Oxyopes incantatus, Santos, Adalberto J., 2017

Santos, Adalberto J., 2017, The jumping lynx spider Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 and its Neotropical relatives (Araneae: Oxyopidae), Zootaxa 4216 (5), pp. 457-481 : 475-479

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.242322

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scientific name

Oxyopes incantatus

sp. nov.

Oxyopes incantatus View in CoL sp.nov.

Figs 8–10 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10

Oxyopes gracilis ; Baert et al. 1989a: 45; 1989b: 16; 1991: 338. Oxyopes saltans (lapsus); Baert et al. 2008: 57.

Etymology. The specific epithet is the Latin for enchanted, and is a reference to “Las Islas Encantadas”, a nickname historically used by sailors to refer to the Galápagos Islands.

Type material. Male holotype from west side (0.3908o S 91.641o W), Fernandina Island, Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, D.Q. Cavagnaro leg., 5/II/1964, deposited in CAS GoogleMaps . Paratypes: ECUADOR . Galápagos Archipelago: same data as the holotype, 1 ♀ ( CAS) ; 1 ♂ 1♀ ( UFMG 19944 View Materials ); Isabela Island, Volcán Alcedo (0.4635o S 91.1197o W), R. Silberglied leg., 22/III/1 970 GoogleMaps , 1 ♀ ( MCZ 19085); Santa Cruz Island, Los Gemelos (0.6256o S 90.3853o W), L. Baert et al. leg., 12/II–7/III/1988 GoogleMaps , 1 ♂ ( IRSN IG27318); 31 km N Santa Rosa (malaise trap, Scalesia forest, 0.6256o S 90.3853o W, 570 m), S. & J. Peck leg., 14/V–13/VIII/1985 GoogleMaps , 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (AMNH).

Remarks. Although I have seen only a small sample of the specimens listed in Baert et al. (1989a, 1989b), I am confident those records (illustrated in Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 B) can be attributed to O. incantatus , which is the only oxyopid from Galápagos I have found in numerous spider collections.

Diagnosis. Males of Oxyopes incantatus can be distinguished from O. salticus and O. crewi by the comparatively shallow retrolateral cymbial scoop, delimited by a ventral ridge that does not surpass the middle of the tibia in ventral view ( Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 A, 9A, B). Additionally, different from the latter two species, the retrobasal tibial apophysis of O. incantantus is small, rounded, and located in a comparatively anterior position ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 B). The species is also distinctive in the cymbial protrusion small and rounded, almost imperceptible ( Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 A, 9A). Females can be recognised by the triangular median process of the epigynum with straight borders ( Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 C, 9D), and positioned relatively closer to the epigynum tegument ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 D). The internal female genitalia differ from the other species in the anteriorly positioned spermathecae ( Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 E, 9E).

Description. Male (Fernandina, Galápagos Islands, holotype). Carapace faint brown, with lateral dark grey bands. Eye area black. Clypeus and chelicerae faint brown, with a pair of longitudinal black stripes. Endites faint brown, with an ectal dark spot. Labium black in the basal half, cream coloured distally. Sternum faint brown, with a sinuous dark grey, marginal stripe. Pedipalpus faint brown, darker in the tibia and cymbium. Legs faint brown, with a few ventral dark grey spots on coxae and femora. Opisthosoma cream coloured, dorsum with a faint brown cardiac mark delimited in dark grey, and a dark grey median band posteriorly. Sides densely suffused in dark grey, venter black. Spinnerets faint brown. Total length 3.9. Carapace 2.1 long, 1.4 wide. Tibia I length 1.75, II 1.5, III 1.12, IV 1.37. Opisthosoma 1.8 long, 1.1 wide. Ventral tibial apophysis apically rounded, with narrow anterior keel ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 B). Embolus relatively short, compared to the embolus base ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 C).

Female (Fernandina, Galápagos Islands, paratype, CAS). Colour as in male, except by the following. Leg femora with a ventral, longitudinal dark grey stripe. Patellae and tibiae with a few, ventral and dorsal dark grey spots. Opisthosoma with a few white spots around cardiac mark. Total length 4.6. Carapace 2.1 long, 1.5 wide. Tibia I length 1.62, II 1.5, III 1.12, IV 1.44. Opisthosoma 2.5 long, 1.8 wide. Apex of the median process of epigynum rounded, gently projected dorsally, base bulging ventrally ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 D). Lateral processes small, acute, positioned just anteriorly to the lateral base of the median process ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 D). Copulatory ducts long, anteriorly projected ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 E). Spermathecae rounded, with anterior gland pores ( Figs 8 View FIGURE 8 E, 9E, F), and one ectal Bennet’s gland pore. Fertilization ducts long, posteriorly directed ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 E).

Variation. Some males have a darker and shiny opisthosoma, covered by smooth cuticular scales. Based on my experience with other oxyopids, it is possible that these scales are always present in vivo, but fall from older preserved specimens. Carapace colour varies from creamy to dark brown. Measurements: males (N=11), total length 3.85–4.1, carapace width 1.3–1.5. Females (N=18), total length 3.6–5.0, carapace width 1.3–1.5.

Natural history. Specimens have always been found in humid places covered with shrub vegetation, usually fern sedges and forests dominated by Scalesia or Miconia trees ( Baert et al. 1989a, 1989b, 2008).

Distribution. Known only from the Galápagos Archipelago ( Fig. 10 View FIGURE 10 A, B). Specimens examined herein came from Fernandina, Isabela and Santa Cruz Islands, but the species was also recorded from Pinta, Santiago and Marchena Islands ( Baert et al. 1989a, 1989b, sub O. gracilis ).

Additional material examined. ECUADOR. Galápagos: Fernandina Island, west side (0.3908o S 91.641o W), D.Q. Cavagnaro leg., 5/II/1964, 9 ♂ 16 ♀ 11 juv. ( CAS) GoogleMaps ; Santa Cruz Island, 4 km N Bellavista, Media Luna ( Miconia zone, 0.6641o S 90.3262o W, 620 m), S. & J. Peck leg., 14/V– 13/VIII/1 985, 3 ♂ 3 ♀ 2 juv. ( AMNH) GoogleMaps ; (dung traps), 2 ♂ 2 ♀ (AMNH); (carrion traps), 17–21/V/1985, 2 ♀ (AMNH); Bellavista (agriculture zone, 0.6994o S 90.327o W), Peck & Sinclair leg., 1–9/IV/1989, 1 ♂ ( AMNH) GoogleMaps ; Los Gemelos , 31 km N Santa Rosa ( Scalesia forest, 0.6257o S 90.3853o W, 570 m), S. & J. Peck leg., 15/VII/1985, 1 ♂ 1 ♀ ( AMNH) GoogleMaps ; Media Luna to Puntudo (0.6567o S 90.3257o W), S. Peck leg., IV/1989, 4 ♂ 5 juv. ( AMNH) GoogleMaps ; Puntudo ( Scalesia forest, 0.6458o S 90.3293o W), I– III/ 1989, 5 ♂ 3 ♀ ( AMNH) GoogleMaps .


California Academy of Sciences


Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais


Museum of Comparative Zoology


Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique


American Museum of Natural History














Oxyopes incantatus

Santos, Adalberto J. 2017

Oxyopes gracilis

Baert 2008: 57
Baert 1989: 45
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