Hemerodromia

Plant, Adrian R., 2015, Diversity of Hemerodromia Meigen, 1822 (Diptera: Empididae) in Thailand, the tip of a tropical iceberg?, Zootaxa 4039 (1), pp. 1-56: 4-6

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4039.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CB081EA2-3F93-4FD3-8AC8-B24F772833FC

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D96487F9-9902-FFBE-07E9-4A2BADDE84F2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hemerodromia
status

 

Key to species of Hemerodromia  occurring in Thailand

In using the key it is important to recognise that while colouration provides useful characters to discriminate certain species, it can be variable. For example, species with thorax entirely black may appear brownish or reddish brown in teneral specimens and intraspecific variation in the strength of colour patterns sometimes occurs in species with a predominantly yellow thorax. The user is urged to confirm all determinations by reference to the detailed descriptions and using characters of the terminalia of males. In many cases, females are extremely difficult or impossible to identify with confidence. Caution is also needed as there are certainly other species occurring in Thailand that remain undescribed.

1 Wing with R 2 + 3 terminating in R 4 and strong black mark on membrane about R 4 (Figs 3, 4). Head with posterodorsal margin strongly quadrate in lateral view. Upper occiput shallowly concave (Fig. 5). Anterodorsal margin of thorax very distinctly quadrate in lateral view...................................................... Hemerodromia anomala  sp. nov.

- Wing with R 2 + 3 terminating in C, membrane about R 4 hyaline (Figs 1, 6– 8). Head with posterodorsal margin more rounded in lateral view (usually distinctly so). Upper occiput convex, at most somewhat flattened. Anterodorsal margin of thorax usually narrowing gradually towards front viewed in profile ( Figs 6–8View FIGURES 6 – 8)................................................ 2

2 Wing (Figs 1, 7) with M 1 + 2 fork present (vein M 2 present); halter whitish, blackish or dusky (usually without marked contrast between anterior and posterior faces of knob). T 1 with 1 or 2 rows of minute denticles ventrally (rows often subequal in strength)........................................................................................... 4

- Wing ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 6 – 8) with M 1 + 2 fork absent (vein M 2 absent); halter with anterior face of knob black, posterior face pale (division between the two usually very distinct). T 1 with a single row of minute denticles ventrally........................... 3

3 Male terminalia with cercus strongly curved dorsally on distal part ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 18 – 19); surstylus very broad, its tip strongly reflexed dorsally.................................................................... Hemerodromia attenuata  sp. nov.

- Male terminalia with cercus elongate, linear on distal part ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 29 – 30); surstylus with tip slightly spatulate........................................................................................... Hemerodromia deminuta  sp. nov.

4 Ground colour of anepisternum and katepisternum yellow or brownish yellow, sometimes heavily suffused brown or blackish but never distinctly black (underlying ground colour always yellowish) (Figs 1, 7, 8)............................... 5

- Ground colour of anepisternum and katepisternum black or brown (underlying ground colour always black or brownish, sometimes variably suffused reddish, never distinctly yellow) (Figs 3, 5, 6)......................................... 20

5 Halter with knob black or at least distinctly darkened; wing distinctly and evenly dark greyish on distal 0.9 ...................................................................... Hemerodromia furcata Grootaert, Yang & Saigusa, 2000 

- Halter with knob whitish, yellowish or pale brownish yellow; wing usually less darkened or almost hyaline on distal 0.9 or with strong darkening restricted to area around apices of basal cells............................................. 6

6 Scutum entirely yellow, at most a faint narrow median dark area in prescutellar area and/or more or less distinct darker lateral stripes on posterior 0.5 (males only)..................................................................... 11

- Scutum entirely brownish or black or with dark markings otherwise and more extensive............................. 7

7 Scutum with anterior 0.5 clear yellow, posterior 0.5 blackish ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 6 – 8)........................................................................................................................ Hemerodromia songsee  sp. nov.

- Scutum entirely brownish or black or with dark markings otherwise............................................ 8

8 Scutum entirely black or dark brown, even laterally, at most postpronotal area somewhat yellowish (Fig. 1); laterotergite and meron black, hardly paler than scutum.............................. Hemerodromia flaviventris Yang & Yang, 1991 

- Scutum yellowish laterally, even if narrowly so, postpronotal area often yellow; laterotergite yellow or sometimes suffused brownish black but never uniformly and intensely black..................................................... 9

9 Scutum narrowly yellowish laterally ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 6 – 8), postpronotal area usually yellowish; pleura yellowish, often partly suffused brownish. Cell bm+dm long, ending distinctly beyond level of R 1 ................... Hemerodromia systoechon  sp. nov.

- Scutum with broad lateral yellow markings more extensive, especially anteriorly; often with a more or less well defined dark median stripe, narrowing anteriorly. Cell bm+dm short ending at level of R 1, or if ending distinctly beyond end of R 1 then a short stub of CuA 2 present............................................................................. 10

10 Scutellum entirely black; scutum with median dark stripe broad; prothoracic ‘collar’ broadly black dorsally. Wing with a short stub of vein CuA 2 present; length of C between ends of R 2 + 3 and R 4 long, ~ 1.8 X long as R 4; cell bm+dm long, ending distinctly beyond level of R 1. Male cercus with complex process situated along inner face with convoluted tip bearing 4 blunt spines orientated internally ( Fig. 52View FIGURES 51 – 52).................................................... Hemerodromia isochita  sp. nov.

- Scutellum yellow or yellowish, at least posteriorly; scutum with dark median stripe narrower; prothoracic ‘collar’ with dorsal surface yellow, black only very narrowly at middle. Wing with no trace of vein CuA 2; length of C between ends of R 2 + 3 and R 4 short, ~1.0– 1.2 X long as R 4; cell bm+dm short, ending at about level of R 1. Male cercus ( Figs 9, 10View FIGURES 9 – 10) elongate, with only short small strong setae on inner face apically..................... Hemerodromia acutata Grootaert, Yang & Saigusa, 2000 

11 Cell bm+dm long, ending beyond tip of R 1; sct present, distinct if small (if bm+dm short and sct present see Hemerodromia namtokhinpoon  sp. nov.)............................................................................. 12

- Cell bm+dm short, ending near tip of R 1; sct absent, at most a few fine hairs on disc.............................. 17

12 F 1 with ~ 3 spines of pv row between 0.2 and 0.7 from base obviously longer than limb is deep................................................................................................. Hemerodromia alphalutea  sp. nov.

- F 1 with spines of pv row obviously shorter than limb is deep (excepting 1–2 near base longer)...................... 13

13 Scutum with more or less distinct dark lateral stripes posteriorly. Epandrium with small quadrate process apically bearing close ciliation of fine hairs ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 20 – 22)................................................ Hemerodromia betalutea  sp. nov.

- Scutum plain yellow, any dark markings very obscure. Male terminalia otherwise................................ 14

14 Mediotergite clear yellow (if somewhat vaguely obscured brownish see Hemerodromia deltalutea  sp. nov.)............ 15

- Mediotergite black or brownish, sometimes with posterior or lateral margins yellow.............................. 16

15 Wing membrane brownish; veins brownish yellow, rather darker about junction of R 1 with C, base of R 2 + 3 and R 4 + 5 and cell bm+dm posteriorly. Abdomen with tergite 2 blackish (as are 3–5). Hypandrium and epandrium clear yellow....................................................................................... Hemerodromia epsilutea  sp. nov.

- Wing membrane yellowish; veins yellow, not obviously darker about basal forks. Abdomen with tergite 2 yellow (sometimes narrowly darker medially) and 3–5 blackish. Hypandrium and epandrium black.......... Hemerodromia etalutea  sp. nov.

16 Epandrium very strongly concave on dorsal margin ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 26 – 28). Tergites 2–6 mostly blackish. R 4 + 5 fork distal to M 1 + 2 fork by same or slightly greater than length of R 4 ....................................... Hemerodromia deltalutea  sp. nov.

- Epandrium convex on dorsal margin ( Fig. 48View FIGURES 48 – 50). Tergites 2–5 mostly blackish; R 4 + 5 fork distal to M 1 + 2 fork by less than length of R 4 .................................................................... Hemerodromia gammalutea  sp. nov.

17 Sct absent; posterior margin of scutum with clearly defined black ‘scutoscutellar eye’ marking; prothoracic collar dorsally with narrow dark median mark. Wing with veins blackish, membrane browner, both only slightly darkened at about level of cell bm+dm. Epandrium broad, if elongate then lacking very strong apical bristle.................................... 18

- Sct present; posterior margin of scutum entirely yellow, lacking dark ‘scutoscutellar eye’; prothoracic collar dorsally entirely yellow. Wing veins yellowish grey, membrane yellowish brown, both darkened conspicuously at about level of cell bm+dm. Epandrium very elongate with strong apical bristle........................... Hemerodromia namtokhinpoon  sp. nov.

18 Anterior spiracle narrowly (usually strongly) emarginated above with small linear diagonal black mark. Epandrium narrowly elongate in lateral view ( Fig. 71View FIGURES 71 – 72)............................................... Hemerodromia zetalutea  sp. nov.

- Anterior spiracle lacking strong linear diagonal mark, at most with a small dark spot present. Epandrium subovate or subrectangular in lateral view ( Figs 14View FIGURES 14 – 15, 55View FIGURES 55 – 57)..................................................................... 19

19 Epandrium truncate apically; narrow process (lower lobe of surstylus?) emerging beyond tip of epandrium below surstylus bent at 90 ° with 2 small leaf-shaped setae apically ( Fig 14View FIGURES 14 – 15)....................... Hemerodromia anisoserrata  sp. nov.

- Epandrium less truncate apically ( Fig. 55View FIGURES 55 – 57); narrow process (lower lobe of surstylus?) emerging beyond tip of epandrium below surstylus more or less linear with 2 large leaf-shaped setae apically ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 55 – 57)............ Hemerodromia ocellata  sp. nov.

20 Head with 4–5 pairs of distinct vtl distinguishable from other fine setulae on vertex and upper occiput. Male terminalia ( Figs 23–25View FIGURES 23 – 25) small and compact; cercus rather broad and simple in lateral view............. Hemerodromia conspecta  sp. nov.

- Head with 1–2 pairs of indistinct vtl, not much stronger than other fine setulae on vertex and upper occiput. Male terminalia larger; cercus narrowed in lateral view or if broad, with complex apical processes................................ 21

21 Male cercus broad in lateral view with prominent apical downwardly directed process ( Figs 32, 33View FIGURES 31 – 33)............................................................................................... Hemerodromia demissa  sp. nov.

- Male cercus elongate in lateral view ( Figs 46View FIGURES 46 – 47, 58View FIGURES 58 – 59, 60View FIGURES 60 – 62, 68View FIGURES 68 – 70), sometimes with shorter dorsal lobe at about 0.5 from base ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 46 – 47).................................................................................................. 22

22 Male cercus moderately elongate in lateral view ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 46 – 47), extending beyond tip of epandrium, a shorter dorsal lobe originating ~ 0.5 from base (sometimes twisted internally and inconspicuous in lateral view); surstylus large and conspicuous, broadly Tshaped apically ( Fig 46View FIGURES 46 – 47)............................................... Hemerodromia fusca Yang & Yang, 1986 

- Male cercus long and narrow in lateral view ( Figs 58View FIGURES 58 – 59, 60View FIGURES 60 – 62, 68View FIGURES 68 – 70), without dorsal lobe; surstylus shorter or if elongate then a different shape apically................................................................................... 23

23 Epandrium rather narrow in lateral view, apically pointed ( Figs 58, 59View FIGURES 58 – 59); surstylus small, narrow, apically spatulate, incurved distally..................................................................... Hemerodromia oriens  sp. nov.

- Epandrium broader, bluntly pointed ovoid or subcircular in lateral view; surstylus otherwise........................ 24

24 Two processes projecting beyond tip of epandrium ( Fig. 68View FIGURES 68 – 70), upper one (surstylus) conspicuously inflated and broadly Lshaped apically; lower process elongate hook-shaped apically ( Fig. 70View FIGURES 68 – 70).... Hemerodromia yunnanensis Yang & Yang, 1988 

- Two processes projecting beyond tip of epandrium ( Fig. 60View FIGURES 60 – 62); upper one narrow, apically spatulate with minute peg-like tubercles apically on inner face ( Fig. 62View FIGURES 60 – 62); lower one rather digitiform, with dense brush of fine almost coalescent hairs apically................................................................... Hemerodromia phahompokensis  sp. nov.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Empididae