Haplodrassus macellinus ( Thorell, 1871 )

Bosmans, Robert, Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida, Benhalima, Souâd & Hervé, Christophe, 2018, The genus Haplodrassus Chamberlin, 1922 in the Mediterranean and the Maghreb in particular (Araneae: Gnaphosidae), Zootaxa 4451 (1), pp. 1-67: 54-59

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4451.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5DCE18B3-9DBA-48F5-AEF7-90A50B984EA5

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DE5087A6-C020-B30C-FF39-7537FD03FACF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Haplodrassus macellinus ( Thorell, 1871 )
status

 

Haplodrassus macellinus ( Thorell, 1871) 

Figs 232‒240View FIGURES 232–240, map 8

Drassus macellinus Thorell, 1871: 185  (♂♀).

Drassus occcidentalis Thorell, 1871: 184  (♀) synonymy by Simon (1914).

Drassus nyctalicus Thorell, 1871: 185  (♀) synonymy by Simon (1878).

Drassus hebes  O.P.- Cambridge, 1874: 390, pl. 51, fig. 15 (♂), syn. n.

Drassus vicarius Simon, 1878: 132  (♀), synonymy with D. macellinus hebes  by Simon (1914).

Drassodes macellinus hebes: Simon 1914: 140  , 209, fig. 248 (♂ ♀).

Haplodrassus vignai Di Franco, 1996: 173  , figs 1‒4 (♂ ♀), syn. n.

Types: Type series of Drassus macellinus  from France, Nice, containing 7♂ and 8 juveniles; NHRS 179a; examined. Holotype ♀ 1 subadult ♀ paratype of Drassus nyctalicus  from France, Nice; NHRS 179b; examined. Holotype ♀ of Drassus vicarius  from Corsica; not examined, inavailable. Holotype ♂ of Drassus hebes  from France, Menton, J.T. Moggridge leg., II.1874; HECO; not examined. Holotype ♂, paratype ♀ of H. vignai  from Italy, Lazio, Tuscolo; deposited at MZUR; not examined.

Diagnosis. Males are closely related to H. securifer  sp. n. but are easily distinguished by the much shorter and wider embolic apophysis ( Figs 237View FIGURES 232–240 versus 128). Females are distinguished by the elongated epigyne with rounded, narrow hood, a relatively small areola and a longitudinal internal sclerite accompanying laterally the pro-fovea ( Figs 238‒240View FIGURES 232–240, LS). However, this lateral sclerite was found to be absent in a few specimens.

Remarks. According to the World Spider Catalog (2017), Haplodrassus macellinus  is a West Mediterranean species. Various authors cited it frequently in France and Italy, and in the Maghreb ( Denis 1937; Di Franco 1994; Pavesi 1884; Simon 1885, 1908). There are also two citations from Greece and Turkey (Caporiacco 1948; Karol 1966). One can wonder however how these specimens where identified, when the only available figure of H. macellinus  is a simple sketch of a part of the male palp by Simon (1914), and the epigyne has never been figured at all. Simon (1914) already stated that the species is very variable, when he declared Drassus hebes  O.P.- Cambridge, 1874, D. nyctalicus Thorell, 1871  , D. occidentalis Thorell, 1871  , D. typhon Simon, 1878  and D. vicarius Simon, 1878  all simple variations of D. macellinus  (“des formes très variables”). The descriptions of all these species were carefully analysed by us and if possible, the type material was examined.

The type material of H. macellinus  from Nice, France, was found in the NHRS, which undoubtedly fixes the identity of the species. Thorell (1871) described the male and a juvenile female (“onne omnino adulta?”). The type series indeed contains adult males and only subadult females. In the same paper, Thorell described Drassus nyctalicus  and D. occidentalis  , of both only females and also from Nice. Examination of the type material of D. nyctalicus  confirms it is the female of H. macellinus  , as proposed by Simon (1878). Later, Simon (1914) considers D. occidentalis  a simple variation of H. macellinus  (“forme de D. macellinus  ”). Type material of this species was not available, and Simon’s view is followed here.

Drassus hebes  O.P.- Cambridge, 1874, described from France, Menton, at 20 km from the type locality of H. macellinus  , is another problematic species. Simon (1878) considered the species a synonym of H. macellinus  and a subspecies in 1914. Type material was not available, but Cambridge’s figure 15 of the male palpal tibia of D. hebes  agrees well the elongated palpal tibia of H. macellinus  . Also the material of D. macellinus hebes  examined in the MNHN is identical to H. macellinus  . The evident conclusion is D. hebes  is a junior synonym of H. macellinus  . Drassus vicarius Simon, 1878  was described on a female from Corse. Simon (1914) considered it a synonym of D. macellinus hebes  . Since the type material is not available, Simon’s vision is followed here and Drassus vicarius  enters into the synonymy of H. macellinus  .

Drassus typhon Simon, 1878  was described on the syntypes male and female from the Pyrénées-Orientales. Simon (1914) considered it another synonym of H. macellinus  . An adult female identified by Simon shows it is a distinct species and it is taken out of the synonymy of H. macellinus  . It is described above.

The synonymy of H. invalidus  (O.P.- Cambridge, 1872) from Israel, Turkey and Azerbaijan with H. vignai Di Franco, 1996  from Italy as proposed by Levy (2004) is here rejected. Material of recently collected H. invalidus  in Cyprus compared with material collected in Italy near the type locality of H. vignai  shows clearly they are two different species. In H. invalidus  , the tibial apophysis has a claw-like tip, and the embolus has an inner spur-like process, as excellently shown by Kovblyuk et al. (2012). These are both absent in H. vignai  , as shown in Di Franco’s figures 1‒4 of H. vignai  . Although the type material of H. vignai  was not examined, H. vignai  is considered here a junior synonym of H. macellinus  .

Description. Measurements: Male (n=7): Total length 4.4‒8.2; carapace 2.38‒3.74 long, 1.68‒2.69 wide. Female (n=1): Total length 11.0; carapace 3.71 long, 2.98 wide.

Colour: Carapace brown to dark reddish brown, cephalic part infuscate; chelicerae dark brown; sternum yellowish to reddish brown, darkened to the margins; legs yellowish brown to reddish brown; abdomen grey to brown with paler venter.

Male palp ( Figs 235‒237View FIGURES 232–240): Tibial apophysis slender, as long as its diameter, constricted in the middle, with broadly truncate tip; embolar apophysis much shorter than embolus, with only slightly bent margins, getting somewhat broader distally, terminally bluntly pointed.

Epigyne ( Figs 238‒240View FIGURES 232–240): Elongated, 1.4 x longer than wide, with rounded hood, which is much narrower than the total epigyne; pro-fovea somewhat longer than fovea; lateral pockets sac-like.

Further material examined. FRANCE, mixed unknown localities (‘Gallia Meridionalis’), one of them Alpes- Maritimes, Menton, 13♂ 16♀, as Drassodes macellinus hebes, Coll. Simon 2083  (MNHN AR9228), mixed unknown localities (‘Gallia Meridionalis, Corsica’), 20♂ 7♀, as Drassodes macellinus hebes, Coll. Simon 2058  (MNHN AR9229), unknown locality (‘France S.E.’), 2♂, as Drassodes macellinus, Coll. Dalmas M.  150 (MNHN AR9230), Alpes -Maritimes, Cannes, île de Saint-Honorat, 8.IV.2013, 1♂, P. Ponel leg. (CPO), Menton (N43°46’35” E7°30’15”), 1♀, L. Fage leg. (MNHN AR9223), Nice (43°42’11” E7°15’57”), 7♂, 8 juveniles (NHRS 179a), Nice, 1♀ 1 subadult♀ (as Drassus nyctalicus  ; NHRS 179b), Bouches -du -Rhône, La Ciotat, île Verte, 1♀, P. Ponel leg. (CPO), Vauvenargues, La Citadelle (N43°33’14”” E5°36’13”), 1♂♀, 19.V.2013, P. Ponel leg. (CPO), Drôme, Crozes- Hermitage, Plan d’eau de la Lône, stones in dry grassland, 13.II.2013, P. Dubois leg. (CPO), Var, Callian (N43°33’0” E6°50’0”), 1♀, Coll. Berland (MNHN AR9227), Ollières, Basses Selves (N43°28’58” E5°49’47”), 540m, dry grassland, 17.05.2012, P. Ponel leg. (CPP), Pontrève, 1♂, under stones, 2.V.2015, P. Oger leg. (CPO), Rians, 1♂, under stones, 1.V.2015, P. Oger leg. (CPO), Roquebrune-sur-Argens, 1♂, stones in maquis, 12.IV.2016, S. Lecigne leg. (CSL); Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer, Calanque de Port d’Alon (N43°8'48” E5°42'36”), 1♀, 6.VIII.1997 (NHML), Valcros (43°14’7”6°2’10”), 1♀, 22.III.1989, P. Poot leg. (CRB). ITALY, Toscana, Livorno, Isola di Capraia (N43°3’1” E9°48’52”), 1♂, 26.XI.1992, Pantini & Valle leg. (MCSNB).

MAP 8. Distribution of Haplodrassus macellinus (Thorell)  .

Distribution. According to the literature and the World spider Catalog (2017), the species occurs in the West European and African Mediterranean region. All material from the Maghreb identified as H. macellinus  that could be examined appeared to be misidentified, and the species is not present in our abundant material. Only the records from France including Corsica, and Italy including Sicilia are confirmed here (map 8). Citations from Portugal and Spain are possibly correct but should be confirmed. Citations from Rhodes by Caporiacco (1948) and from Turkey by Karol (1966) are considered misidentifications.

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Gnaphosidae

Genus

Haplodrassus

Loc

Haplodrassus macellinus ( Thorell, 1871 )

Bosmans, Robert, Kherbouche-Abrous, Ourida, Benhalima, Souâd & Hervé, Christophe 2018
2018
Loc

Drassus macellinus

Thorell, 1871 : 185
Loc

Drassus occcidentalis

Thorell, 1871 : 184
Loc

Drassus nyctalicus

Thorell, 1871 : 185
Loc

Drassus hebes

Cambridge, 1874 : 390
Loc

Drassus vicarius

Simon, 1878 : 132
Loc

Drassodes macellinus hebes:

Simon 1914 : 140
Loc

Haplodrassus vignai

Di Franco, 1996 : 173