Glyptosterninae Gill, 1872

Alfred W. Thomson & Lawrence M. Page, 2006, Genera of the Asian Catfish Families Sisoridae and Erethistidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes)., Zootaxa 1345, pp. 1-96 : 61-62

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Glyptosterninae Gill, 1872


D. Glyptosterninae Gill, 1872 ; Glyptosternina Gill, 1872

Glyptosternina is distinguished from other clades of sisorids by the combination of no adhesive apparatus on the thorax and the presence of plaited adhesive organs on the paired fins (Fig. 15). Osteological traits used by de Pinna (1996) to diagnose Glyptosternina include maxilla dorsoventrally flat and strongly expanded distally; interopercle narrow and elongate, its laminar portion reduced; proximal pectoral radials 2 and 3 flared at distal tip; and external arm of basipterygium abruptly expanded distally.

He (1996b), using mostly osteological characters, found Glyptosternina to be a monophyletic group defined by the following 12 apomorphies: 1) Posterior tip of lateral ethmoid prolonged and extended to the margin of the cranium. 2) Anterior part of frontal very narrow, its width far smaller than that of the posterior part. 3) Tooth band in upper jaw narrow, without posterolateral extensions (plesiomorphic in Glyptosternon   ZBK and Euchiloglanis   ZBK ). 4) Articular very short and small, wedge-like, attaching to the posterior end of the dentary (plesiomorphic in Exostoma   ZBK and Glaridoglanis   ZBK ). 5) Autopalatine enormously developed, broad, strong and spatulate at both ends. 6) Interoperculum long and thin, as long as the length from the anterior tip of the dentary to its posterior end). 7) Dorsal neural spine of the 4th vertebra undeveloped, plate-like, single, not connected to the proximal radial of the dorsal fin; no distinction between the 4th neural spine and the bony ridge of the skull. 8) Absence of an arch on the ventral side of the abdominal vertebra centrum (plesiomorphic in Glyptosternon   ZBK , Glaridoglanis   ZBK , Exostoma   ZBK , Pareuchiloglanis sinensis and P. anteanalis   ZBK ). 9) Post-haemapophysis of the 5th vertebra developed. 10) 5th parapophysis undeveloped and far shorter than the 4th parapophysis. 11) Pectoral spine soft and enveloped in the skin of the fin. 12) 2nd proximal of dorsal fin without wide lateral process.

Following the review of published data and the examination of specimens, we recognize nine genera of Glyptosternina . Traits used to diagnose these genera include the development of the post-labial grove on the lower jaw (Fig. 17), the degree to which the gill openings extend onto the venter, dentition of the upper and lower jaws, and the number of branched pectoral rays (Tables 5-7). In Table 5, genera are separated into three phenetic groups based on the development of the post-labial groove. In Table 6, characters are given to differentiate genera with an interrupted post-labial groove on the lower jaw, and in Table 7, characters are used to differentiate genera with a continuous post-labial groove on the lower jaw. Although these traits may result in the over-splitting of Glyptosternina genera, they do successfully diagnose the genera currently recognized by most authors. However, it should be noted that He (1996b) concluded that Pareuchiloglanis   ZBK , as currently defined, is monophyletic only when species currently assigned to Pseudexostoma   ZBK and Oreoglanis   ZBK are included.