Bizarrifrons magus,

Valim, Michel P. & Palma, Ricardo L., 2012, Redescriptions of two species and descriptions of three new species of the louse genus Bizarrifrons Eichler, 1938 (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae), Zootaxa 3273, pp. 28-50: 30-35

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.208835

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2C1F0131-CF1B-46C5-91EC-D56F654826A3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E1161B34-FF92-0825-20CA-8BF427DFB4C9

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scientific name

Bizarrifrons magus
status

 

Bizarrifrons magus  (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866)

( Figs 1 –6View FIGURES 1 – 4View FIGURES 5 – 8, 9– 16View FIGURES 9 – 10View FIGURES 11 – 17)

Type host: Cassicus cristatus  [= Psarocolius decumanus (Pallas, 1769)  ]— Crested oropendola

Nirmus magus Nitzsch  [in Giebel], 1861. Z. Ges. Naturw. 18: 301 (nomen nudum).

Nirmus majus Nitzsch  [in Giebel], 1866. Z. Ges. Naturw. 28: 367 (error for magus  ).

Docophorus ambiguus Giebel, 1874  . Insecta Epizoa: 119, pl. VIII, figs 12–13 (not Docophorus ambiguus Burmeister, 1838  ).

Nirmus magus Nitzsch, 1861  ; Giebel 1874. Insecta Epizoa: 119 (as junior synonym of D. ambiguus  ).

Docophorus ambiguus  N. in Giebel. Piaget 1880. Les Pédiculines: 70.

Docophorus ambiguus Nitzsch  in Giebel, 1874. Kellogg 1908. Genera Insectorum 66: 10.

Degeeriella ambigua Giebel, 1874  . Harrison 1916. Parasitol. 9: 107 (as junior synonym of D. magus  ).

Degeeriella magus Nitzsch  in Giebel, 1861. Harrison 1916. Parasitol. 9: 117.

Philopeterus [sic] ambiguus Giebel, 1847  [sic]. Paine 1917. Proc U S Natl Mus. 53: 231.

Philopterus ambiguus Giebel. Paine 1917  . Proc U S Natl Mus. 53: pl. 32, figs a –d.

Degeeriella magus Nitzsch. Eichler 1936  . J Ornithol. 84: 486, fig. 3.

Bizarrifrons maga  (Nitzsch in Giebel). Eichler 1938. Zoolog Anz. 124: 227, figs 1, 2a, 3 a.

Bizarrifrons ambiguus ( Giebel, 1874)  . Hopkins & Clay 1952. Check list of the genera and species of Mallophaga: 50 (as junior synonym of B. magus  ).

Bizarrifrons magus  (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866). Hopkins & Clay 1952. Check list of the genera and species of Mallophaga: 51.

Nirmus magus Nitzsch, 1866  [sic]. Hopkins & Clay 1952. Check list of the genera and species of Mallophaga: 245.

Nirmus majus Nitzsch, 1866  ; misprint for magus  . Hopkins & Clay 1952. Check list of the genera and species of Mallophaga: 245.

Bizarrifrons magus (Nitzsch, 1866)  . Cicchino & Castro, 1998. Ischnocera  : 117.

Bizarrifrons magus  (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866). Price et al. 2003. Chewing lice: world checklist: 152.

The spelling of the species epithet “ magus  ” is preserved here invoking prevailing usage. However, it should be noted that the original correct spelling was “ majus  ” as published in Giebel (1866), because the name “ Nirmus magus  ” as published in Giebel (1861) is clearly a nomen nudum and therefore invalid and unavailable. Giebel (1874) reverted the spelling to “ Nirmus magus  ” and, inexplicably, listed it as a junior synonym of his new species Docophorus ambiguus  . Harrison (1916) regarded the name Nirmus magus Nitzsch  in Giebel, 1861 as a valid taxon, and his incorrect spelling of the species epithet – but not the date 1861 – has been used by all subsequent authors.

Descriptions of immature stages. First nymphal instar. Habitus as in Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4. Head roughly subconical with tips of the marginal carinae convergent, lacking dorso-anterior head plate. Preantennal region symmetric. Marginal and occipital carinae brownish, ventral carinae white. Scape and pedicel white, only flageromeres brownish. Pterothorax with 1 long seta on each side, situated about the mid-point of the posterior margin, plus a short spiniform seta on each postero-lateral angle. Without meso- or metasternal plates, or setae. Without paratergal and hemitergal plates. Tergal chaetotaxy (on each side): segments II –III with 1 innermost posterior seta; IV –VIII with 1 innermost posterior seta and a postspiracular setae; IX, with 2 long setae. Sternal chaetotaxy (on each side): 1 very short seta on II –VIII; 2 long and 1 very short setae on IX. Paratergal chaetotaxy: II –III without seta; IV –V, 1 very short seta; VI –VII, 1 long and 1 very short setae; VIII, 2 long and 1 short setae. Measurements (n = 3): POL, 0.13; POW, 0.23–0.24; TW, 0.32–0.33; HL, 0.30–0.32; PW, 0.20–0.23; MW, 0.28–0.29; AWV, 0.27–0.32; TL, 0.85–0.89.

Second nymphal instar. Habitus as in Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 4. Head slightly pointed with tips of the marginal carinae parallel, the ventral carina only slightly surpassing the marginal carina as in adults. Dorso-anterior head plate present and square-like; ventro-anterior head plate small and cordiform. Preantennal region slightly asymmetric. Marginal and occipital carinae brownish, ventral carinae mostly white except on the tip of the head which is faintly brownish. Scape and pedicel white, only flageromeres brownish. Pterothorax with 4 (rarely 3) long setae on each side, plus a short spiniform seta on each postero-lateral angle. Without meso- or metasternal plates, but with 1 seta on each area corresponding to the meso- and metasternum. Paratergal plates of similar size and well pigmented present on segments II –VIII, with those on VIII slightly smaller. Without hemitergal plates. Tergal chaetotaxy (on each side): II –III with 1 innermost posterior seta; IV –VIII with 1 innermost posterior seta and a postspiracular setae; IX with 2 long setae. Sternal chaetotaxy (on each side): 1 seta on II –VIII, those on VI –VIII very short; 2 long and 1 short setae on IX. Paratergal chaetotaxy: II –III, without seta; IV –V with 1 long seta; VI –VII, 1 long and 1 short setae; VIII, 2 long and 1 short setae. Measurements (n = 2): POL, 0.19; POW, 0.30–0.31; TW, 0.42–0.43; HL, 0.40–0.42; PW, 0.26–0.28; MW, 0.37–0.38; AWV, 0.50–0.52; TL, 1.25–1.27.

Third nymphal instar. Habitus as in Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 4. Head distinctly pointed with tips of the marginal carinae parallel, the ventral carina surpassing the marginal carina. Dorso-anterior head plate present and square-like with anterior margin concave; ventro-anterior head plate small and roughly cordiform. Preantennal region asymmetric, less expressed as in adults. Pigmentation of head and thorax different from that of the adults, with marginal and occipital carinae brownish, the ventral carinae brownish only from the level of the a.v.s. 3 to the frontal margin, the basal portion of this carina completely white. Scape and pedicel white, flageromeres brownish. Pterothorax with 7 (rarely 6) long seta on each side, plus a short spiniform seta on each postero-lateral angle. Without meso- or metasternal plates, but with 1 seta on each area corresponding to the meso- and metasternum. Paratergal plates of similar size and well pigmented on segments II –VIII, with those on VIII slightly smaller. Without hemitergal plates. Sternal chaetotaxy (on each side): 1 long seta on II –VI; 1 short seta on VII –VIII; 2 long plus 3 short setae on IX. Paratergal chaetotaxy: II –III without seta; IV –V with 2 setae; VI –VIII with 3 setae of various lengths.

Male tergal chaetotaxy (on each side) ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 4): segments II –III with 1 innermost posterior seta; IV –VI with 1 innermost posterior seta and a postspiracular seta; VII –VIII with 2 inner posterior setae and a postspiracular seta, very short on VIII; IX with 2 long setae. Measurements (n = 1): POL, 0.25; POW, 0.36; TW, 0.51; HL, 0.52; PW, 0.32; MW, 0.47; AWV, 0.57; TL, 1.50.

Female tergal chaetotaxy (on each side) ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 4): segments II –III with 1 innermost posterior seta; IV –VIII with 1 innermost posterior seta and a postspiracular setae; IX with 2 long setae. Measurements (n = 2): POL, 0.22–0.27; POW, 0.29–0.39; TW, 0.41–0.52; HL, 0.40–0.54; PW, 0.26–0.33; MW, 0.38–0.45; AWV, 0.51–0.55; TL, 1.32–1.53.

Redescription of adults. Male. Habitus as in Figs 5View FIGURES 5 – 8 and 9View FIGURES 9 – 10, coloration as in Fig. 5View FIGURES 5 – 8. Anterior portion of the head distinctly asymmetric ( Figs 5View FIGURES 5 – 8 and 9View FIGURES 9 – 10). Head shape and chaetotaxy similar to Fig. 11View FIGURES 11 – 17. Conus long, but not reaching the distal margin of the scape. Antennal flagellomeres distinctly more pigmented than the pedicel, the latter slightly more pigmented than the scape. Pterothorax with the entire posterior margin brownish and with 7–8 setae on each side. Episterna II and III strongly pigmented. Tergites well developed, with their internal margins truncated, except for VII –VIII slightly pointed; with distinct pigmentation, except for large round areas around the spiracles. Postspiracular setae present on segments IV –VII, with alveoli only on IV and V. Tergal chaetotaxy uniform with some individual variation, as follows (on each side): II –III with 1 innermost posterior seta; IV –V with 1 innermost posterior seta and a postspiracular setae; VI with 2 inner posterior, 1 (rarely none) outer posterior and a postspiracular setae; VII with 5 outer posterior (rarely lacking or two on one side) and 1 postspiracular setae; VIII with 6 posterior and a trichobothrium latero-posterior; IX+X with 9–12 setae, 3 of them longer than the others. The postero-internal angle of tergites VII –IX+X distinctly bent downwards, sometimes also on VI in at least one side ( Figs 9View FIGURES 9 – 10 and 12View FIGURES 11 – 17). Two pairs of sclerites around the genital opening: 2 distal, large, sub-rounded to sub-square; the other 2 proximal, smaller and oblong in shape. Sternal plates on II –VI well developed, laterally rounded and pigmented. Sternal chaetotaxy (on each side): segments II –VI with 1 medium long setae, surpassing the plate in the next segment and reaching the following plate. Paratergal chaetotaxy: segments II –III without setae; IV –V, 2 setae (one male with only one on IV in both sides); VI –VIII, 3; IX+X, 4 (rarely 3 on one side). Genitalia as in Fig. 13View FIGURES 11 – 17; subgenital plate as in Fig. 14View FIGURES 11 – 17, without a fenestra. Measurements (n = 11): POL, 0.28–0.32; POW, 0.39–0.42; TW, 0.55–0.59; HL, 0.60–0.64; DPW, 0.11–0.13; PW, 0.31–0.36; MW, 0.48–0.53; AWV, 0.57–0.69; BAL, 0.22–0.24; PL, 0.12–0.15; GW, 0.13–0.14; GL, 0.34–0.37; TL, 1.80–1.95.

Female. Habitus as in Figs 6View FIGURES 5 – 8 and 10View FIGURES 9 – 10, coloration as in Fig. 6View FIGURES 5 – 8. Head as in Fig. 11View FIGURES 11 – 17. Similar to the male, but differing in the tergal chaetotaxy and terminal segments. Tergites IX+X medially fused, with a distinct shallow anterior notch in the midline. Tergal chaetotaxy (on each side): segments II –III with 1 innermost posterior seta; IV –VII with 1 innermost posterior seta and a postspiracular setae; VIII with 1 innermost posterior seta and a trichobothrium latero-posterior; IX+X with 4 setae, 2 of them small, only reaching the terminal plates, and 2 very long, reaching beyond the end of the abdomen. Postero-internal angle of each tergite II –VIII truncated, roughly square; tergite IX+X entirely pigmented. Subgenital plate tapering from its rectangular base ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 11 – 17), with 2–5 small setae laterad on each side ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 11 – 17). Vulvar margin with 7–10 short marginal setae and 10–16 short spiniform submarginal setae, on each side ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 11 – 17). Measurements (n = 11): POL, 0.30–0.35; POW, 0.39–0.46; TW, 0.58–0.62; HL, 0.62–0.67; DPW, 0.11–0.13; PW, 0.34–0.38; MW, 0.48–0.55; AWV, 0.61–0.73; TL, 1.97–2.31.

Remarks. Although without a formal description, Paine (1917) noted that in the “very youngest stages” of B. magus  the head is symmetric, only becoming asymmetric in the “succeeding” stages. We confirm that the preantennal region of nymph I is symmetric, and that a very discrete asymmetry appears in nymph II, reaching its maximum degree in nymph III and adults. The development of an asymmetric head in chewing lice has also been observed by Mey (1998) for the genus Struthiolipeurus Cummings, 1916  , where nymph I still retains its more primitive symmetric head.

Material examined. 8 males and 7 females (FMNH-INS 28930, 28931, 28933), ex Psarocolius decumanus  , PERÚ: Madre de Dios, Hacienda Amazonia, near Atalaya, 17.XI. 1985, S.M. Lanyon coll. (host # 1116). 1 male, 3 females, 1 nymph III 3, 1 nymph III Ƥ, and 1 nymph II (FMNH-INS 28928), same data except, 10.XI. 1985 and host # 1069. 1 male, 2 nymphs I, and 1 nymph III Ƥ (FMNH-INS 28934), same data except, 12.XI. 1985 and host # 1087. 1 male (FMNH-INS 28929), same data except, 9.XI. 1985 and host # 1061. 1 female (FMNH-INS 28932), same data except 5.XI. 1985 and host # 1036. 1 male, 2 females, 1 nymph I, and 1 nymph II (FMNH-INS 28947), same data except 21.XI. 1985 and host # 1160. The slide FMNH-INS 28931, with 3 males and 2 females, will be deposited in MZUSP.

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Phthiraptera

Family

Philopteridae

Genus

Bizarrifrons

Loc

Bizarrifrons magus

Valim, Michel P. & Palma, Ricardo L. 2012
2012
Loc

Degeeriella magus

Nitzsch. Eichler 1936
1936
Loc

Philopterus ambiguus

Giebel. Paine 1917
1917
Loc

Docophorus ambiguus

Giebel 1874
1874
Loc

Degeeriella ambigua

Giebel 1874
1874
Loc

Bizarrifrons ambiguus (

Giebel 1874
1874
Loc

Nirmus magus

Nitzsch 1866
1866
Loc

Nirmus majus

Nitzsch 1866
1866
Loc

Bizarrifrons magus

Nitzsch 1866
1866
Loc

Nirmus magus

Nitzsch 1861
1861
Loc

[sic] ambiguus

Giebel 1847
1847
Loc

Docophorus ambiguus

Burmeister 1838
1838