Archaeopodagrion fernandoi Bota-Sierra, 2017

Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo, Bota-Sierra, Cornelio Andrés & Amaya-Vallejo, Vanessa, 2020, Description of the larva of the genus Archaeopodagrion Kennedy, 1939 (Zygoptera: Philogeniidae), Zootaxa 4816 (3), pp. 325-332 : 326-331

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Archaeopodagrion fernandoi Bota-Sierra, 2017


Archaeopodagrion fernandoi Bota-Sierra, 2017 (supposition)

( Figs. 1–5)

Material studied. 3 F-0 larvae (♀♀) (2 probably F-2 instars, ♀♀). COLOMBIA: Risaralda Department, Tatamá National Park, Pueblo Rico Municipality, Monte Bello Township , La Escuela stream, 5.22717° N, 76.08283° W, 1385 m asl, 12 February 2019, C. Bota, R.W. Sites, R. Novelo leg. GoogleMaps

Description. Final instar ( Fig. 1). Medium size for Zygoptera. Body mostly glabrous, light- to dark-brown; antennae long, mostly light brown, whitish apically. Head large, flattened, abdomen convex dorsally, flattened ventrally. Caudal lamellae saccoid, violaceous, with a long, pale terminal filament.

Head ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ). Yellowish-brown to dark-brown, wider than long, subpentagonal. Labrum reddish-brown, subrectangular, mostly covered by minute spinules, with a large, glabrous, oval, median area, anterior margin widely emarginate medially, with a row of long, white setae. Clypeus light yellowish-brown, glabrous. Frons large, darkbrown, flat, very finely rugose. Vertex flat, dark-brown, with three large white ocelli. Antennae ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ) long, 7- segmented, mostly glabrous except with an apical ring of delicate white setae on flagellomeres, scape and pedicel light-brown, 3rd antennomere reddish-brown, basal 2/3 and basal half of antennomeres 4 and 5 light- brown, respectively, remainder creamy pale, antennomeres 6─7 creamy pale, scape barrel-shaped, thicker, pedicel cylindrical, antennomere 3 longest, antennomere 7 shortest, size proportions: 0.37, 0.37, 1.0, 0.55, 0.37, 0.20, 0.10. Compound eyes ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ) not bulging, ventrolateral margin with a row of strong, sharply-pointed spines ( Fig. 2c View FIGURE 2 ). Occiput large ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ) (i.e., longer than dorsal midlength of compound eye), cephalic lobes bulging, with longitudinal rows of minute spiniform setae; occipital margin widely concave. Mandibles ( Figs. 2d, e View FIGURE 2 ) with a movable molar crest, strongly carinate along ventro-lateral margin, with short stiff setae on baso-lateral margin whose insertions are strongly developed giving an appearance of stout, short spines; formula: R 1+2345 y a (m 0) b, L1+2345 0 a (m 2) bd, a>b in both mandibles. Maxilla’s galeolacinia ( Fig. 3a View FIGURE 3 ) with seven teeth, three dorsal teeth similar length and robustness of which two distal teeth slightly incurved, and basal tooth strongly incurved, four ventral teeth of different sizes and robustness of which apical tooth largest, and basal tooth preceded by a row of about six short stiff setae; maxillary palp setose, shorter than galeolacinia’s apical tooth, gently incurved, ending in a short spine. Hypopharynx ( Fig. 2c View FIGURE 2 ) trapezoid, slightly sclerotized, creamy pale, smooth except on distal rounded corners which bear a short row of long, white setae directed anteriorly, anterior margin undulated, posterior margin slightly concave, shorter. Labium: Prementum-postmentum articulation nearly reaching posterior margin of procoxae. Prementum ( Fig. 3b View FIGURE 3 ) yellow, large, subrectangular, 0.23x longer than its widest part, glabrous, shinning, lateral margins finely serrulatd, subparallel, gradually converging basally. Ligula ( Fig. 3c View FIGURE 3 ) convex, prominent, distal margin finely serrulate, a short v-shaped median cleft, a minute dorsal spine on each side of median cleft but distad of midline. Labial palp ( Fig. 3c View FIGURE 3 ) yellowish-brown, large, parallel-sided, lateral margin minutely spinulose on basal third, mesial margin finely serrulate, apical lobe short, ending in three short hooks of different sizes, median hook largest, internal hook shortest; movable hook brown, slightly incurved, sharply-pointed, shorter than labial palp.

Thorax ( Fig. 1). Narrower than head, covered with minute setae. Pronotal disc yellowish-brown to dark-brown, anterior margin more or less straight, lateral margins strongly produced at middle forming a rounded convexity, posterior margin undulate, more or less straight at middle; propleuron spiny, ventral margin widely v-shaped. Pterothorax pale with large, irregularly wide, dark-brown stripes, ventral margin of mesopleuron serrate. Legs long (i.e., when fully extended, hind legs reaching the base of the terminal filament of caudal lamellae), yellowish-brown to light brown, fore legs darker. Femora granulose, tibiae setose; distointernal margin of tibiae with a row of 6–8 short, reddish-brown spurs. Tarsi pale, with a ventral, longitudinal double row of spiniform setae; tarsal claws simple, with pulvilliform empodium. Anterior and posterior wing sheaths slightly divergent, reaching basal half and posterior margin of S5, respectively.

Abdomen. Convex dorsally, more or less flat ventrally, gradually narrowing posteriorly. Tergum mostly grayish-violet, creamy-pale laterally, covered with minute, very fine, white setae, including posterior margins of S1–10. Sternum bare, creamy-pale, sterna 2–7 with a black, narrow, longitudinal stripe; tracheation visible by transparency. Female gonapophyses ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ) surpassing well beyond posterior margin of S10, lateral valvae creamy-pale, ventrally setose ( Fig. 4c View FIGURE 4 ), central valvae yellow, smooth, longer, all roundly-pointed. Female cerci ( Figs. 4c, d View FIGURE 4 ) creamypale, digitiform, decurved. Laminae paranalis whitish, flap-like, extending ventrally, and widely rounded apically. Caudal lamellae ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ) violet, saccoid, with abundant, long, delicate, white setae on dorsum, with a long, pale, setose, gradually tapering terminal filament. Epiproct ( Figs. 5a, b View FIGURE 5 ) with a large, basal, fleshy tubercle on each side of midline beset with large, stout, spiniform setae directed posteriorly; terminal filament 1/3 shorter than the saccoid portion length of epiproct. Paraproct ( Figs. 5d, e View FIGURE 5 ) with two basal fleshy tubercles with large, stout, spiniform setae directed posteriorly, one tubercle mesial, larger, another tubercle ventrad; terminal filament usually as long as the saccoid portion length of epiproct.

Measurements (in mm): TL 19.6–21.1; AL 6.5–7.5; Mhw 3.2–3.8; HfL 3.7–4.3; Ep 4.9–5.8; Pp 6.6–7.1.

Remarks. Archaeopodagrion fernandoi is known to inhabit first or second order forested stony mountain streams. Sometimes it is found in higher order streams, but in areas where the stream splits into two branches, larvae will be found inhabiting the shallowest branch ( Bota-Sierra 2017). These larvae were collected in a small canopycovered branch of a third or fourth order stream, among gravel and litter, in slow, shallow waters.

Diagnosis. Larvae of Philogenia and Archaeopodagrion share several combined diagnostic characters supporting their placement within the Philogeniidae ( Dijkstra et al. 2014) . These are: 3rd antennal segment long, usually as long as or longer than antennomeres 4–7 combined; dorsobasal tooth of maxilla’s galeolacina distinctly incurved; maxillary palp remarkable shorter than the galeolacinia’s apical tooth; prementum large, 0.20–0.23x longer than its maximum width, its distal corners clearly visible in dorsal view; distointernal margins of tibiae with a row of short and roundly-pointed spurs; laminae paranalis flap-like, extended ventrally; caudal lamellae saccoid, violaceous, with a long, pale, setose, terminal filament. However, the larva of A. fernandoi can be easily separated from the known larvae of Philogenia spp. by the following characters (those of Philogenia in parentheses): caudal lamellae with basal, spiny, fleshy tubercles (an autapomorphic character) (no basal spiny tubercles at all); molar lobe of right mandible without ‘ m ’ denticles (two minute ‘ m ’ denticles in P. peacocki ); molar lobe of left mandible with two ‘ m ’ denticles (1 ‘ m ’ denticle in P. mangosisa , 3 in P. peacocki , 4–5 in P. carrillica ); tooth ‘ d ’ in left mandible small, bluntly-pointed, and close to tooth ‘ b ’ (tooth ‘ d ’ large, sharply-pointed, and distad of tooth ‘ b ’ in P. peacocki and P. carrillica , small, sharply-pointed, and distad of tooth ‘ b ’ in P. terraba , lacking in P. mangosisa ); ligula length/width ratio 0.25: 1.0 (L/W ratio 0.33: 1.0; apparently 0.24: 1.0 in P. cassandra according to De Marmels’ (1982) drawing); ligula’s cleft v-shaped (not v-shaped in P. carrillica , P. mangosisa , and P. peacocki ); total length including caudal lamellae 19.6–21.1 (24.5–35.0); maximum width of head 3.2–3.8 (3.8–5.8); hind femur length 3.7–4.3 (5–8.5).