Troglocaris (Troglocaris) anophthalmus anophthalmus ( Kollar, 1848 )

Jugovic, Jure, Jalžić, Branko, Prevorčnik, Simona & Sket, Boris, 2012, Cave shrimps Troglocaris s. str. (Dormitzer, 1853), taxonomic revision and description of new taxa after phylogenetic and morphometric studies, Zootaxa 3421, pp. 1-31: 4-9

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10.5281/zenodo.208815

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E02687A1-690F-FFA3-FF2F-49F5FBA46C3B

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scientific name

Troglocaris (Troglocaris) anophthalmus anophthalmus ( Kollar, 1848 )
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Troglocaris (Troglocaris) anophthalmus anophthalmus ( Kollar, 1848) 

Synonymy: Palaemon anophthalmus Kollar, 1848  ; Troglocaris schmidtii Dormitzer, 1853  ; see also Holthuis (1956); Troglocaris (Troglocaris)  – the E-Slo 1 subgroup Zakšek et al., 2009

Type locality: Slovenia, Dobrepolje, cave Kompoljska jama.

Material examined: Neotype: adult male (TA 965), CL 7.6 mm, Kompoljska jama, Kompolje, Videm-Dobrepolje, Slovenia, 45 ° 47 ' 58.23 " N, 14 ° 43 ' 51.39 " E, 3 rd September 2009, collected by J. Jugovic, specimen partly dissected, preserved in 70 % ethanol.

Other specimens from the neotype locality: Males: adult male (TA 966; preserved in 96 % ethanol at - 20 °C), 7.5 mm; adult male (TA 977; preserved in 96 % ethanol at - 20 °C), 6.5 mm; same data as neotype. Females: 8 adult females, TA 975 (CL 8.4 mm); TA 976 (CL 7.4 mm); TA 978 (CL 8.5 mm); TA 979 (CL 7.1 mm); TA 980 (CL 7.8 mm); TA 981 (CL 7.3 mm); TA 982 (6.9 mm) (all preserved in 70 % ethanol); TA 989 (CL 7.3 mm) (preserved in 96 % ethanol at - 20 °C); same data as neotype.

Other specimens examined: over 60 specimens from 11 samples ( Figure 1 View Figure , Appendix C 1). Males, CL 4.7–8.3 mm. Females, CL 5.8 –9.0 mm. Voucher numbers and GenBank identification numbers for COIAbout COI gene are in Appendix C 1.

Diagnosis: Subspecies of T. (T.) anophthalmus  with completely reduced eye and body pigmentation. Rostrum length variable, when rostrum longer than 45 % of CL, dorsal margin usually curved upwards, ventral margin with 7 teeth or less. Antenna I article 3 length usually more than ½ of article 2 length. Pereopod III article 4 usually with three or less spiniform setae along inferior margin and at inferodistal angle, article 6 weakly or strongly curved in adult males. Pereopod V only exceptionally with exopodite. Fully mature males with no or with a single retinacular hook on appendix interna of pleopod I endopodite. Medial margin of pleopod I endopodite with short spiniform setae.

Description of male neotype and other [values in parentheses, if different] male material (partly after Fabjan 2001): Body and eye pigmentation completely reduced. CL 7.6 mm [5.3–7.6 mm]. Carapace ( Figure 2 View Figure B) surface smooth, with supraorbital and suborbital spines only. Anterolateral carapace angle rounded, without pterygostomial angle. Transversal crest posteriorly on the carapace. Rostrum length 59 % [32–78 %] of CL, shape sigmoidal [various], with 25 + 7 / 2 teeth [12–31 + 4–11 / 0–7]. Teeth on carapace along 17 % [14–25 %] of CL. Abdominal somites smooth. Pleonite V length 56 % [45–60 %] of pleonite VI length. Telson ( Figure 1 View Figure Tel) length 47 % [40–64 %] of CL and 87 % [85–109 %] of pleonite VI length. Telson elongated rectangular, distal margin width 66 % [48–80 %] of proximal margin width, the former 13 % [10–16 %] of CL. Dorsal surface with 3 pairs of dorsolateral spiniform setae [exceptionally 4 setae on one margin], at 0.60, 0.74 and 0.94 of telson length. Rather rounded distal border with 11 [9–14] strong spiniform setae; both distolateral setae approximately 3 times longer, all other 2 times longer than dorsolateral spiniform setae.

Antenna I ( Figure 2 View Figure AI) peduncle length 52 % [46–61 %] of CL. Peduncular article 1 about 1.5 [1.3–1.7] times as long as article 2, the latter 1.6 [1.5 –2.0] times as long as article 3. Article 1 with nearly straight mesial margin with setose distal part; lateral stylocerite with broad base and slender, acute tip, its length 42 % [37–45 %] of peduncle length and approximately 80 % of article 1 length; distolateral lobe sharply pointed, its length 13 % [13–18 %] of peduncle length. Article 2 length approximately 83 % of article 1 length, mesial and lateral margins setose. Article 3 length approximately 41 % of article 1 length. Upper flagellum uniramous, lower flagellum slender, lengths of both flagella rather exceeding 200 % of CL.

Antenna II ( Figure 2 View Figure AII) with robust basicerite. Peduncle length 34 % [32–43 %] of CL. Scaphocerite 2.7 [2.6–3.2] times as long as wide, approximately 1.7 times [1.4–1.7] as long as peduncle, its length 55 % [51–63 %] of CL, distally broad, ovally produced, lateral margin nearly straight with stout distolateral tooth. Tooth length 10 % [9–13 %] of scaphocerite length. Scaphocerite mesial, distal and distolateral margins fringed with dense row of plumose setae. Flagella length rather exceeding 200 % of CL.

Mandibula with rather robust corpus, with small group of plumose setae on lateral margin. Without palp. Mandibular pars incisiva (incisor process; Figure 3 View Figure Md) stout, tapering distally, distal margin of 3 [3–6] teeth of different size. Teeth number on left and right mandible often different. Pars molaris stout, U-shaped with triturative surface and numerous short simple marginal setae. Spine row of scarce serrate setae traversing to dense pappose setae.

Left maxilla I ( Figure 3 View Figure MxI(l)) palp truncated, with one long plumose seta at interodistal angle and one [1–2] stout spiniform subdistal seta. Right maxilla I palp ( Figure 3 View Figure MxI(r)) without plumose seta. Rectilinear outer margin of upper lacinia (basipodial endite) with numerous short strong cuspidate setae, curvilinear inner margin and ventral surface with plumose setation. Lower lacinia (coxal endite) well developed, semicircular; outer margin with dense plumose and serrate setation, submedial line with five rows of shorter pappose and some simple setae. Outer part with sparse group of pappose setae.

Maxilla II ( Figure 3 View Figure MxII) with slender, simple, tapering palp with one simple seta distally. Basipodial endite bilobed; upper lobe subrhomboidal, margins with dense plumose and serrate setation, ventral surface with group of sparse plumose setae. Lower lobe with almost rectilinear outer margin, fringed with densely packed plumose and serrate setae; sparse simple setae are present all over its surface. Coxal endite fan-like, with dense plumose setae along distal margin and scarce plumose setae subdistally. Scaphognatite well developed, broad, margin fringed with plumose setae, anterior lobe large, posterior lobe narrower, subtriangular, with group of plumose setae on lower distal part.

Maxilliped I ( Figure 3 View Figure MxpI) palp clubby, flat distal margin with several plumose setae. Epipodite poorly developed, bilobed. Basipodial endite approximately 2.5 times longer than coxal endite, distal margin and mesial surface with dense rows of long plumose setae, almost rectilinear outer margin with row of shorter papulose setae with scale-like setules. Coxal endite poorly developed, with short serrate and longer plumose setae along outer margin. Exopodite with large caridean lobe approximately 2 times longer than flagellum. Lobe and flagellar margins and lobe ventral surface with plumose setation.

Maxilliped II ( Figure 3 View Figure MxpII) with well developed endopodite. Dactylopropodus broad, with long plumose setae on upper superior margin, densely packed longer pappose and shorter serrate setae along almost rectilinear lower superior margin and some long submarginal plumose setae. Exopodite with well developed flagellum, with plumose distal setae and serrate proximal setae. Well developed comb-like podobranchium with approximately 8 branches.

Maxilliped III ( Figure 3 View Figure MxpIII) with slender endopod, its length 89 % [84–105 %] of CL. Ischiomerus well separated from basis, rather curved, about 5.5 times as long as wide, with sparse pappose setae proximally on superior margin. Penultimate article slender, about 8.2 times as long as wide and 1.1 times ischiomeral length, with spiniform submarginal setae on mesial surface and few long pappose setae at distosuperior angle. Terminal article (dactylopropodus) about 11.5 times as long as wide and 1.3 times ischiomeral length, tapering distally, with strong apical dactylopropodal spine (claw). Distal ⅓ of inferior margin with approximately 9 subequal spiniform setae, proximal ⅔ of mesial surface and superior submarginal surface with transverse series of serrate setae. Exopodite tip reaching beyond ischiomeral distal tip, robust flagellum with serrate proximal setae and long plumose distal setae. Coxa with larger, well developed arthrobranchium upper and smaller, weakly developed (frequently damaged by section) lower arthrobranchium.

Pereopod I ( Figure 4 View Figure PpI) length from base of article 3 (ischium) to apex of article 6 (propodus, unmovable finger of chela) 57 % [53–67 %] of CL. Length relations of above articles (in percentages of pereopod I length): 15 % [11–16 %]: 22 % [22–27 %]: 33 % [27–33 %]: 30 % [29–36 %]. Chela with palm subcylindrical, slightly compressed, fingers with dense tuft of longer pappose and shorter serrate setae apically. Within tufts also shorter setae rounded distally ( Figure 4 View Figure PpIfin). Article 6 maximal length 22 % [21–26 %] of CL, its length 2.2 [1.9–3.1] times its width. Chela palm well developed, its basal bulge length approximately 23 % [13–26 %] of article 6 maximal length. Article 7 (dactylus, movable finger) length 49 % [49–66 %] of article 6 maximal length. Exopodite with serrate basal setae and plumose distal setae, little overreaching distal end of article 4 (merus).

Pereopod II ( Figure 4 View Figure PpII) longer and thinner than pereopod I, its length (given as in pereopod I) 75 % [69–88 %] of CL. Length relations of above articles (given as in pereopod I): 17 % [14–19 %]: 24 % [23–28 %]: 34 % [31–35 %]: 25 % [24–29 %]. Chela with palm subcylindrical, slightly compressed, fingers with dense tuft of longer pappose and shorter serrate setae apically. Within tufts also shorter, distally rounded setae (as shown for pereopod I on Figure 2 View Figure PpIfin). Article 6 maximal length 23 % [21–27 %] of CL, its length 2.4 [2.0– 3.6] times its width. Chela palm well developed, its basal bulge length approximately 21 % [11–22 %] of article 6 maximal length. Article 7 (dactylus, movable finger) length 60 % [48–66 %] article 6 maximal length. Exopodite with serrate basal setae and plumose distal setae, reaching distal end of article 4 (merus).

Pereopod III ( Figure 4 View Figure PpIII) length from base of article 3 (ischium) to apex of article 7 (dactylus) 153 % [148–205 %] of CL. Length relations of above articles (in percentages of pereopod III length): 9 % [7–10 %]: 34 % [31–36 %]: 18 % [17–20 %]: 31 % [28–33 %]: 8 % [5–12 %]. In fully mature males article 7 inferior margin with 17 [8–40] spiniform setae in two, proximally densely and distally rarely set groups. Article 6 of mature males slightly curved, 13 % [12–20 %] of article 6 length differentiated (i.e. article distally widened, with a group of numerous spiniform setae). Articles 5 and 4 bear 1 and 3 [1–4] large spiniform setae on mesial surfaces, respectively. Article 3 bears 1 smaller [0–1] spiniform seta on mesial surface. Exopodite well developed, with basal serrate setae and plumose distal setae, reaching approximately second half of article 4 (merus). Pereopod IV similar to pereopod III.

Pereopod V ( Figure 4 View Figure PpV) length 157 % [142–171 %] of CL. Length relations of its articles (in percentages of pereopod V length): 8.5 % [8–9 %]: 30 % [28–30 %]: 18 % [16–19 %]: 36 % [35–38 %]: 7.5 % [7–9 %], the latter with 43 [37–54] equally long spiniform setae, formatting a comb-like article 7. Articles 5 and 4 bear 1 and 2 [1–3] large spiniform setae on mesial surfaces, respectively. Article 3 bears no [0 (exceptionally)– 1] spiniform setae on mesial surface.

Pereopods I–IV with pleurobranchia, epipodites and exopodites. Pereopod V with pleurobranchium, without epipodite, exceptionally with exopodite – if developed, exopodite short, not/barely exceeding pereopod article 2 (basis) in length. All pereopods with setobranchia.

Pleopod I ( Figure 2 View Figure PlpI) endopodite well developed, with wide basis, tapering apex and slightly bent shallow groove on outer subdistal part. Endopodite length 19 % [17–25 %] of CL and 38 % [34–46 %] of exopodite length. Outer margin with 17 [17–33] spiniform setae. Appendix interna with no [0–1] retinacular hooks distally, not exceeding lamina in length. Exopodite with plumose setae along margins.

Pleopod II ( Figure 2 View Figure PlpII) with well developed shield-like appendix masculina, with numerous spiniform setae on medial and subdistal surface; its length 24 % [24–35 %] of CL and 63 % [62–73 %] of endopodite length. Appendix masculina 2.1 [2.1–3.3] times longer than appendix interna, the latter with 15 [3–23] retinacular hooks apically. Exopodite 1.2 [1.1–1.3] times longer than endopodite. Endopodite and exopodite lengths 39 % [37–51 %] and 44 % [43–60 %] of CL, respectively; their inner and outer margins fringed with plumose setae.

Uropod ( Figure 4 View Figure U) exopodite overreaching tip of endopodite, its width 33 % [29–34 %] of length, its length 60 % [50–71 %] of CL. Exopodite lateral margin almost rectilinear and without setae proximal to distolateral tooth, other margins fringed with plumose setae, sparse setae also subterminally on surface. Diaeresis with 1 [exceptionally 2] movable stout spiniform seta. Endopodite length about 0.9 exopodite length, with plumose setae along margins.

Description of females (partly after Fabjan 2001; average values presented): CL 7.4 ± 0.8 mm [5.8 –9.0 mm], significantly longer than in males (t-test, p <0.05).

Pereopods III–IV subsimilar, not differentiated. Pereopod III ( Figure 4 View Figure PpIII(f)) length from base of article 3 (ischium) to apex of article 7 (dactylus): 143 ± 10 % [119–172 %] of CL. Length relations of above articles (in percentages of pereopod III length): 10 ± 1 % [7–12 %], 34 ± 1 % [31–36 %], 18 ± 1 % [16–20 %], 31 ± 1 % [28–34 %] and 7 ± 1 % [5–8 %]. Article 7 with 6.5 ± 1.4 [4–10] spiniform setae. Article 6 with 5.9 ± 1.5 [4–10] groups of spiniform setae.

Pleopod I ( Figure 2 View Figure PlpI(f)) endopodite length 17 ± 3 % [10–23 %] of CL and 38 ± 7 % [24–51 %] of exopodite length. Endopodite basis wide, remarkably tapering distally. Distal endopodite extension possibly representing appendix interna (according to its location), but without retinacular hooks.

Pleopod II ( Figure 2 View Figure PlpII(f)) without appendix masculina.

Distribution. The subspecies is distributed in SE Slovenia, in NW parts of its Dolenjska region, mainly covering the Suha Krajina: from Stična 27 km SE of Ljubljana, along the upper course of the Krka River to Novo mesto and further in the SE direction to the Kolpa/Kupa River near Kostel at the border with Croatia ( Figure 1 View Figure ).

Remarks. According to Kollar (1848), the type sample (not explicitely designated as such) was brought to the ‘k. k. Hof-Naturalien-Cabinet’. The collection is now in possession of the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Vienna, Austria), but the sample couldn’t be found (P. Dworschak, pers. comm.). Both, Kollar and Dormitzer (1853; for its T. schmidtii  ) mention Kompoljska jama (Kollar also mentioned the nearby cave Potiskavc [‘Portiskavcz’]) as the locality of their samples. Since Kompoljska jama is easily accessible, with regularly available shrimps, it was selected as the (neo) type locality (Sket & Zakšek 2009).

COI

University of Coimbra Botany Department