Huicundomantis , Paez, Nadia B. & Ron, Santiago R., 2019

Paez, Nadia B. & Ron, Santiago R., 2019, Systematics of Huicundomantis, a new subgenus of Pristimantis (Anura, Strabomantidae) with extraordinary cryptic diversity and eleven new species, ZooKeys 868, pp. 1-112: 1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.868.26766

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:ED7FD98F-964D-402F-AB70-5FC9B4CA4851

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DE830EC8-0021-5B52-9F39-DED3730E3CCE

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Huicundomantis
status

subgenus nov.

Huicundomantis  subgenus nov.

Type species.

Pristimantis phoxocephalus  (Lynch, 1979).

Definition.

This clade is strongly supported by genetic evidence ( Fig. 3View Figure 3). Morphological synapomorphies are unknown. Members of this clade are characterized by: (i) dorsolateral folds absent (except for P. atratus  ); (ii) cranial crests absent (except for P. atratus  , P. percultus  , and P. spinosus  ); (iii) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus prominent (both absent in P. philipi  ); (iv) dentigerous processes of vomer present; (v) small to prominent tubercles on heel; (vi) fingers with lateral fringes; (vii) basal webbing between toes (except for P. balionotus  , P. hampatusami  , and P. philipi  which lack webbing); (viii) Toe V longer or much longer than Toe III ( Figs 7View Figure 7 - 9View Figure 9); (ix) in life, groins and concealed surfaces of thighs with distinctive coloration patterns including flash colors and light or bright colored flecks or spots on a darker background; colors, shapes and sizes of these ornaments are variable among species; (x) SVL females 24.9-46.8 mm; SVL males 16.1-34.5 mm. Species of this clade may bear a fleshy keel or a papilla at the tip of the snout, and lateral, middorsal, or postocular folds.

Content.

This clade comprises 23 described species (11 of them described below): P. atillo  sp. nov., P. atratus  , P. balionotus  , P. chomskyi  sp. nov., P. cryptomelas  , P. gagliardoi  , P. gloria  sp. nov., P. hampatusami  , P. jimenezi  sp. nov., P. lutzae  sp. nov., P. multicolor  sp. nov., P. muscosus  , P. nangaritza  sp. nov., P. percultus  , P. philipi  , P. phoxocephalus  , P. spinosus  , P. teslai  sp. nov., P. tinguichaca  , P. torresi  sp. nov., P. totoroi  sp. nov., P. versicolor  , P. verrucolatus  sp. nov. This clade encompasses the P. phoxocephalus  and P. cryptomelas  species groups.

Distribution.

Huicundomantis  occurs in Eastern and Western Andean slopes and Inter-Andean valleys of southern and central Ecuador, and Eastern Andean slopes of northern Peru. They inhabit the following Natural Regions: Deciduous Costa Forest, Western Foothill Forest, Western Montane Forest, Paramo, Inter-Andean Shrub, Eastern Montane Forest, and Eastern Foothill Forest, between elevations of 230 and 4200 m a.s.l.

Etymology.

We name this clade Huicundomantis  because these frogs are frequently found inside bromeliad plants. Huicundo is a word in Quechua, an indigenous South American language, locally used to referring to bromeliads.

Pristimantis phoxocephalus  species group new taxon

Definition. The P. phoxocephalus  species group is strongly supported in our phylogeny. Members of this group share the following morphological traits: (i) dorsolateral folds absent (except for P. atratus  ); (ii) snout with a fleshy keel or papilla at the tip; (iii) cranial crests absent (except for P. atratus  and P. percultus  ); (iv) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus prominent; (v) dentigerous processes of vomer present; (vi) males with vocal slits (except for P. versicolor  ); (vii) fingers and toes with lateral fringes; (viii) basal webbing between toes (except for P. balionotus  and P. hampatusami  ); (ix) Toe V longer or much longer than Toe III ( Fig. 7View Figure 7); (x) in life, groins and concealed surfaces of thighs with distinctive coloration, including flash colors and light or bright colored flecks or spots on a darker background; colors, shapes, and sizes of ornaments variable among species; (xi) SVL females 24.9-46.8 mm; SVL males 16.8-34.5 mm.

Content. Currently, the P. phoxocephalus  group comprises 17 described species (10 of them are described below): P. atillo  sp. nov., P. atratus  , P. balionotus  , P. chomskyi  sp. nov., P. gloria  sp. nov., P. hampatusami  , P. jimenezi  sp. nov., P. lutzae  sp. nov., P. multicolor  sp. nov., P. percultus  , P. phoxocephalus  , P. teslai  sp. nov., P. tinguichaca  , P. torresi  sp. nov., P. totoroi  sp. nov., P. versicolor  , P. verrucolatus  sp. nov.

Distribution. Eastern and Western Andean slopes and Inter-Andean valleys of central and southern Ecuador, in ten provinces: Azuay, Bolívar, Cañar, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Loja, Morona Santiago, Tungurahua, and Zamora Chinchipe. They inhabit Deciduous Costa Forest, Western Foothill Forest, Western Montane Forest, Paramo, Inter-Andean Shrub, and Eastern Montane Forest Natural Regions, between 230 and 4100 m a.s.l.

Remarks. The P. phoxocephalus  species group is sister to the P. cryptomelas  species group.