Epizoanthus Gray, 1867

Low, Martyn E. Y., Sinniger, Frederic & Reimer, James Davis, 2016, The order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815 (Cnidaria, Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): supraspecific classification and nomenclature, ZooKeys 641, pp. 1-80: 8-9

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Epizoanthus Gray, 1867


Epizoanthus Gray, 1867 

Sidisia  Gray, 1858: 489 [suppressed in Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992].

Epizoanthus  Gray, 1867: 237 [conserved in Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992].

Carolia  Gray, 1867: 239 [invalid name, junior homonym].

Polythoa (Endeithoa)  Andres, 1883a: 521, 531.

Verrillia  Andres, 1883a: 520, 545.

Zoanthus (Corticanthus)  Andres, 1883a: 538, 541.

Mardoell  Danielssen, 1890: 117-126.

Marodellia  Blanchard, 1893: 130 [unjustified emendation]

Mardoella  Bell, 1906: 762 [incorrect spelling].

Lirrevia  Delphy, 1939: 270.

Type species.

Dysidea papillosa  Johnston, 1842, by monotypy (see also Opinion 1689, ICZN 1992).




As for family but readily distinguishable from Palaeozoanthus  by the presence of non-fertile micromesenteries ( Sinniger and Häussermann 2009: 26).


Most species with reticulate mesogleal muscle, Epizoanthus illoricatus  Tischbierek, 1930 with simplified mesogleal sphincter muscle ( Swain et al. 2015).

As discussed in Sinniger and Häussermann (2009: 26), this genus is characterised by the "[p]olyps usually strongly encrusted with sand particles. Species found on rocky substrata or gastropod shells often inhabited by pagurids; some cases of free-living species reported ( Epizoanthus lindhali  , Epizoanthus vagus  ). In colonial species, polyps linked by stolons or, in pagurid-associated species, by a continuous coenenchyme. No symbioses with Symbiodinium  zooxanthellae".