Creagrutus dulima

Albornoz-Garzón, Juan G., Conde-Saldaña, Cristhian C., García-Melo, Jorge E., Taphorn, Donald C. & Villa-Navarro, Francisco A., 2018, A new species of Creagrutus (Characidae: Stevardiinae) from the upper Río Magdalena, Colombia, Zootaxa 4482 (2), pp. 341-354: 342-348

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4482.2.6

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:056AFDB9-DE48-4718-B3B7-ED607FE49066

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D67C87D7-FFE8-FFDE-FF37-FB00FD7A15F8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Creagrutus dulima
status

new species

Creagrutus dulima  , new species

( FIg.1View FIGURE 1; TABLE 1)

Creagrutus cf. paralacus  (non Harold & Vari): Harold & Vari, 1994:15-16 (Río Magdalena at Sasaima); Conde-Saldaña et al., 2017:4 (ecomorphology; diet; altitudinal range; Colombia, Departamento Tolima, Río Alvarado; CZUT-IC 10246).

Creagrutus brevipinnis  (non Eigenmann): Maldonado-Ocampo et al., 2005: 66 (in part: CZUT-IC 632); Villa-Navarro et al., 2006: 9 (in part: CZUT-IC 174).

Holotype: CZUT-IC 17663, 70.9 MM SL, COLOMBIA, DEPARTAMENTO TOLIMA, IBAgUÉ, UPPER RÍO MAgDALENA DRAINAgE, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06"N, 75°05'49"W, 973 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 13 DECEMBER 2012GoogleMaps  .

Paratypes: ALL FROM COLOMBIA, DEPARTAMENTO TOLIMA, RÍO MAgDALENA DRAINAgE: CZUT-IC 17664 (7, 64.7– 76.3 MM SL)  ; MPUJ 13208 (1, 68.4 MM SL), SAME LOCALITy AS HOLOTyPE  ; CZUT-IC 11991 (2, 74.4–79.4 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA EL PALMAR, 04°28'39"N, 75°9'16"W, 1173 MASL; D. C. MONTOyA-OSPINA, C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 13 JUNE 2016; CZUT-IC 16791 (1, 60.2 MM SL), CHAPARRAL, RÍO AMOyÁ, 03°47'43"N, 75°34'12"W, 950 MASL; J. L. LOZANO-GRIMALDO & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 26 NOVEMBER 2016; CZUT-IC 17665 (3, 59.8–66.9 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, RÍO ALVARADO, 04°27'38"N, 75°07'45"W, 909 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 19 SEPTEMBER 2012; CZUT-IC 17666 (3, 66.9–71.1 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, RÍO ALVARADO, 04°27'37"N, 75°07'45"W, 909 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 13 DECEMBER 2012; CZUT-IC 17667 (9, 65.1–87.4 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA COCARE, 04°28'37"N, 75°08'25"W, 1057 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 13 DECEMBER 2012; CZUT-IC 17668 (2, 67.5–77.4 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, RÍO ALVARADO, 04°27'38" N, 75°07'45"W, 909 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 0 4 APRIL 2013; CZUT-IC 17669 (5, 66.8– 78.9 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06"N, 75°05'49"W, 973 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 0 5 APRIL 2013; CZUT-IC 17670 (6, 68.9–83.8 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06"N, 75°05'49"W, 973 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 29 JUNE 2013, CZUT-IC 17671 (1, 62.31 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHEMBE, 04°27'34"N, 75°08'55"W, 988 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ- GARZÓN, 17 JANUARy 2016, CZUT-IC 17672 (3, 62.3–67.1 MM SL), RONCESVALLES, RÍO CUCUANA, 04°1'33"N, 75°28'17"W, 1376 MASL; N. OVIEDO & L. J. GARCÍA-MELO, 26 NOVEMBER 2010; CZUT-IC 17674 (1, 66.3 MM SL), CHAPARRAL, RIO AMOyÁ, 03°48'51"N, 75°35'12"W, 1092 MASL; J. L. LOZANO-GRIMALDO & J. G. ALBORMOZ-GARZÓN, 26 NOVEMBER 2016; CZUT-IC 17675 (3, 61.9–66.4 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA POTREROgRANDE, 04°23'9"N 75°11'58"W, 1013 MASL; J. L. POVEDA & E. O. LÓPEZ-DELgADO, 17 SEPTEMBER 2016; CZUT-IC 17676 (3, 62.7–74.0 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA POTREROgRANDE, 04°23'27"N, 75°12'38"W, 1126 MASL; J. L. POVEDA & E. O. LÓPEZ-DELgADO, 17 SEPTEMBER 2016; CZUT-IC 18772 (8, 71.3–92.9 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06.2"N, 75°05'48.6"W, 973 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA, J. E. GARCÍA-MELO & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 0 1 DECEMBER 2018; CP-UCO 3856 (2, 66.7–77.8 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06.2"N, 75° 05'48.6"W, 973 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA, J. E. GARCÍA-MELO & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 0 1 DECEMBER 2018; IAVH-P 16088 (2, 61.6–65.2 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA COCARE, 04°28'37"N, 75°08'25"W, 1057 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 13 DECEMBER 2012; ICNMHN 19688 (2, 68.3–72.9 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06"N, 75°05'49"W, 973 MASL; C. C. CONDE-SALDAÑA & J. G. ALBORNOZ-GARZÓN, 0 5 APRIL 2013.

Not types: ALL FROM COLOMBIA, DEPARTAMENTO TOLIMA, RÍO MAgDALENA DRAINAgE: CZUT-IC 632 (51, 40.2–70.3 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, BRIDgE OVER RÍO COMBEIMA, ROAD IBAgUÉ-TOTUMO. APPROXIMATELy 04°23'40"N, 75°11'06"W, 930 MASL; CZUT-IC 2624 (66, 49.0–62.9 MM SL), VENADILLO, RÍO TOTARE, 04°41'47"N, 74°59'24"W, 620 MASL; CZUT-IC 4750 (26, 41.6–72.0 MM SL), RONCESVALLES, RÍO CUCUANA, 04°1'33"N, 75°28'17"W, 1376 MASL; CZUT-IC 10469 (21, 12.4–55.8 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, RÍO ALVARADO, 04°27'37"N, 75°07'45"W, 909 MASL; CZUT-IC 10497 (21, 2 C&S, 12.4–55.8 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA COCARE, 04°28'37"N, 75°08'25"W, 1057 MASL; CZUT-IC 10837 (21, 3 C&S, 12.4–55.8 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHUMBA, 04°29'06"N, 75°05'48"W, 973 MASL; CZUT-IC 15999 (1 C&S, 52.1 MM SL), IBAgUÉ, QUEBRADA CHEMBE, 04°27'34.2"N, 75°08'54.7"W, 988 MASL

Diagnosis. Creagrutus dulima  DIFFERS FROM ALL TRANS-ANDEAN CONgENERS, EXCEPT C. paralacus  , IN HAVINg A SMALLER EyE DIAMETER (21.8–26.8% HL) (VS. 28.6–39.8% HL IN C. affinis  , 27.1–34.7% HL IN C. magdalenae  , 27.2– 29.7% HL IN C. guanes  , 30.6–34.9% HL IN C. brevipinnis  , 31.3–35.6% HL IN C. nigrostigmatus  , 30.2–38.3% HL IN C. maracaiboensis  , 30.4–35.0% HL IN C. hildebrandi  AND 29.4–33.3% HL IN C. caucanus  ). Creagrutus dulima  DIFFERS FROM C. paralacus  IN HAVINg SHORT HOOKS ON THE PELVIC-FIN RAyS (VS. LONg HOOKS, FIg. 2BView FIGURE 2) AND IN HAVINg A DARK RETICULATED PATTERN ON THE DORSUM (VS. A ROW OF MELANOPHORES ALONg DORSAL MIDLINE).

Creagrutus dulima  FURTHER DIFFERS FROM THE OTHER TRANS-ANDEAN SPECIES By THE FOLLOWINg COMBINATION OF CHARACTERS: THE ABSENCE OF A SPOT OR DARK STRIPE ALONg THE MIDDLE CAUDAL-FIN RAyS (VS. MIDDLE CAUDAL-FIN RAyS WITH DARK SPOT OR STRIPE IN C. affinis  , C. maracaiboensis  , C. nigrostigmatus  AND C. hildebrandi  ); LATERAL LINE COMPLETE (VS. INCOMPLETE IN C. maracaiboensis  ); ABSENCE OF LAMELLAR PROCESS THAT COVERS LATERAL-LINE PORES (VS. LAMELLAR PROCESS PRESENT IN C. caucanus  ); LONgER POSTORBITAL DISTANCE (43.1–53.9% SL) (VS. 30.3–41.9% SL IN C. affinis  , 33.6–39.5% SL IN C. brevipinnis  , 38.0–41.3% SL IN C. nigrostigmatus  , AND 35.2–41.0% SL IN C. hildebrandi  ); SHORTER PREDORSAL LENgTH (44.6–50.3% SL) (VS. 53.3–55.8% SL IN C. nigrostigmatus  , AND 52.2–55.7% SL IN C. maracaiboensis  ) AND SHORTER DISTANCE BETWEEN DORSAL AND ANAL FINS (26.9–33.2 % SL) (VS. 34.9–41.3% SL IN C. magdalenae  ); AND SHORTER DISTANCE BETWEEN DORSAL AND PELVIC FINS (22.8–30.4% SL) VS. (30.2–33.2% SL IN C. nigrostigmatus  ); AND THIRD INFRAORBITAL NOT IN CONTACT WITH PREOPERCLE (VS. IN CONTACT WITH PREOPERCLE IN C. affinis  , C. brevipinnis  , C. caucanus  , C. hildebrandi  , C. magdalenae  , C. maracaiboensis  AND C. nigrostigmatus  ).

Creagrutus dulima  DIFFERS FROM ITS CIS-ANDEAN CONgENERS, EXCEPT FORAbout FOR C. changae  , C. figueiredoi  , C. flavescens  , C. gephyrus  , C. gracilis  , C. hysginus  , C. magoi  , C. meridionalis  , C. occidaneus  , C. paraguayensis  , C. petilus  , C. runa  AND C. xiphos By  ITS COLORATION PATTERN. THE NEWAbout NEW SPECIES CAN BE DISTINgUISHED FROM C. changae  , C. figueiredoi  , C. flavescens  , C. gephyrus  , C. gracilis  , C. hysginus  , C. magoi  , C. meridionalis  , C. occidaneus  , C. paraguayensis  , C. petilus  , C. runa  AND C. xiphos  IN HAVINg A SMALLER EyE (21.8–26.8% HL VS.> 28.4% HL).

Description. MORPHOMETRIC AND MERISTIC DATA ARE gIVEN IN TABLE 1. BODy ELONgATE. GREATEST BODy DEPTH SITUATED AT VERTICAL THROUgH DORSAL-FIN ORIgIN. DORSAL PROFILE CONVEX FROM TIP OF SUPRAOCCIPITAL SPINE TO DORSAL-FIN ORIgIN; NEARLy STRAIgHT AND POSTEROVENTRALLy SLANTED FROM LATTER POINT TO ADIPOSE FIN, AND CONCAVE FROM LATER POINT TO ANTERIORMOST PROCURRENT CAUDAL-FIN RAyS. VENTRAL PROFILE OF BODy SLIgHTLy CONVEX FROM ISTHMUS TO ANAL-FIN ORIgIN; ANAL-FIN BASE STRAIgHT; STRAIgHT TO SLIgHTLy CONCAVE FROM BASE OF LAST ANAL-FIN RAy TO PROCURRENT CAUDAL-FIN RAyS. SOME SPECIMENS WITH PAPILLAE PRESENT ON BODy.

HEAD ROBUST, ITS DORSAL PROFILE CONVEX FROM MARgIN OF UPPER LIP TO VERTICAL THROUgH POSTERIOR MARgIN OF POSTERIOR NOSTRILS, THEN STRAIgHT FROM LATTER POINT TO END OF SUPRAOCCIPITAL SPINE; INTERORBITAL REgION TRANSVERSELy FLAT; VENTRAL PROFILE OF HEAD SLIgHTLy CONVEX TO ANTERO-VENTRAL CORNER OF DENTARy, THEN STRAIgHT TO ISTHMUS.

MOUTH SUBTERMINAL, UPPER jAW CONSPICUOUSLy PROTUDINg BEyOND LOWER jAW; OUTER ROW OF PREMAXILLARy TEETH SLIgHTLy EXPOSED IN VENTRAL VIEW. CORNER OF MOUTH LOCATED AT HORIZONTAL LINE THAT CROSSES BELOW VENTRAL MARgIN OF EyE. PREMAXILLA WITH THREE SERIES OF TRICUSPID TEETH: FIRST ROW IRREgULAR, WITH 5(4) TEETH OF EQUAL SIZE THAT FORM AN ARC; SECOND ROW WITH A CLUSTER OF 3(4) TEETH, LARgER THAN TEETH FROM THE FIRST ROW, AND THIRD ROW WITH SINgLE 1(4) TOOTH, SLIgHTLy THINNER THAN REMAININg TEETH, LOCATED NEXT TO THIRD TOOTH FROM FIRST ROW. MAXILLA WITH 3(2) OR 4(2) TRICUSPID TEETH, OF EQUAL SIZE. DENTARy WITH 5(2) OR 6(2) TRICUSPID TEETH, ANTERIORMOST THREE TEETH LARgER THAN REMAININg TEETH. FIRST BRANCHIAL ARCH WITH 3(3) OR 4(1) gILL RAKERS ON HyPOHIAL, 7(1) OR 8(3) gILL RAKERS ON CERATOBRANCHIAL, AND 8(3) OR 9(1) gILL RAKERS ON EPIBRANCHIAL.

SCALES CyCLOID, circuli RESTRICTED TO ANTERIOR PART OF SCALES, WITH 18–20 WAVy radii, THAT EXTEND PARALLEL FROM SCALE CENTER TO ITS POSTERIOR MARgIN. LATERAL LINE SLIgHTLy CURVED, WITH 35(1), 36(20), 37*(24) OR 38 (19) PORED SCALES. FOUR (13) OR 5*(52) SCALES BETWEEN DORSAL-FIN ORIgIN AND LATERAL LINE; 3*(41) OR 4 (24) SCALES BETWEEN LATERAL LINE AND PELVIC-FIN INSERTION. PREDORSAL SCALES 10(4), 11(24), 12*(22), 13(13), OR 14(2).

DORSAL FIN RAyS II,8*(65), DORSAL-FIN ORIgIN ANTERIOR TO PELVIC-FIN INSERTION, DISTAL DORSAL-FIN MARgIN CONCAVE, WITH FIRST AND LAST TWO RAyS LONgER THAN REMAININg RAyS, WITHOUT HOOKS ON BRANCHED RAyS, FLESHy INTERRADIAL FOLDS PRESENT. ANAL-FIN RAyS II, 9(5), 10*(33), 11(25), OR 12(2); ITS DISTAL PROFILE CONCAVE, WITH LAST RAyS LONgER. MALES WITH ANTERIORMOST FIVE BRANCHED RAyS WITH TWO TO EIgHT HOOKS; HOOKS ARRANgED AT THE DISTAL THIRD OF THE FIN, IN THE POSTERIOR RAy BRANCHES. FLESHy INTERRADIAL FOLDS PRESENT. PECTORAL-FIN RAyS I, 9, 10*(21), 11(37) OR 12(7), ITS POSTERIOR TIP REACHINg PELVIC-FIN INSERTION IN SOME SPECIMENS. FLESHy INTERRADIAL FOLDS PRESENT. PELVIC-FIN RAyS I, 6, I (17) OR 7*(48), ITS DISTAL TIP REACHINg ANAL-FIN ORIgIN IN SOME SPECIMENS. MALES HAVE 6–17 SMALL SHORT HOOKS ON SECOND TO SIXTH BRANCHED RAyS, SITUATED ON THEIR POSTERIOR BRANCHES ( FIg. 2AView FIGURE 2). FLESHy INTERRADIAL FOLDS PRESENT. ADIPOSE-FIN ORIgIN AT VERTICAL POSTERIOR TO LAST ANAL-FIN RAy INSERTION. CAUDAL FIN FURCATE, WITH 19 PRINCIPAL RAyS (65); LOWER CAUDAL-FIN LOBE SLIgHTLy LARgER AND LONgER THAN UPPER, BASAL PART COVERED WITH SCALES; 11(2) O 12(4) DORSAL AND 8–10 VENTRAL PROCURRENT RAyS. TOTAL VERTEBRAE 38(2) OR 39(4). RIBS 12(6). SUPRANEURALS 5(2) OR 6(2).

Color in alcohol. BODy LIgHT BROWN, DORSAL REgION WITH DARK RETICULATED PATTERN FORMED By PIgMENTATION CONCENTRATED ON DISTAL PORTION OF SCALES; HUMERAL BLOTCH RELATIVELy FAINT, VERTICALLy ELONgATED, EXTENDINg LONgITUDINALLy FROM SECOND TO FOURTH SCALE OF LATERAL LINE. PLUMBEOUS, RELATIVELy BROAD MIDLATERAL STRIPE STARTINg AT FIRST SCALE OF LATERAL LINE, EXTENDINg TO BASE OF CAUDAL PEDUNCLE. ABDOMINAL AREA LIgHT BROWN. DORSAL REgION OF HEAD, UPPER LIP, AND ANTERIOR THIRD OF MAXILLA LIgHT gRAy; VENTRAL AND DORSAL MARgINS OF ORBIT DARK; PREOPERCLE AND OPERCLE SILVERy. FINS WITH FEW MELANOPHORES ( FIg. 1View FIGURE 1).

Color in life. DORSUM OF HEAD AND BODy BROWN, VENTRAL REgION SILVERy ( FIg. 3AView FIGURE 3). EyE WITH CONSPICUOUS RED SPOT ON DORSAL REgION. DARK HUMERAL BLOTCH VERTICALLy ELONgATED, WITH DENSER CONCENTRATION OF MELANOPHORES ON SCALES ABOVE LATERAL LINE. BRIgHT LATERAL STRIPE WITH gREENISH AND BLUISH TONES, EXTENDINg FROM HUMERAL BLOTCH TO CAUDAL PEDUNCLE. DORSAL-FIN BASE yELLOW, FIN RAyS yELLOW TO LIgHT gREEN, FADINg TO HyALINE NEAR DISTAL TIPS ( FIg. 3BView FIGURE 3). PECTORAL, PELVIC AND ANAL FIN RAyS WITH yELLOW ACROSS MIDDLE SECTIONS OF RAyS ( FIg. 3AView FIGURE 3). ANTERIORMOST PELVIC- AND ANAL-FIN RAyS WHITISH. ADIPOSE FIN yELLOW ( FIg. 3BView FIGURE 3).

Distribution. Creagrutus dulima  IS KNOWN FROM TRIBUTARIES OF THE UPPER RÍO MAgDALENA BASIN AT THE EASTERN SLOPES OF THE CENTRAL ANDEAN CORDILLERA, DEPARTAMENTO TOLIMA, COLOMBIA ( FIg. 4View FIGURE 4), FROM SITES RANgINg BETWEEN 623–1376 MASL.

Etymology. “DULIMA” IS AN INDIgENOUS WORD OF THE PIjAO ETHNIC gROUP, WHICH MEANS RIVER OF SNOW OR RIVER OF CLOUDS, AND REFERS TO THE SNOW-COVERED TOLIMA MOUNTAIN PEAK, WHICH IS A SyMBOL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TOLIMA, ONE OF THE MOST ECOLOgICALLy THREATENED IN COLOMBIA. A NOUN IN APPOSITION.

Ecology. THE TyPE LOCALITy OF Creagrutus dulima  IS A STREAM WITH AN AVERAgE WIDTH OF 4.4M, WITH SUBSTRATE COMPOSED By SAND, PEBBLES AND ROCKS, AND ABUNDANT RIPARIAN VEgETATION ( FIg. 5View FIGURE 5). PHySICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF THE WATER AT THE TIME OF COLLECTION OF THE HOLOTyPE ARE: TEMPERATURE 21.6 °C, DISSOLVED OXygEN 6.94 Mg O2/L, PH 8.27, CONDUCTIVITy 162.23 µS/CM, NITRATES 1.14 Mg/L, PHOSPHATES 2.91 Mg/L AND TOTAL SOLIDS 150.5 Mg/L. SPECIMENS OF C. dulima  WERE COLLECTED ASSOCIATED WITH RAPIDS, AND WERE FOUND SyNTOPICALLy WITH Bryconamericus tolimae  (EIgENMANN, 1913), Hemibrycon  SP., Chaetostoma  CF. fischeri (STEINDACHNER, 1879), Trichomycterus banneaui  (EIgENMANN, 1912), Trichomycterus  SP., Astroblepus grixalvii  (HUMBOLDT, 1805), Astroblepus  CF. unifasciatus (EIgENMANN, 1912), Astroblepus homodon  (REgAN, 1905), Cynodonichthys magdalenae  (EIgENMANN & HENN, 1916) AND Poecilia reticulata  (PETERS, 1859). STOMACH CONTENTS OF 17 SPECIMENS INCLUDED A HIgH

PROPORTION OF AQUATIC INSECTS OF THE FAMILIES BAETIDAE  , BLEPHARICERIDAE  , HyDROPSyCHIDAE  , CHIRONOMIDAE  AND PSyCHODIDAE  , AS WELL AS TERRESTRIAL INSECTS ( FORMICIDAE  , COLEOPTERA  , AND HyMENOPTERA  ), AND PIECES OF SEEDS AND UNIDENTIFIED ORgANIC AND INORgANIC MATERIAL.

FOR

Forssa Museum of Natural History

NEW

University of Newcastle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopteri

Order

Characiformes

Family

Characidae

Genus

Creagrutus

Loc

Creagrutus dulima

Albornoz-Garzón, Juan G., Conde-Saldaña, Cristhian C., García-Melo, Jorge E., Taphorn, Donald C. & Villa-Navarro, Francisco A. 2018
2018
Loc

Creagrutus brevipinnis

Maldonado-Ocampo et al., 2005 : 66
Villa-Navarro et al., 2006 : 9