov 1983, J. Mattos et al. 25067 (HAS); São Francisco de Paula, Rincão dos Kroeff, 1 km da divisa da Barra do Ouro, fl., Nov 1985, J. Mattos & M.H. Bassan 29407 (HAS); São Lourenço do Sul, junto a ponte do Rio Camaquã, rodovia Pelotas-Porto Alegre, fl., Oct 1977, J. Mattos & N. Mattos 17375 (HAS); Torres, entre Torres e Dom Pedro de Alcântara, estrada para a colônia São Pedro, fl., Sep 1975, Z. Rosa s.n. (HAS no. 3124). Santa Catarina: s.loc., fl., fr., s.dat., D. D’Urville 112a (P) ;Campo Alegre, Pinheiral, lower slopes of Morro Iquererim, fl., 8 Nov 1956, L.B. Smith & R. Reitz 7374 (HBR, P, US); Campos Novos, fl., 14 Sep 2015, A.A. Oliveira 2836 (FURB); Catanduvas, E of Catanduvas, fl., 12 Oct 1964, L.B. Smith & R. Reitz 12436 (FLOR, HBR, K, P, R, US); Encanto, Indaial, fl., 21 Sep 1956, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 3755 (HBR, MBM, NY, PACA, US); Grão Pará, Serra do Corvo Branco, fl., fr., 4 Oct 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 434 (RB); Pano do Socorro, fl., Sep 1975, R.D. Cicilia s.n. (HAS no. 3154); Rancho Queimado, Serra da Boa Vista, fl., 14 Oct 1960, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 10222 (HBR); Rodeio, bairro Ipiranga, fl., fr., 2 Oct 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 427 (RB); São Bento do Sul, trilha do Parque Florestal do SAMAE, fl., 28 Sep 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini & P. Schwirkowski 419 (RB); Rio Natal, beira da estrada sentido Rio Mandioca, curva próxima ao Restaurante Ruda, fl., fr., 28 Sep 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini & P. Schwirkowski 423 (RB); São Joaquim, Fazenda Velha, fl., Jul 1956, J. Mattos 3703 (HAS); Urubici, Véu da Noiva, Avencal, ao longo do rio de pedras, fl., 5 Oct 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 444 (RB). São Paulo: s.loc., fl., fr., 1833, C. Gaudichaud 158 (P); Atibaia, Itapetinga, fl., fr., 11 Nov 1987, A. Lofgren 347 (P, SPSF); Bonsucesso de Itararé, estrada Bonsucesso-Itararé, fl., 27 Nov 1993, V.C. Souza et al. 4789 (ESA, FUEL, RB); Pedreira Cobastalco, fl., 22 Nov 1994, K.D. Barreto et al. 3256 (ESA, RB, SPVR); descida da serra, fl., fr., 13 Nov 1994, V.C. Souza et al. 7226 (ESA, UEC, RB, SP, SPF); descida da serra entre a Pedreira Cobastalco e Bonsucesso de Itararé, fl., 19 Aug 1995, V.C. Souza et al. 8847 (ESA, HRCB, RB, SP, SPF, UEC, UFP); saindo da SP-258, 7 km de Bonsucesso, fl., 23 Oct 2007, R.C Forzza et al. 4774 (RB, SPF); Cunha, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Cunha, fl., 15 Nov 2006, E.J. Lucas et al. 301 (ESA, K, RB); Iporanga, Fazenda Intervales, base do Carmo, fl., 24 Aug 1992, M. Kirizawa et al. 2642 (RB, SP); Itapeva, Estação Experimental, trilha para o poço da Peroba, fl., 25 Aug 2009, C.R. Lima & R. Cielo Filho 243 (HURB); Jundiaí, fl., 23 Oct 2007, J.A. Lombardi 6981 (HRCB); Santa Izabel Igarata, fl., 26 Sep 1950, M. Kuhlmann 2548 (K, RB, SP); São Paulo, Butantã, fl., 27 Aug 1917, F.C. Hoehne s.n. (SP no. 463); Parque do Estado de São Paulo, fl., 28 Sep 1951, W. Hoehne 3604 (IPA, RB, SPF); Parque Morumbi, fl., 23 Oct 1987, V.C. Souza et al. 1087 (SPF). URUGUAY. Montevideo: s.loc., fl., s.dat., F. Sellow d1286 (B, K, P); Miguelete, fl., Nov 1925, W.G.H. Herter 436 (U).

Distribution and habitat.

Tradescantia mundula  is known to occur in Argentina, Brazil (states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay; in the Atlantic Forest, Chaco and Pampa domains (Fig. 25). It can be found growing understorey in shaded and moist forests and also in open forests, as a terrestrial, rupicolous or epiphyte.

Phenology.

It was found in bloom and fruit from July to February but peaking during the rainy season.

Etymology.

The epithet “mundula” means adorned, making reference to the strigose vegetative organs and the velutine sepals that characterise this species.

Conservation status.

Tradescantia mundula  possesses a wide EOO (ca. 920,899.945 km2), being also a potentially aggressive weed worldwide. Thus, following the IUCN recommendations ( IUCN 2001), it should be considered Least Concern (LC).

Nomenclatural notes.

As aforementioned, it is unknown where the specimens of any names described by A. Voss are housed ( Stafleu and Cowan 1986) and, since Voss (in Siebert and Voss 1895) makes no reference to any kind of specimen, presents no illustration for most of his names and no specimens matching the diagnosis of T. fluminensis f. bicolor  were located, I was unable to typify it.

Comments.

Tradescantia mundula  is the smallest species from T. subg. Austrotradescantia  , being comparable in size only with some specimens of T. tenella  . It is morphologically similar to T. cymbispatha  and T. fluminensis  due to their indefinite base, prostrate stems with ascending apex (Fig. 24A), involute ptyxis, saccate cincinni bracts (Fig. 24F), white petals (Fig. 24F, H), pistil as long as the stamens (Fig. 24G, H), seeds with uncleft testa towards the embryotega and hilum ½ the length of the seed (Fig. 24I). It can be easily differentiated from T. cymbispatha  by its subpetiolate leaves with impressed secondary veins (vs. sessile leaves with inconspicuous secondary veins, in T. cymbispatha  ), blades chartaceous and glabrous or unevenly covered by indumentum (vs. succulent and evenly covered by indumentum) and sepals dorsally keeled (vs. sepals without dorsal keels). It is more easily confused with T. fluminensis  , especially in dried specimens, due to their leaves with impressed secondary veins, sepals dorsally keeled and gross floral morphology. Tradescantia mundula  can be differentiated from T. fluminensis  due to its strigose stems (vs. glabrous in T. fluminensis  ), leaves unevenly to evenly strigose (vs. glabrous), blades chartaceous and abaxially completely to partially vinaceous (vs. membranous to slightly succulent and abaxially light to medium green), sepals evenly velutine in vivo (vs. pilose with hairs restricted to the keels) and flat petals (vs. plicate).

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Liliopsida

Order

ORDO

Family

FAMILIA

Genus

Tradescantia