Laemosaccus nephele ( Herbst, 1797 )

Hespenheide, Henry A., 2019, A Review of the Genus Laemosaccus Schönherr, 1826 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Mesoptiliinae) from Baja California and America North of Mexico: Diversity and Mimicry, The Coleopterists Bulletin (MIMICRY AND LAEMOSACCUS In an earlier paper (Hespenheide 1996), I presented the hypothesis that species of Laemosaccus of the L. nephele group with red humeral spots on the elytra were Batesian mimics of members of the Chrysomelidae in the subfamily Clytrinae. There is no evidence that Laemosaccus species are distasteful, and what is either L. nephele and / or L. obrieni have been reported as prey items of birds (Beal 1912). In Cave Creek Canyon, Cochise County, Arizona, 21 forms (species and “ subspecies ”) of Clytrinae were hypothesized to be the primary models of 22 species of mimics in the families Anthribidae (one species), Bruchidae (two species), Buprestidae (four species), Chrysomelidae, subfamily Cryptocephalinae (three species), Coccinellidae (six species), Curculionidae, subfamily Baridinae (one species), and Laemosaccus (five species). Of these, the coccinellids and the cryptocephaline chrysomelids are probably distasteful Mullerian co-mimics. Ecologically, the species of Laemosaccus co-occurred with their clytrine models on both desert legumes and canyon oaks, although more clytrine species occurred in the desert and more Laemosaccus species occurred in the canyons. Species of clytrines showing the mimetic pattern are common throughout Mexico (Bellamy 2003, who renamed the Mexican buprestid genus Acherusia Laporte and Gory, 1837 as Mimicoclytrina Bellamy to reflect their resemblance to clytrines), but decline in numbers of species and in the proportion of the clytrine fauna through Central America to Panama (Hespenheide 1996, fig. 2). Laemosaccus seems to follow a similar pattern. Mimicry is more common in large faunas, especially in wet tropical areas (Hespenheide 1986, 1995); because the largest clytrine fauna is in Mexico, the clytrine mimicry complex is also larger there (Hespenheide 1996). This complex has more members than I first enumerated and deserves further study. The evolution of mimicry produces resemblances between unrelated species (Laemosaccus and other putative mimics, with clytrines and perhaps other Chrysomelidae and Coccinellidae as models; see Hespenheide 1976, 1996) and selects against the divergence of related species. In Batesian mimicry - hypothesized to be the form of relationship between Laemosaccus and clytrines - the selection for precision of mimicry is stronger on the mimic (Laemosaccus), so that resemblances among them should be closer, regardless of ancestry. Close morphological resemblances based on ecology rather than ancestry may be termed mimetic homoplasy (Hespenheide 2005) and can make recognition of species difficult (as in Laemosaccus) or complicate phylogenetic analyses. I have speculated (Hespenheide 1996) that the sympatric “ subspecies ” of the clytrine models (Moldenke 1970) may in fact be reproductively isolated sibling species. It will be interesting to see whether or not genomic studies show the closeness of relationships among Laemosaccus species that the morphology suggests) 73 (4), pp. 905-939 : 907-911

publication ID 10.1649/0010-065X-73.4.905

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scientific name

Laemosaccus nephele ( Herbst, 1797 )


Laemosaccus nephele ( Herbst, 1797)

( Figs. 1–3 View Figs )

Curculio nephele Herbst 1797: 54 , Tab. XCIX, fig. 4D.

Curculio plagiatus Fabricius 1798: 170 .

Laemosaccus plagiatus (Fabricius) : Schönherr 1823: c.1136.

Rhynchaenus plagiatus (Fabricius) : Schönherr 1823: c.1136.

Laemosaccus nephele (Herbst) : O’ Brien and Wibmer 1982: 6.

Redescription. Male. Length 3.3 mm, width 1.5 mm ( Figs. 1, 2 View Figs ). Robust, subcylindrical in cross section, slightly obovate, broadly rounded behind, more narrowly so in front, black except each elytron with large red-orange spot on anterior 3/4 and from lateral margins nearly to suture and broadly rounded behind; pronotum and elytra glabrous, thorax and abdomen ventrally with punctures each with a silvery seta, head with inconspicuous setae on rostrum, denser and conspicuous behind lower 3/4 of eyes, setae more slender and semi-erect on basal half of femora, hair-like and erect on tergite 8; tergite 7 with small, scale-like setae on basal margin, otherwise glabrous. Head hemispherical, 0.55 mm wide; rostrum rounded-terete, coarsely punctate, 0.5 mm long, antennae inserted at middle. Pronotum gibbous, convex at base, constricted before anterior margin, 1.1 mm long, 1.25 mm wide, broadest at basal third with lateral margins very shallowly arcuate, slightly convex in lateral view, coarsely, evenly punctate, punctures rounded and separate, with distinct medial carina on basal 3/4. Elytra distinctly wider than pronotum at base, 2.0 mm long, 1.5 mm maximum width, striae subequal to intervals, coarsely punctate, intervals carinate, interval 3 weakly toothed on middle third, interval 5 weakly toothed on apical half. Abdominal ventrite 1 very slightly concave along midline, with setae less conspicuous. Profemora with broad, abruptly acute ventral tooth beyond middle. Genitalia as in Fig. 3 View Figs ; aedeagus 0.80 mm long.

Female. As male but rostrum subcylindrical, polished, very finely, inconspicuously punctate; tergite 7 weakly convex, coarsely punctate, glabrous except at basal margin.

Specimens Examined. North America : [“Amer. bor.”] “35504// Nephele n./ Curc. Neph. Ht./ Rhynch. plagiatus Thb. ?” (male, lectotype, ZMHB). “ plagiatus F./Amer. bor.”//“35504/ Hist. Coll.”(female, paralectotype of Curculio nephele Herbst, ZMHB ); “Amer. bor.” (BMNH); “North America ” [Pascoe Coll.] (BMNH). Canada: Ontario: Essex Co., Wheatley, 07.1967, K. Stephen (ASUHIC). USA: “Carolina” (Lectotype and 2 paralectotypes of Curculio plagiatus Fabricius, ZMUC ); “Caroline//Fig. Gen. Ins.” (USNM); “S[outhern] I [llinois?]” [Sharpe Coll.] (BMNH); Mch, 1881,” from gall of C. cornigera (BYU) . Alabama: [Dallas Co.], Hazen, on Quercus [Merriam], 30.04, 2.05.1923, [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH), 19.04.1923, [L. B. Woodruff], Quercus digitata (AMNH) , 12.04.1921, beating oak [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH); [Jefferson Co.], “B’[irming]ham” [419A], 29.05.1955, [H. G. Steeves] (FMNH); [Madison Co.], 5 mi. NW Huntsville, 15.05.1959, D. G. Kissinger Acc. No. 437, Q. falcata leaf (CSCA); [Mobile Co.], Mobile, 9.05.1906, Boving (CHAH), 20- 21.04.1957, H. & A. Howden (CMNC); [Tuscaloosa Co.], Tuscaloosa, 3.07.1953, L. Franklin (CHAH). Arkansas: ‘south west Ark,” no date, G. Palm (AMNH); Cross Co., Village Creek State Park, 23.07.1976, L. Lowman (UAAM). Connecticut: [Litchfield Co.], Litchfield, 14.05.[?], [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH). District of Columbia: Washington, 14.06.--, [C. Fuchs] (CASC). Florida: “Florida,” W. H. Ashmead (INHS), “Fla,” no date, [Holland Coll’ n] (CMPI), C. W. Leng (BYU); Enterprise, no date (LEMQ); Alachua Co., 24.03.1923, Alexander-Walker (UMMZ); Gainesville, 10.02.1923 (UMMZ), 12.04.1922, G. B. Merrill (AMNH), 13.05.1925, G. B. Merrill (FSCA), 20.04.1928, G. B. Merrill, oak (FSCA), 15.04.1957, G. B. Merrill, Quercus (FSCA) , 24.04.20, P. W. Fattig (CASC); 2 mi. W Archer, 25.03.1953, B. K. Dozier, sweeping oak (FSCA), 4 mi. WArcher, 25.03.1953, H. F. Howden (CMNC); Bay Co., Lynn Haven, 19.05.23, [Andrews] (UMMZ); [DuVal Co.], Jacksonville, no date, R. M. Brattain (AMNH); Indian Riv. Co., 5 mi. S Vero Beach, 27.03.1976, C. W. O’ Brien, on Quercus (ASUHIC) ; Lake Co., Forest Hills, 5.04.1994, F. W. Skillman Jr., in swimming pool (ASUHIC); Leon Co., Tallahassee, 3, 5.05.1977, G. B. Marshall (ASUHIC), G. J. Wibmer, em. 15.04.2001, reared ex girdled hickory branch (ASUHIC), G. J. Wibmer, emerged 15.07, 19.08.2009, on hickory branch girdled by Oncideres , fell 10.2008 (ASUHIC); Liberty Co., Torreya St. Pk., 19- 23.04.1984 (ASUHIC); [Marion Co.], Ocala, 22.03.1922, F. W. Walker (UMMZ); [Pinellas Co.], Dunedin, 10.04.1921, W. S. B. (BYU); Polk Co., Lake Marion Creek Rd., Magnolia St, Em 04.2000, R. Morris, ex dead Quercus laevis branches (CMNC), Em. 1- 10.03.2000, R. Morris, ex: Quercus (RFMC) , Em. 04.2000, R. Morris, Ex. Fire killed Quercus virginiana (RFMC) ; Santa Rosa Co., Blackwater R. at Riley Landing, 3 mi. W Holt, 2.06.1973, J. N. & E. C. Reynolds (ASUHIC); [Taylor Co.], Steinhatchee R., V, C. W. Leng (BYU); [Volusia Co.], Enterprise, C. W. Leng (BYU). Georgia: Georgia, Morrison (ZMHB), “Ga,” no date (MCZ); Barrow Co., Winder, emerged 21.02.1975, R. Turnbow (FSCA); [Bibb Co.], 5 mi. SE Mallin, 1- 10.06.1964, L. Camdre, light trap (ASUHIC); [Chatham Co.], Tybee Is, 06.1924, H. A. Wenzel (OSU), Savannah, Sommer (ZMHB); [Clark Co.], Athens, 18.05.1947, C. W. Fisher (TAMU); DeKalb Co., 03.06.1972 (TAMU); Hancock Co., 4.1 mi. S Sparta, 11.05.1976, R. Turnbow (FSCA); Johnson Co., 1 mi. E Kite, 11.05, 22.06.1976, R. Turnbow, on Quercus laevis Walter (ASUHIC) ; Richmond Co., Ft. Gordon, 18.05.1958, R. R. Snelling (LACM); Tattnall Co., 2 mi. E 147, along Ohoopee Riv., em. 15.02.1999, R. Morris, ex. Quercus sp. (RFMC), 3 mi. E 147, Ohoopee River, Em. 03-04.1998, R. Morris, Ex Quercus sp. Limbs (RFMC); Upson Co., Sprewell Bluff area, 23- 24.05.1987, R. Morris (RFMC). Illinois: [Kane/McHenry Co.], Algonquin, Nason (INHS); [Pulaski Co.] Karnak, 23.06.1932, Ross, Dozier, Park, on Taxodium sp. (INHS). Indiana: Marion Co., 27.06.1929, W. S. B. (BYU); Tippecanoe Co., 4.07.1962, N. M. Downie (FMNH). Louisiana: Natchitoches Par., Kisatchie Nat. Forl, Red Bluff Campgd., 17.05.1984, E. G. Riley (ASUHIC); Rapides Par., Boyce, 29.04.1982, E. G. Riley (ASUHIC); Winn Parish, S of Hwy 1232 ca. 2 mi. NE Calvin, 08.05.1987, C. B. & J. E. Barr (EMEC). Maryland: [Baltimore Co.], Granite, 8.03.1963, E. J. Ford Jr (NCSU), Lutherville, 03.07.1949, A. E. Thompson (CMNC), Sparrows Pt., 6.07.1931, J. W. Green (CASC); Frederick Co., Frederick Mun.For., 12.09.1990, M. J. Rothschild (CHAH); Wicomico Co., Pittsville, 31.05.1994, M. J. Rothschild (FSCA); Salisbury, 27.05, 1.06.1991, M. J. Rothschild (FSCA), Salisbury, Naylor Mill Park, 28.05.1995, M. J. Rothschild (NCSU); Worcester Co., Shad Landing St. Pk., 18.05.1985, C. L. Staines, Jr. (CHAH), Ocean City, 01.07.1958 (EMEC, UCDC). Massachusetts: “Mass,” no date, F. Knab (BMNH); [Barnstable Co.], Woods Hole, no date, 21.07.1898 (AMNH), Harwichport, 07.1933, L. Lacey (BYU); [Bristol Co.], Fall River, 9.06.1913, N.S. Easton (UMMZ). Michigan: [Washtenaw Co.], Whitmore Lk., 29.07.1956, G. H. Nelson, beating oak (AMNH), 7.07.1956, G. H. Nelson, Quercus velutina (AMNH) . Mississippi: Attala Co., Natchez Trace, mi. 153.8, 32°57’19”N 89°36’46”W, 26.06.2007, T. L. Schiefer, beating fallen Quercus nigra (MEM) ; [Forrest/Lamar Co.], Hattiesburg, 1940, S. S. Easter (MEM); [George Co.], Lucedale, 13.05.1929, H. Dietrich (CASC); Jefferson Davis Co., 04.1970, on boll weevilsaturn yellow sticky trap 643 (MEM); [Lafayette Co.], Oxford, 2.05.1949, H. V. Weems, Jr., on Quercus (FSCA) ; Lowndes Co., Columbus 33°29’42”N 88°26’36”W, 23.05.2008, T. L. Schiefer, beating cut trees and shrubs (MEM); Neshoba Co., Philadelphia, 32°48’06”N 89°06’28”W, 18.05.2011, T. L. Schiefer, beating recently fallen trees (MEM); Noxabee Co., 10.8 mi. ESE Macon, 8.05.1974, W. H. Cross, in Leggett trap 2181 (MEM), Noxabee N.W. Refuge, 33°16’58”N 88°46’42”W, 214.05.2009, T. L. Schiefer, On fallen Quercus nigra (MEM) ; Oktibbeha Co., Starkville, T18N, R14E, Sec 12N 16.06.1992, T. L. Schiefer, beating Quercus sp. (MEM), Starkville, 33°27’41”N 88°51’28”W, 6.05.1997, T. L. Schiefer, beating recently cut trees (MEM), Starkville, 33°27’13”N 88°48’04”W, 15.05.2000, T. L. Schiefer, beating Quercus nigra (MEM) , 6 mi. SW Starkville, 5.05.1986, R. L. & B. B. Brown, Malaise trap in mixes pine-hardwood forest (MEM), 3 mi. W Adaton, 33°29’00”N 88°58’13”W, 30.05.1996, T. L. Schiefer, beating trees and shrubs (MEM), 1 mi. NE Sessums, 33°25’32”N 88°42’09”W, 13.06.2013, T. L. Schiefer, beating recently cut trees (MEM), “A & M College,” 13.07.1927, J. M. Langston, oak LS27-16e (MEM), State College, Shipp (NCSU); Rankin Co., 9.5 mi. NNE Brandon, 7.06.1973, W. H. Cross, in Leggett trap 1203 (MEM); Tishomingo Co., Tishomingo St. Park, 34°37’13”N 88°11’50”W, 26.05.2010, J. Lewis, J. McGown. beating in hardwood forest (MEM); Winston Co., Tombigbee Nat. Forest, 33°12’49”N 89°05’28”W, 9.07.1999, T. L. Schiefer, beating cut trees (MEM). Missouri: Wayne Co., 3.5 mi. N Wappapello on Rt. Z, 11.06.1975, E. G. Riley (ASUHIC). New Jersey: “ New Jersey,” no date, [Van Dyke Coll] (CASC), “N.J.,” no date (LACM), F. A. Sheriff (CASC); Anglesea, 12.07.---, [E. L. Dickerson] (AMNH), 05.1930, H. W. Wenzel (OSU); Bonhamton, 26.08.1909, [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH); Da Costa, “6-14,” “6-15” (OSU), “6-15,” H. A. Wenzel (OSU), no date (CMPI); Mt. Misery, 23.06.1940, R.G. Casselberry (AMNH); Palisades, [“Bred”?], C. W. Leng collection (BYU); [Atlantic Co.], Ocean City, 19.06.1937, R. G. Casselberry (AMNH); [Bergen Co.], Fort Lee District, no date (AMNH); [Burlington Co.] Medford, 03, 25.06.1939, E. J. F. Marx (AMNH), Atsion, 3.07.47, J. W. Green (WFBM); 5 mi. SE Browns Mill, em 5.196-, H. A. Hespenheide, rear ex chestnut oak (CHAH); [Cape May Co.] Wildwood, “7-1-0,” [Andrews] (UMMZ); [Essex Co.], Newark, no date (AMNH); [Hudson Co.], Nutley, 27.06.---, [E. L. Dickerson] (AMNH); [Middlesex Co.] Rahway, 2.08.---, [J. A. Grossbeck] (AMNH); [Monmouth Co.], Freehold, 19.07.1926, J. W. Green (CASC), 19.07.1926, [L.S. Slevin Coll] (CASC); Ocean Co., E. Plains, 15.06.1929 (AMNH); Lakehurst, 18.06.1917, beating oak, 21.06.1922, [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH), 07.07.---, [E. L. Dickerson] (AMNH), 28.06.---, H. B. Weiss (AMNH), 4, 5.07.1909 (AMNH). New York: Long I., 1.07.1906, [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH), New Lots., L. I., 24.06.1891, J. L. Z. (AMNH); [Bronx Co.], Bronx, 03.1895, C. W. Leng (1, BYU); [Erie Co.], Buffalo, no date (MCZ, SEMC, ZMHB), C.W. Leng collection (BYU, on card with the following species); [Kings Co.], Flatbush, 28.07.1893, J. L. Zabriskie (AMNH), Lott Wood, Flatbush, L. I., 6.07, 11.08.1893, J. L. Zabriskie (AMNH); [Nassau Co.], Long Island, Long Beach, no date, [B. Malkin] (FMNH); [Suffolk Co.], Cold Spring Harbor, 25.07.1932, [C. H. Curran] (AMNH); Yaphank, L.I., 8.07.1916, [L. B. Woodruff] beating scrub oaks (AMNH). North Carolina: [Blanden Co.], White Lake, 14.05.1952, D. M. Weisman (NCSU); [Buncombe Co.], Black Mt., --.07.1900 (AMNH), Black Mts, 9.06.1912, Beutenmuller (CASC); Catawba Co., Hog Hill, 27.07- 7.08.1976, R. Turnbow, bl trap (ASUHIC); Columbus Co., 01.05.1952, A. T. Howden, oak leaves (AMNH, CMNC, FMNH); Cleveland Co., 20.05.1972, J. S. Ashe, on foliage (TAMU); [Cumberland Co.], Vander, 19.05.1959, W. M. Kulash (NCSU); [Graham Co.], Joanna Bald, 2.09.1959, F. W. Mead (NCSU); Halifax Co., 21.05.1979, J. R. Brown, in boll weevil pheromone trap (UAAM); Hoke Co., McCain Tract, 28.05.1993, R.L. Binn (NCSU); Mecklenburg Co.,Cornelius, 06.2007, M. Heuther (CMNC); [Moore Co.], Aberdeen, 10, 11, 22.05.1922, R. W. Leiby (NCSU); Southern Pines, 16.05.1952 – oak, 3.05.1952, H. & A. Howden (CMNC), 15.06.55, R. E. Woodruff (FSCA), 10.05.1905, 14.05.1910, A. H. Manee (NCSU), 17.05.1953, H. & A. Howden (NCSU); Northhampton Co., 21.05.1979, J. R. Brown, in boll weevil pheromone trap (UAAM); [Pitt Co.], Falkland, 8.06.1960, W. M. Kulash (NCSU); [Sampson Co.], Garland, 14.05.1952, W. J. Gehweiler (NCSU); Vance Co., Hwy 1, 1.6 km N of Kittrell, 22.051995, L. L. Deitz (NCSU); [Wake Co.], Raleigh, 11.05.1952, 21, 27.05, 27.06.1959, D. M. Wiseman (ASUHIC, NCSU), 11.06.1972, H. A. Hespenheide (CHAH), D. L. Wray (NCSU), 4.06.1975, D. L. Stephan, on foliage of red oak (NCSU), 10.05.52, B. K. Dozier, oak (FSCA). Ohio: “Ohio,” C. W. Leng (BYU); Delaware Co., 21.06.1950, D. J. & J. N. Knull (OSU); Hocking Co., 20.06.--, D. J. & J. N. Knull (OSU). Oklahoma: Latimer Co., --.06.1985, --.06.1992, K. Stephan (FSCA), --.05.1982, --.06.1983, --.06.1987, K. Stephan (TAMU); Red Oak, 14.05.1978, K. Stephan (ASUHIC). Pennsylvania: “Pa,” no date (OSU); “Penn/hickory,” --.04.— (MCZ); Phila Neck, 06.1919, H. A. Wenzel, H. W. Wenzel (OSU); [Allegheny Co.], Allegheny, no date (CMPI), West View, [22].06.29 (CMPI); [Berks Co.], Wyomissing, 4.07.1938, R. P. Seibert (AMNH); [Centre Co.], Mt. Alto, 07.1932, J. N. Knull (BYU); [Delaware Co.], Darby, “vii-4,” H. W. Wenzel (OSU); [Monroe Co.], Effort, 20.07.1932, J. W. Green (UCDC). Rhode Island: [Kent Co.], Warwick, no date, E. E. Calder (UMMZ); [Providence Co.], Providence, 11.07.1915, J. V. Nyler, on shrub oak (UMMZ). South Carolina: “S.C.,” no date (MCZ), [C. W. Leng collection] (BYU); Aiken Co., Aiken St. Pk., 31.05.1969, W. H. Tyson (ASUHIC); Aiken, 31.05.1957, H. F. Howden (CMNC); [Beaufort Co.], Beaufort, “29.4,” [Van Dyke Coll] (CASC); [Cherokee Co.], Kings Mt. St. Pk., 21.05.1972, L. L. Lampert, weed (FSCA); Colleton Co., ca 20 km S Ruffin, 24.05.1979, R. S. Peigler (TAMU); [Greenville Co.] Greenville, 28.05.1913, J. E. Smith, 9193W Hopk. US, reared, Hicoria (USNM) ; Sumpter Co., 30.05.1978, R. M. Brattain (AMNH); York Co., nr Kings Mt, Kings Mt St Pk, 20.05.1972, J. F. Cornell (NCSU). Tennessee: Hardeman Co: Bolivar, 27.12.1974, R. D. Ward (CMNC). Texas: “Texas,” no date, [Shoemaker] (USNM), “Texas,” no date, [Belfrage] (BMNH), “Tex,” no date, (USNM); no date, Horn Coll 8711 (MCZ), no date, [C. W. Leng collection] (BYU), no date, [L. B. Woodruff] (AMNH); Dallas (ZMHB); Brazos Co., College Station, 1.04.1963, W. L. Sterling (TAMU), 11.04.1976, J. A. Jackman (TAMU), 09.04.1974, W. E. Clark (TAMU), 29.04.1980, C. W. Agnew (TAMU), 8.04.1969, V. V. Board (TAMU), 4.05.1963, S. G. Wellso (TAMU), 28.05.1964, S. G. Wellso, Quercus stellata (TAMU) , 20.04.1964, S. G. Wellso, emerged from Quercus stellata (TAMU) , 21.04, 2.05.1943, 31, 2.05.1944, H. J. Reinhard (TAMU), 30.03.1934, T. Mcgregor (TAMU); Bryan, 1- 2.05.1971, H. R. Burke, mod. Malaise trap (TAMU); Brooks Co., Vic, Rachal, Rt.281, 14.04.2009, J. & M. Heuther (CMNC); Burleson Co., Big Creek Park, Lake Somerville, 16.03.1971, V. Board & W. Clark (ASUHIC); Colorado Co., 7.04.1922, Mrs. G. Wiley (BYU), 10, 14, 15, 17.04, 16.05.1922, Mrs. G. Wiley (SEMC); [Comal Co.], New Braunfels, C. Schaeffer, (BYU); Dallas Co., 10 mi. S Seagoville, 5.05.1962, W. D. Edmonds (TAMU), Dallas, 25.04.1907, Schwarz & Pratt (USNM); Gillespie Co., 5.06.1954, D. J. & J. N. Knull (OSU); Jackson Co., 4 mi. NE Ganado, 14.04.1984, M. Rice (WFBM); Jewett, 23.05.1951, D. J. & J. N. Knull (OSU); Karnes Co., vic of Ecleto, Metz Ranch, 14.05.2000, Morris/Wappes (CMNC); Leon Co., 2 mi. N Flynn, 2.05.1994, Godwin & Stockwell (STRI); Nacogd[oches] Co., Nacogdoches, 19, 25.04.1965, M. Haladay, cherrybark oak (TAMU), 25.04, 2.05.1965, G. C. Gaumer, cherrybark red oak (TAMU), 15.04.1965, W. T. Williams, red oak (TAMU), 24.04.1971, W. D. Shepard, on oak leaf (TAMU); Victoria Co., Hwy 59 Rest Stop, NE of Victoria, 2.05.1989, A. J. Gilbert (CSCA); Wood Co., 13 M N Mineola; 6.05.1994, H. P. Stockwell, post oak savanna-sand dunes (STRI). Virginia: “Va,” [C. W. Leng collection] (BYU); Boykins, 10.06.[18]95 (BMNH); [Accomack Co.], Assateague, 24.06.1980, E. J. Ford, Jr. (CHAH); [Albemarle Co.], Cobham, C. Schaeffer, (BYU); Hampton, 1.07.1944, N. M. Downie (FMNH); Montg [omery] Co., Radford, 3.07.1969, J. B. Karren (ASUHIC). Wisconsin: “Wis,” C. Schaeffer, (BYU).

Hosts. This species has been reared from hickory, Carya sp. ( Juglandaceae ), in Florida from branches girdled by Oncideres Lepeletier and Audinet- Serville ( Coleoptera : Cerambycidae ) and in South Carolina (“ Hicoria ”). The more usual hosts are oaks: in Florida, from limbs of Quercus sp. ( Fagaceae ) limbs; in Texas, from post oak, Quercus stellata Wangenh. ; in Florida, from turkey oak, Quercus laevis Walt. and fire-killed Quercus virginiana Mill. ; and in New Jersey, from chestnut oak, Quercus prinus L. Adult hosts that have been recorded frequently include unspecified oaks, Quercus spp. , and hickory, Carya sp. , in Pennsylvania; more specifically, cherrybark oak, Quercus pagoda Raf. , in Texas; black oak, Quercus velutina Lam. , in Michigan; Q. laevis in Georgia; and southern red oak, Quercus digitata Sudworth (= Quercus falcata Michx. ), in Alabama, as well as on Taxodium sp. ( Cupressaceae ) in Florida. Some published records (e.g., Ferro et al. 2009) may refer to the next species.

Discussion. Curculio nephele was described by Herbst in 1797 from North America but until recently (O’ Brien and Wibmer 1982) it was known under the name of Laemosaccus plagiatus , which is the type of Laemosaccus . Schönherr (1826) considered Curculio [“ Rhynchaenus ”] plagiatus and C. nephele conspecific. I examined the types of Herbst’ s C. nephele and Fabricius’ C. plagiatus , confirmed that they represent the same species, and identified this species as the true L. nephele . Both names were represented by short series of specimens, and lectotypes were designated as follows: The lectotype of Curculio nephele Herbst bears the labels “Amer. bor.”/35504// Nephele n./ Curc. Neph. Ht./ Rhynch. plagiatus Thb. ?” and “ Lectotype / Curculio nephele Herbst /Hespenheide” (ZMHB); the lectotype of Curculio plagiatus Fabricius bears the labels “Carolina// Curculio plagiatus Fabricius ” and “ Lectotype / Curculio plagiatus Fabricius /Hespenheide” (ZMUC).

Study of Laemosaccus occurring in eastern North American has, however, revealed two common, largely sympatric, and widely distributed species, L. nephele and the following, both of which have been reared from species of oaks and hickories, in some cases from the same lot of branches. Moreover, to date, all black North and Central American Laemosaccus with a red post-humeral spot on the elytra have been placed under the name L. plagiatus ( Champion 1903; Anderson 2002), but, as reported here, this is a complex of at least 13 species in the USA and Baja California, and there are many more undescribed species in Mexico and Central America as far south as Panama. Thus, no previously published records under the name L. nephele or L. plagiatus refer to this (or the next) species with certainty. No specimens of this species have been seen from Mexico and Central America , so that all specimens cited by Champion from there (1903) refer to the undescribed species. Although reported as a diet item for the crested flycatcher and eastern wood pewee ( Beal 1912), these records may truly be for the following new species. I have elsewhere proposed that Laemosaccus with this color pattern are part of a large mimicry complex whose models are chrysomelids in the subfamily Clytrinae ( Hespenheide 1996) and that the similarity among these species constitutes an example of “mimetic homoplasy” ( Hespenheide 2005) rather than due to any close relationship. This will be further discussed below.

Differences between this and the following species will be given under the latter, but L. nephele can be recognized by the humeral spots of orange that are large and reach the anterior and lateral margins of the elytra and the pronotal sculpture of rather large separated punctures. It is remarkable that two widely sympatric and commonly collected species, this one known since the 18 th century, have not been recognized before now. Geographic variation in the shape and size of the posthumeral red spot was studied in some detail in this and the following species but will be reported elsewhere. Males vary in size from 2.40 to 4.15 mm (mean = 3.20 mm, n = 128); females vary from 2.45 to 4.50 mm (mean = 3.45 mm, n =136).














Laemosaccus nephele ( Herbst, 1797 )

Hespenheide, Henry A. 2019

Laemosaccus nephele (Herbst)

Brien, C. W. & G. J. Wibmer 1982: 6

Curculio plagiatus Fabricius 1798: 170

Fabricius, J. C. 1798: 170

Curculio nephele

Herbst, J. F. W. 1797: 54