Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826),

Castanheira, Pedro de Souza, Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, Pizzetti, Daniela Dos Passos & Teixeira, Renato Augusto, 2019, Contributions to the taxonomy of the long-jawed orb-weaving spider genus Tetragnatha (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) in the Neotropical region, with comments on the morphology of the chelicerae, Zoosystematics and Evolution 95 (2), pp. 465-505: 477

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zse.95.36762

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:61A44D72-5E9B-40C6-9440-27E395110DE8

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D71F85D2-75AB-5A0C-A35E-86A4138285D4

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scientific name

Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)
status

 

Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)  Figs 14View Figure 14, 15View Figure 15, 16View Figure 16, 20EView Figure 20, 22EView Figure 22

Eugnatha nitens  Audouin 1826: 118, pl. 2, fig. 2 (♀).

Eugnatha pelusia  Audouin 1826: 119, pl. 2, fig. 3 (♂ ♀).

Tetragnatha nitens  Walckenaer 1841: 209.

Tetragnatha peruviana  Taczanowski 1878: 142, pl. 1, fig. 1 a–c (♂ ♀) syn. nov.

Tetragnatha andina  Taczanowski 1878: 144, pl. 1, fig. 2 (♀); Levi 1981: 291 (syn. rejected, see T. bogotensis  ).

Tetragnatha peninsulana  Banks 1898: 246, pl. 15, fig. 12 (♂ ♀); Levi 1981: 291 (syn. rejected, see T. bogotensis  ).

Tetragnatha eremita  Chamberlin 1924: 645, fig. 89, 90 (♂); Levi 1981: 292 (syn. rejected, see T. bogotensis  ).

Tetragnatha decipiens  Badcock 1932: 13, fig. 9 (♀) syn. nov.

Tetragnatha haitiensis  Bryant 1945: 408, fig. 37 (♀); Levi 198): 292 (syn. rejected, see T. bogotensis  ).

Tetragnatha tullgreni  Caporiacco 1947: 24 (♀ preoccupied by T. tullgreni  Lessert, 1915)

Tetragnatha caporiaccoi  Platnick 1993: 381 (replacement name of T. tullgreni  ) syn. nov.

Tetragnatha nitens kullmanni  Wiehle 1962: 379, figs 1-5, 6b, 9-11, 14, 15 (♂ ♀); Wunderlich 1992: 365 (syn. rejected, see T. bogotensis  ).

Type material.

Tetragnatha nitens  : EGYPT: ♂ ♀ syntype, Rosetta, Markaz Rasheed, lost ( Levi 1981). Tetragnatha peruviana  : PERU: ♂♂, ♀♀, syntypes: Lima, El Callao and Pacasmayo (191 syntypes, Coll. K. Jelski and J. Sztoleman, MIZ 225658-225682), examined (photos). Tetragnatha decipiens  : PARAGUAY: 1 ♀ holotype, “Nanahua”, probably Nanawa, Presidente Hayes, 05.ii.1927 [Coll. G. S. Carter and L. C. Beadle] ( NHM), examined. Tetragnatha caporiaccoi  : GUYANA: ♀ holotype, Alto Demerara-Berbice, xii.1931 ( MRAC 532), examined.

Diagnosis.

See the extended diagnosis under T. bogotensis  for the diagnostic characters of T. nitens  .

Synonymy and notes.

Tetragnatha nitens  was first described from Egypt, but its syntypes are lost according to Levi (1981). This common species has been diagnosed and redescribed many times, with plentiful illustrations of its body, chelicerae and genital morphology (e.g. L. Koch 1872; O. Pickard-Cambridge 1872; Simon 1898; F. O. Pickard-Cambridge 1903; Chickering 1957c; Okuma 1983, 1987, 1988b, 1992). Furthermore, it is a senior synonym for 17 species or subspecies according to the World Spider Catalog (2019). As it is easily mistaken for other large-bodied species, misidentified specimens are commonly found in museum collections.

Levi (1981: 291, 292), for example, listed 13 synonyms of T. nitens  , of which 11 were new. We highlight that T. festina  Bryant, 1945 was listed as a new synonym by Levi (1981) but was previously synonymised by Chickering (1957b: 2), T. aptans  Chamberlin, 1920 was a new synonym but not listed as such, and T. eremita  Chamberlin, 1924 was not included in the synonymic list of the World Spider Catalog (2019). Indeed, Levi (1981: figs 23-29) clearly misidentified at least some of the females he ascribed to T. nitens  , whose illustrations belong to T. bogotensis  instead (see above Synonymy and notes for T. bogotensis  ). Based on the original illustrations, we are able to confirm the synonymy of the following taxa: T. pelusia  Audouin, 1826, T. antillana  Simon, 1897, T. vicina  Simon, 1897, T. galapagoensis  Banks, 1902, T. aptans  Chamberlin, 1920, T. seminola  Gertsch, 1936, T. steckleri  Gertsch & Ivie, 1936, T. elmora  Chamberlin & Ivie, 1942, and T. festina  Bryant, 1945. On the other hand, four species are in turn synonyms of T. bogotensis  (see Synonymy and notes for that species).

Another lapsus occurred with T. nitens kullmanni  from Sardinia, Italy ( Wiehle 1962: 379, figs 1-5, 6b, 9-11, 14, 15). It was first synonymised with T. nitens  by Wunderlich (1992: 365), but we disagree with this synonymy and consider T. nitens kullmanni  as a synonym of T. bogotensis  (see Synonymy and notes for that species).

Mainly based on our observations of the morphology of the chelicerae, we propose three new synonymies for T. nitens  : T. peruviana  from Peru, T. decipiens  from Paraguay, and T. caporiaccoi  from Guyana. The type materials of all species were studied; for T. peruviana  images from MIZ were examined, and for T. decipiens  and T. caporiaccoi  specimens were studied on visits to NHM and MRAC, respectively.

Tetragnatha decipiens  and T. caporiaccoi  were described only from females, while descripitions of T. peruviana  were based on males and females, with males described first, even though only females were illustrated. Females of the three species and males of T. peruviana  clearly show the diagnostic characters of T. nitens  (see Diagnosis above).

Variation.

Males (n = 23): total length, 7.22-9.04; females (n = 30): total length, 7.42-11.44. The internal genitalia of females is also variable, with CS stalk shorter or longer than CS head, which places this structure at the same level or anterior to the spermathecae, which also vary in size ( Fig. 15K, LView Figure 15; Zhu and Zhang 2011: fig. 125G)

Distribution.

This species was first described from Africa (Egypt), but it has a cosmopolitan distribution, with many new records from the Neotropics ( Fig. 22EView Figure 22).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Tetragnathidae

Genus

Tetragnatha

Loc

Tetragnatha nitens (Audouin, 1826)

Castanheira, Pedro de Souza, Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, Pizzetti, Daniela Dos Passos & Teixeira, Renato Augusto 2019
2019
Loc

Eugnatha nitens

Savigny in Audouin 1826
1826
Loc

Eugnatha pelusia

Savigny in Audouin 1826
1826