Scaphioides Bryant, 1942

Platnick, Norman I., Berniker, Lily & Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne, 2012, The Caribbean Goblin Spider Genera Scaphioides and Hortoonops (Araneae, Oonopidae), American Museum Novitates 2012 (3751), pp. 1-64 : 4-6

publication ID 10.1206/3759.2

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Scaphioides Bryant


Scaphioides Bryant

Scaphioides Bryant, 1942: 327 (type species by original designation Scaphioides reducta Bryant ; gender feminine, per original combination).

Stenoonops (in part): Chickering, 1969a: 21.

DIAGNOSIS: Specimens of Scaphioides resemble those of Stenoonops Simon but lack the elevated and pointed lateral projections of the sternum extending between the leg coxae (Platnick and Dupérré, 2010: figs. 7, 18) and the dorsal clump of setae near the tip of the palpal tarsi (Platnick and Dupérré, 2010: figs. 28, 61) typical of that genus. They also differ in having a longitudinal ridge separating the median and lateral portions of the palpal endites in males (figs. 4, 244), a short, wide embolus in males (figs. 25, 26), a more heavily sclerotized epigastric scutum in females (figs. 109, 134), and internal female genitalia with a narrow anterior projection situated on a wider base (figs. 44, 68).

DESCRIPTION: Total length of males 1.0–1.5, of females 1.1–1.7. Carapace, sternum pale orange, without pattern; mouthparts, legs, palps yellow, without pattern; abdomen white, without pattern (except in S. econotus ). Cephalothorax: Carapace elongated hexagon in dorsal view, anteriorly narrowed to 0.49 times its maximum width or less (figs. 1, 31, 240, 270, 272), anterolateral corners with slightly sclerotized triangular projections, posterolateral edge without pair of pits, posterior margin not bulging below posterior rim, posterolateral surface without spikes, with rounded posterolateral corners; pars cephalica flat in lateral view (figs. 2, 32, 33, 241, 271), pars thoracica without depressions, fovea, or radiating rows of pits; lateral margin straight, smooth, usually with blunt denticles (figs. 243, 273); plumose setae near posterior margin of pars thoracica absent; nonmarginal pars cephalica setae dark, needlelike, in U-shaped row; nonmarginal pars thoracica setae, marginal setae, clypeal setae dark, needlelike. Clypeus margin strongly rebordered, straight in front view, sloping forward in lateral view, high, ALE separated from edge of carapace by their radius or more, median projection absent (figs. 3, 34, 242, 274). Chilum absent. Eyes six, well developed, all subequal, ALE circular, PME squared, PLE circular; posterior eye row recurved from above, procurved from front; ALE separated by slightly less to slightly more than their radius; ALE-PLE separated by less than ALE radius, PME separated by less than their radius, PLE-PME separated by less than PME radius. Sternum longer than wide, not fused to carapace, median concavity absent, without hair tufts, with radial furrows between coxae I–II, II–III, III–IV, radial furrow opposite coxae III absent, sickleshaped structures absent, posterior margin extending posteriorly beyond anterior edges of coxae IV as single extension, anterior corner unmodified, lateral margin with infracoxal grooves bearing anterior and posterior openings, distance between coxae approximately equal, extensions of precoxal triangles absent, lateral margins with three pairs of lateral projections, without posterior hump; setae sparse, dark, needlelike, densest laterally, originating from surface. Chelicerae straight, anterior face unmodified; without teeth (figs. 5, 36, 276); fangs without toothlike projections, directed medially, shape normal, without prominent basal process, tip unmodified (figs. 6, 37, 277); setae dark, needlelike, densest medially; paturon inner margin with short interdigitating setae, distal region, posterior surface unmodified, promargin with row of flattened setae, inner margin unmodified, laminate groove absent. Labium triangular, not fused to sternum, anterior margin indented at middle, same as sternum in sclerotization; with six or more setae on anterior margin, subdistal portion with unmodified setae (figs. 4, 35, 244, 275). Endites distally not excavated, serrula present in single row (figs. 38, 39, 245, 246), anteromedian tip usually thickened, sometimes with posteriorly directed protrusion, posteromedian part unmodified, same as sternum in sclerotization; labrum relatively small, with projection at base (fig. 247). Female palp without spines or claws; trochanter with small, raised ridges (fig. 280); femur with strong stridulatory file on retrolateral surface (fig. 279); patella without prolateral row of ridges; tibia with three trichobothria, proximalmost two situated in nearly transverse row (figs. 42, 281); tarsus unmodified (figs. 40, 41, 278), without distal patch of short, thickened setae (fig. 282). Abdomen: Ovoid, without long posterior extension, rounded posteriorly, rows of small sclerotized platelets absent. Book lung covers large, ovoid, without setae, anterolateral edge unmodified. Posterior spiracles connected by groove (figs. 7, 43, 255, 283). Pedicel tube short, unmodified, scutopedicel region unmodified, scutum not extending far dorsal of pedicel, plumose hairs absent, matted setae on anterior ventral abdomen in pedicel area absent, cuticular outgrowths near pedicel absent. Dorsal scutum absent, epigastric scutum weakly sclerotized, surrounding pedicel, not protruding, small lateral sclerites, lateral joints absent; postepigastric scutum weakly sclerotized, yellow, short, only around epigastric furrow, not fused to epigastric scutum, anterior margin unmodified, with short, posteriorly directed lateral apodemes; spinneret scutum absent; supraanal scutum absent. Dorsal, epigastric, postepigastric setae dark, needlelike; those on epigastric area setae not thickened; dense patch of setae anterior to spinnerets absent. Anterior, posterior lateral spinnerets bisegmented, posterior medians unisegmented (figs. 8, 45, 256, 285). Spigots scanned only in S. minutus and S. nitens ; anterior laterals with single major ampullate gland spigot and three piriform gland spigots in males (figs. 9, 257) and females (figs. 46, 286); posterior medians with single spigot in males (figs. 10, 258) and females (figs. 47, 287); posterior laterals with single spigot in males (figs. 11, 259) and females (figs. 48, 288). Colulus represented only by setae. Legs: Without spines; femora dorsally with subdistal constriction marked by transverse row of setae (figs. 289, 290), femur IV not thickened, same size as femora I–III, patella plus tibia I shorter than carapace, tibia I unmodified, tibia IV ventral scopula, specialized hairs on ventral apex absent, metatarsi I, II mesoapical comb absent, metatarsi III, IV weak ventral scopula absent; tarsi short (fig. 260). Tarsi without inferior claw; lateral surfaces of paired claws with three or four large, basally situated teeth, median surfaces with distally situated, closely packed row of small teeth (figs. 12–19, 49–55, 261–264, 291–294). Tarsal organs of legs I, II with three receptors, of legs III, IV, palps with two receptors, distal receptor greatly widened, often distally bifid (figs. 20–24, 56–60, 265–269, 295–298). Trichobothrial bases with highly arched opening, few large ridges (figs. 30, 299). Genitalia: Epigastric region with sperm pore not visible; furrow without Ω-shaped insertions, without setae. Male palp normal size, not strongly sclerotized, right, left palps symmetrical; trochanter normal size, with small, raised ridges (fig. 250); femur normal size, two or more times as long as trochanter, without posteriorly rounded lateral dilation, attaching to patella basally, with strong stridulatory file on retrolateral surface (fig. 251); patella shorter than femur, not enlarged, without prolateral row of ridges, setae unmodified; tibia with three trichobothria, proximalmost two situated in transverse row (fig. 27); cymbium ovoid in dorsal view, fused with bulb but with clearly defined seam (figs. 25, 26, 248, 249), not extending beyond distal tip of bulb, plumose, stout, distal setae all absent (figs. 252–254); bulb 1–1.5 times as long as cymbium, stout, spherical; embolus light, prolateral excavation absent, short, wide, usually with distinct proximal and distal lobes (figs. 28, 29; proximal lobe situated below distal lobe in fig. 29). Females with anterior genitalic projection situated on distinct base (figs. 44, 284).

DISTRIBUTION: Circum-Caribbean, from the Yucatan peninsula north to North Carolina, south to Costa Rica, and east to the Leeward Islands.












Scaphioides Bryant

Platnick, Norman I., Berniker, Lily & Kranz-Baltensperger, Yvonne 2012


Chickering, A. M. 1969: 21


Bryant, E. B. 1942: 327