Haplodrassus omissus

Bosmans, Robert, Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida, Benhalima, Souâd & Hervé, Christophe, 2018, The genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in the Mediterranean and the Maghreb in particular (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), Zootaxa 4451 (1), pp. 1-67: 25-29

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Haplodrassus omissus


Haplodrassus omissus  (O.P.- Cambridge, 1872), stat. n.

Figs 87‒97View FIGURES 87–97, 108‒112View FIGURES 108–117, map 5

Drassus omissus  O.P.- Cambridge, 1872: 239, pl. 15 (♀).

Drassus parvulus L. Koch, 1882: 632  , pl. 20 figs 10‒11 (♂), syn. n.

Drassodes acrotirius Roewer, 1928: 102  , pl. 1, fig. 8 (♀); Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas 2002: 587, figs 62 A –B (♀), syn. n. Drassodes seditiosus Caporiacco, 1928a: 83  , fig. 1 (♀), syn. n.

Haplodrassus seditiosus  ; Caporiacco 1934: 9, fig. 3 (♂, tranfer).

Drassodes parvicorpus Roewer, 1951: 443  (superfluous replacement name for Drassus parvulus  ).

Haplodrassus maroccanus Denis, 1956: 196  , figs 4‒6 (♂ ♀).

Haplodrassus dalmatensis  ; Levy 2004: 24, figs 57‒59, 61 (misidentification).

Haplodrassus parvicorpus  ; Bosmans & Van Keer 2012: 11, figs 27‒28 (♂; synonymy with H. dalmatensis  rejected).

Types. Holotype ♀ of Drassus omissus  O.P.-Cambridge from Palestine, Hebron; HECO, Coll. O.P.-Cambridge; examined. Holotype ♂ of Drassus parvulus  from Spain, Baleares, Mallorca, Rivera near Palma, 22.IV.1882, Schmalfüsz leg., examined; ZMB 7913. Holotype ♀ of Drassodes seditiosus  from Lybia, Giarabub, XII.1926; MCSG, examined. Type series of Haplodrassus maroccanus  from Morocco, Souss-Massa, Ouled Teima, according to Denis (1956) containing 1♂, 3 subadult♂, 1♀ and 1 subadult♀, 21.II.1954 and 1 subadult female from Amzou; not examined, not trackable in the MNHN. Holotype ♀, 1 subadult♂ of Drassodes acrotirius Roewer, 1928  from Greece, Crete, Akrotiri; examined; SMF Coll. Roewer 581.

Diagnosis Haplodrassus omissus  and H. dalmatensis  are two closely related sibling species, both recognised by the presence of two retrolateral teeth on the embolic apophysis in the male and of a median septum in the epigyne of the female. In H. omissus  males, the embolic apophysis is more elongated and terminally pointed ( Figs 93View FIGURES 87–97, 108View FIGURES 108–117), more compact and terminally rounded in H. dalmatensis  ( Figs 14View FIGURES 10–17, 25View FIGURES 18–29). Females are separated by the fovea as long as wide in H. omissus  ( Figs 95View FIGURES 87–97, 111View FIGURES 108–117), longer than wide in H. dalmatensis  ( Figs 16View FIGURES 10–17, 28View FIGURES 18–29).

Remarks. Levy (2004) considered Drassus omissus  a junior synonym of D. morosus  . According to him, the type is not in the Oxford Museum, where Cambridge normally deposited his specimens. However, one of us ( CH) searched the collection of the Oxford Museum and discovered the missing types of several species, among them the type of Drassus omissus  [also those of Drassus unicolor O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872  and Hecaerge opiniosa  (O. Pickard- Cambridge, 1872)]. Both Drassus omissus  and D. unicolor  were reported to be missing in the Oxford collection ( Levy 2004). Although he apparently did not see the type, Levy considered Drassus omissus  O.P.- Cambridge, 1872 a junior synonym of Drassus morosus  O.P.- Cambridge, 1872. Examination of the holotype now shows this is incorrect and Drassus omissus  is a valid species. Cambridge’s figure 17 shows the typical cross-like structure in the fovea of the epigyne that is also present in the fovea of Drassus parvulus  , a junior synonym. This name was used for three different species in the past: Drassus parvulus Blackwall, 1833  , Drassus parvulus Lucas, 1846  and Drassus parvulus L. Koch, 1882  . Blackwall’s name is a synonym of Dictyna arundinacea (Linnaeus, 1758)  , Lucas’ species appeared to belong to Setaphis  and was given the replacement name Setaphis lucasi  by Roewer (1951), which action Platnick & Murphy (1996) in his turn called superfluous. Finally, L. Koch’s species appears to be a Haplodrassus  species which was given the replacement name H. parvicorpus  by Roewer (1951). Also, this name has no longer to be used, as it now appears to be a junior synonym of Haplodrassus omissus  (O.P.- Cambridge, 1872). Caporiacco (1928a) described Drassodes seditiosus  in a paper on the spiders of the Giarabub region in Lybia. Examination of the holotype female shows it is identical to H. omissus  and H. seditiosus  thus becomes a junior synonym of H. omissus  . In a paper on the Haplodrassus  species of Israel, Levy (2004) gave an excellent description of specimens he thought to be Haplodrassus dalmatensis  . In the female, he distinguished two forms. Fig. 59View FIGURES 58–66 of the ‘common’ form corresponds with H. dalmatensis  , fig. 60 of the ‘variation’ figures the epigyne of H. omissus  . Figure 57View FIGURES 49–57 of the male palp clearly shows an elongated, terminally pointed embolic apophysis, as in H. omissus  .

MAP 5. Distribution of Haplodrassus omissus  (O.P.-Cambridge).

Description. Measurements: Male (n=20): Total length 6.6‒7.5; carapace 2.9‒3.3 long, 2.3‒2.7 wide. Female (n=20): Total length 4.9‒7.2; carapace 2.01‒2.84 long, 1.52‒2.36 wide. Colour: Carapace brown, cephalic part dark brown; legs pale yellowish; abdomen pale grey, with grey antero-median stripe and postero-dorsal chevrons. Spinulation: General pattern.

Male palp ( Figs 90‒94View FIGURES 87–97, 108‒110View FIGURES 108–117): Tibial apophysis shorter than the diameter of the segment, almost straight, gradually tapering, with antero-lateral concavity and truncate tip ( Figs 91View FIGURES 87–97, 109View FIGURES 108–117); embolic apophysis oblique, elongated, with two strong teeth along its retrolateral margin, terminally sharply pointed ( Figs 90View FIGURES 87–97, 110View FIGURES 108–117); embolus with short subdistal denticle.

Epigyne ( Figs 95‒97View FIGURES 87–97, 111‒112View FIGURES 108–117): Hood wider than fovea, protruding in the middle; pro-fovea relatively short, only 1/3 the length of fovea; fovea twice as wide in basal part as in median part, posteriorly with median septum; lateral pockets relatively narrow.

Citations in the Maghreb. LIBYA, Shabiyat al Butnan, Al Jaghbub (as Giarabub) (N29°44’33” E24°31’0”) (as Drassodes seditiosus, Caporiacco 1928a  , 1934). MOROCCO, Souss-Massa, Amzou, Ouled Teima (N30°23’40”W9°12’32”) (as H. maroccanus Denis 1956  ).

Further material examined. AFRICA: ALGERIA, Alger, Bab Ezzouar (N36°42’45” E3°10’54”), 20m, 2♀, pitfalls in grassland near university, 9.V.1988, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Blida, Atlas Blidéen, Chréa, Pic Abdelkader (N36°24’14” E2°50’6”), 1520m, 2♀, sieving litter in Cedrus atlantica  forest, 9.V.1988, 1♂, pitfalls in Cedrus atlantica  forest, 20.VI.1997 ‒ 8.V.1998, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Djelfa, Hassi Babbah, El Mesrane (N34°54’59” E3°3’6”), 900m, 1♀, pitfalls in fixed dunes, 28.III.1989, 1♂, 3.XI.1989, R. Bosmans & N. Bouragba leg. ( CRB), El Bayadh, Le Kreider (N34°8’41” E0°4’9”), 1♀, E. Simon leg., Coll. Simon 11933 ( MNHN AR15697), M'sila, S. E. Bou Saada, Oued Temsa (35°9’34” E3°54’25”), 600m, 1♀, stones in dry river bed, 22.V.1988, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), between Aumale (= Sour-El Ghozlane) and Bou Saada (N35°20’36” E6°4’46”), Aïn Oghrab (N35°0’52” E4°6’24”), 2♀, E. Simon leg., Coll. Simon 12988 ( MNHN AR15698), Aïn Oghrab (N35°0’52” E4°6’24”), 3♀, E. Simon leg., Coll. Simon 12794 ( MNHN AR15699). MOROCCO, Casablanca-Settat, Mechra Benabou (32°’41’26” E9°19’14”), 400m, 1♀, stones in recent Pinus  plantation, 9.II.1996, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Drâa-Tafilalet, Timiderte, between Sidi Ifni and El Arba del Mesti (N29°19'45” W10°7'51”), 1♂, stones bordering fields, 10. II.2007, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Fès-Meknès, S. E. Taza, near gouffre de Friouatou (N34°6’15” W4°4’20”), 1550m, 1♀, stones in open Quercus ilex  forest, 8.V.1984, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), SW Aïn Taoujdate (N33°56’8” W5°12’41"), 480m, 2♂, pitfalls in wheat fields, 30.IV.1997, S. Boksch leg. ( CRB), Missour (N33°2’24” W3°59’52”), 1♂, pitfalls in steppe, 5.II.2002 ( CRB), S. El Herri (N32°51’17” E5°36’52”), 850m, 2♀, stones bordering fields, 17.IV.2012, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK), Guelmim-Oued Noun, Guelmim, Station Abeino (N29°5’41” W10°1’5”), 1♂, 20.II.1954, G. Pasteur & J. B. Panouse leg. ( ISRM), Marrakech-Safi, Essaouira, Aïn El Hayar, 1♂, as Drassodes nigropictus Simon  nomen nudum, Coll. Simon 25076 ( MNHN AR9368), surroundings of Marrakech (N31°31’3” W7°59’59”), 1♂, 02.I.1962 ( ISRM), My Brahim, SE barrage Lala Takerkouste, Plateau du Kik (N31°15’ W8°50’), 1450m, 1♀, 29.IV.1962, J. Malhomme leg. ( ISRM), Rabat-Salé-Kénitra, Forêt de Mamora, Sidi Allal Bahraoui (N34°2’41” W6°35’25”), 1♀, 29.V.1962 ( ISRM), Souss-Massa, Agadir (N30°25’50” W9°37’24”), 220m, 1♂, 1♀, stones around old Kasbah, 28.IV.2012, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK), Igherm E. (N30°8’11” W8°23’38”), 1790m, 1♀, stony steppe, 24.IV.2012, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK), Sebt-Guerdane (N30°29’24” W9°37’48”), 200m, 1♂ 1♀, stones in abandoned fields, 4.II.1996, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK); Taourirt E., Irhahi (N36°35’00” W4°56’00”), 500m, 1♂ 1♀, stones in steppe, 23.IV.2012, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK), Sebt-Guerdane (N30°29’24” W9°37’48”), 200m, 1♂ 1♀, stones in abandoned fields, 4.II.1996, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK). TUNISIA, Nabeul, El Haouaria (36°41’36” E10°52’9”), 5♂ 1♀, litter in dunes, 19.IV.1993, K. De Smet leg. ( CRB). EUROPE: SPAIN, Almería, Padules  (37°0’20” W2°46’4”), 1♂, stones on a humid slope, 9.IV.1998, J. Van Keer leg. ( CJVK); Cádiz, Bolonia  (36°5’20” W5°46’27”), 1♀, 8.V.1993, P. Poot leg., Tarifa (N36°0’50” W5°36’25”), 2♂ 5♀, IV.1992, P. Poot leg. ( CRB), Baleares, Mallorca, Puig de Randa (N39°43'45” E2°57'23”), 520m, 1♂, stones in maquis, 5.IV.2003, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Ses Salines, salines des Calobrar (N39°21'11” E3°0' 51'), 30m, 1♂, stones and litter in salt marsh, 5.IV.2003, and 1♀, 31.III.2010, K. H. Kielhorn leg. ( CKHK), Canary Islands, Gran Canaria, 4♂ 2♀ 3 juveniles, C. Alluaud leg., 1898, Coll. Simon 10285 ( MNHN AR15700), Málaga, Málaga, 2♀, as Drassodes ictericus L. Koch  nomen nudum, E. Simon leg., Coll. Simon 2050 ( MNHN AR9444). PORTUGAL, Algarve, Albufeira (N37°5’0” W8°15’41”), 1♂, 9.III.1992, P. Poot leg. ( CRB). GREECE, Dodekanisa, Rhodos, Ladiko Bay (N36°19'28” E28°12'52”), 1♀, stones in dunes, 15.V.1996, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Peloponnisos, Achaia: Kalogria (N38°08'06” E21°22'34”), 5m, 1♂ 1♀, 27.IV.2006, P. Ponel leg. (CPP), Arkadia, Megalopoli, Thersileiou (N37°24'50” E22°7'35”), 385m, 1♀, G. Delmastro leg. ( CRB)., Ilia, Simopoulo E. (N37°51'2” E21°36'14”), 350m, 1♀, litter in old Quercus  forest, 30.V.1998, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB), Makedonia, Thessaloniki, Epanoumi (N40°25'15” E22°53'33”), 10m, 1♀, stones in camping site, 13.VI.1997, R. Bosmans leg. ( CRB). CYPRUS: Famagusta, Cape Greko, 1♀, Juniperus phoenicea  forest, 1.V.2016 ( CMH), Lefkosia: Lakamatia, 3♂ 1♀, olive groove and fields, 1.I ‒1.X. 2016 ( CMH, CRB).

Distribution. The Mediterranean region from the Canary Islands to Israel (map 5).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Haplodrassus omissus

Bosmans, Robert, Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida, Benhalima, Souâd & Hervé, Christophe 2018

Drassus omissus

Cambridge, 1872 : 239

Drassus parvulus

L. Koch, 1882 : 632

Drassodes acrotirius

Roewer, 1928 : 102
Chatzaki, Thaler & Mylonas 2002 : 587
Caporiacco, 1928a : 83

Haplodrassus seditiosus

Caporiacco 1934 : 9

Drassodes parvicorpus

Roewer, 1951 : 443

Haplodrassus maroccanus

Denis, 1956 : 196

Haplodrassus dalmatensis

Levy 2004 : 24

Haplodrassus parvicorpus

Bosmans & Van Keer 2012 : 11