Apatania theischingerorum

Waringer, Johann, González, Marcos A., Martín, Luis, Martínez, Jesús, Erzinger, Felicitas & Pauls, Steffen U., 2018, DNA-based association and description of the larval stage of Apatania theischingerorum Malicky 1981 (Trichoptera, Apataniidae), with notes on its ecology, Zootaxa 4418 (2), pp. 161-170: 162-164

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Apatania theischingerorum


Description of the fifth instar larva of Apatania theischingerorum 

Biometry. Body length of 5th instar larva ranging from 5.1 to 8.3 mm, head width from 0.82 to 0.90 mm (N = 8).

Head. Head capsule medium to orange brown, distinctly granulated, with whitish muscle attachment spots and rings around eyes ( Figs. 2–5 View Figure ); sometimes with paler areas on frontoclypeal center, posterior and anterior of eyes ( Figs. 2, 3 View Figure ), and around foramen occipitale ( Fig. 5 View Figure ). Dark brown along posterior half of frontoclypeal suture and at anterior frontoclypeal corners ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). With set of 18 pairs of primary setae (nomenclature by Wiggins 1996): 10 dorsal and 2 ventral pairs of primary setae on parietalia, frontoclypeus with 6 pairs of primary setae, 3 of them along anterior border ( Figs. 2, 3 View Figure ). Setae 9, 14, and 15 long and conspicuous ( Fig. 2 View Figure ); seta 15 about 0.5x to 0.75x as long as seta 14. In addition, head capsule with many short, pale and almost translucent secondary setae. Frontoclypeus bell-shaped, with deeply sunken tentorial pits at central constriction ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). Antennae situated halfway between eyes and anterior head margin ( Fig. 2 View Figure , arrow). Setal ratio (= median separation 'a' of frontoclypeal setae 5 alveoli divided by distance to frontoclypeal border 'b') is> 8 ( Fig. 4 View Figure ). Labrum medium brown apically, base black, with pale setal brush at anterolateral corners originating from whitish pads of soft cuticle; with 6 pairs of primary setae ( Fig. 2 View Figure ). Submentum mushroom-cap-shaped, light brown, with dark brown posterior half. Ventral apotome ogival, acute posteriorly. Postgenal suture short, less than 17% of apotome length. Scraper-type mandibles black, without terminal teeth along cutting edge ( Fig. 5 View Figure ).

Thorax. Pronotum surface distinctly granulated ( Fig. 6 View Figure ), without transverse groove at anterior 3rd ( Fig. 7 View Figure ), medium to reddish brown, with yellowish anterior and posterior borders ( Figs. 7, 8 View Figure ). Posterior margins thickened and darkly striped especially at posterolateral corners ( Fig. 7 View Figure ). Pronotal surface covered by pale, translucent, tapering setae with flexible tips, especially along anterior border ( Fig. 6 View Figure ); in addition 8–15 longer and darker setae present at each pronotal half ( Figs. 7, 8 View Figure ). Prosternite very pale and indistinct, prosternal horn present ( Fig. 7 View Figure , arrow). Mesonotum completely covered by 2 medium brown sclerites with posterolateral margins darkly sclerotized ( Fig. 8 View Figure ). Metanotum partially covered by only 1 pair of medium brown lateral sclerites with dark brown core (sa3), with anterior groups of approximately 10 setae per sclerite ( Fig. 8 View Figure ). Setal area 1 (sa 1, sensu Wiggins 1996) without sclerites and each with 8–12 setae. Each setal area 2 (sa 2) with 6–8 setae and 2 tiny sclerotized spots ( Fig. 8 View Figure ). Legs yellowish to light brown with numerous setae on coxae, trochanters, and femora; tibiae and tarsi with only few setae ( Figs. 9–11 View Figure ). Femora each with several proximodorsal setae ( Fig. 11 View Figure , arrows). Coxa, femur, and tibia of each foreleg ( Fig. 9 View Figure ) wider than those of mid- and hind legs ( Figs. 10–11 View Figure ). Additional setae present on anterior and posterior faces of all femora. Setae lacking at distal sections of trochanters on all legs. Each claw with long, pale seta originating from subapical socket ( Figs. 9–11 View Figure ).

Abdomen. Abdominal segment I with 1 dorsal and 2 lateral fleshy protuberances ( Figs. 12 View Figure , 13 View Figure ). Setal transversal band at abdominal dorsum I interrupted at center ( Fig. 12 View Figure ). Setal group posterior to dorsal protuberance lacking ( Fig. 12 View Figure ). Setae lacking on each side of abdominal segment I between dorsal setal group above lateral sclerite and setae associated with lateral protuberance ( Fig. 13 View Figure , dotted oval). On abdominal sternum I, setal areas sa 1 and sa 2 fused, creating continuous field of setae with tiny basal sclerites; setal number is 31–37. Setal areas sa 3 each with 6–8 setae ( Fig. 14 View Figure ). Transversely elongate, oval chloride epithelia on abdominal sterna II–VII ( Fig. 14 View Figure ce).

All gills single filaments; however, 2 single filament gills sometimes present in close proximity at dorsal presegmental position, most frequently on segment II ( Fig. 13 View Figure , arrows). Dorsal gills present at most from segment II (presegmental position) to segment VI (postsegmental position). Ventral gills ranging from segment II (presegmental) to segment VII (postsegmental). Lateral gills lacking. Lateral fringe extending from anterior border of segment II to end of segment VII. Forked lamellae ( Figs. 15f View Figure ) present dorsally of lateral fringe ( Fig. 15l View Figure ): 3–4 lamellae on each side of segment III, 0–2 lamellae on each segment IV to VII.

Abdominal dorsum VIII with 2 long ( Fig. 17 View Figure , arrow) and 10 short posterodorsal setae ( Fig. 17 View Figure ds). Mostly 1 posterolateral seta present on each half of abdominal dorsum IX. Tergite of abdominal segment IX ovoid, yellowish brown, with 28–32 setae, 2 central and 2 lateral setae conspicuously enlarged ( Figs. 16, 17 View Figure ). Anal prolegs of limnephilid type, light brown, each with black bar at anterodorsal border of claw base; lateral sclerite with 5 setae along posterior edge; anal claw dark brown, without accessory hook ( Fig. 16 View Figure ).

Case. Fifth instar larval case 5.8_ 7.8 mm long (N = 8), curved, slightly tapering posteriorly (width at anterior opening 2.5–3.4 mm and at posterior opening 1.3–1.6 mm), consisting of mineral particles of varying size, mixed with larger particles which are mostly attached laterally ( Figs. 18–19 View Figure ).