Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis

Diškus, Arūnas & Stonis, Jonas R., 2015, Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov. — a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae), Zootaxa 4039 (3), pp. 456-466: 457-465

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4039.3.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E887C5E2-0698-408F-8B80-1702697503A9

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E17C87A4-FF9F-221D-FF33-154BFBE4FBD6

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis
status

sp. nov.

Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis  , sp. nov.

Type material. Holotype: ♂ PERU: Tambopata Province, Puerto Maldonado, 12 ° 35 ' 33 ˝S, 69 ° 10 ' 29 ˝W, elevation 195 m a.s.l., mining larva on Sida rhombifolia  L. 16.x. 2008, ex pupa 5–11.xi. 2008, field card no. 4937, leg. A. Diškus, genitalia slide no. AD 711 ♂ ( ZMUC). Paratypes (12 ♂, 14 ♀): 3 ♂, 2 ♀, same label data as holotype, genitalia slides nos AD 710 ♂, AD 714 ♀. 3 ♂, 4 ♀, ECUADOR: Napo Province, ca. 24 km SE Tena (Puerto Misahuallí), 1 ° 2 '06"S, 77 ° 40 '09"W, elevation 400 m a.s.l., mining larva on Sida rhombifolia  L. 6.ii. 2007, ex pupae 12–14.ii. 2008, field card no. 4840, leg. A. Diškus, genitalia slide no. AD 715 ♂. 1 ♂ (from pupa), 4 ♀, same locality, 1 ° 2 '03"S, 77 ° 39 ' 54 "W, elevation 395 m a.s.l., mining larva on Sida rhombifolia  L. 7.xi. 2007, ex pupae 20– 25.xi. 2007, field card no. 4909, leg. A. Diškus, genitalia slides nos AD 712 ♂, AD 713 ♀, AD 719 ♀. 2 ♂, 1 ♀, GUATEMALA: Petén Dept., El Remate, Tikal (Gran Plaza), 17 ° 13 ' 22 "N, 89 ° 37 ' 24 "W, elevation ca. 320 m a.s.l., lowland tropical forest, mining larvae on Sida rhombifolia  L. 06.ii. 2012, ex pupae ii. 2012, field card no. 5072, LT- GT Scientific Expedition, genitalia slide no. AD 716 ♂. 1 ♂, 1 ♀, BELIZE: Orange Walk Distr., Orange Walk, 18 °04' 40 "N, 88 ° 33 ' 28 "W, elevation ca. 4 m a.s.l., mining larvae on Sida rhombifolia  L. 9.ii. 2012, ex pupae ii. 2012, field card no. 5083, LT-GT Scientific Expedition. 2 ♂, 2 ♀, Caribbean Archipelago, Ambergris Cay, 17 ° 56 ' 12 "N, 87 ° 57 '05"W, elevation ca. 5 m a.s.l., coastal bush, mining larvae on Sida rhombifolia  L. 10.ii. 2012, ex pupae ii. 2012, field card no. 5084, LT-GT Scientific Expedition, genitalia slide no. AD 718 ♂ ( ZMUC).

Diagnosis. Differs from all other known Astrotischeria  and other Tischeriidae  in the combination of a simple narrow valva without a dorsal lobe or any other extension ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 12 – 15), a long and slender uncus ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 19 – 21) and bilobed anellus ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 19 – 21); the host-plant ( Sida  ) also makes this species distinctive (so far unknown for other Tischeriidae  species).

Male ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12 – 15). Forewing length: 2.7–3.1 mm. Wingspan: 6.2–6.7 mm. Head: face and palpi unicolorous, creamy ochreous; frontal tuft creamy ochreous, sometimes with golden shine; antenna with about 37 segments, slightly longer than 2 / 3 of forewing; flagellum creamy ochreous in basal half, darker in distal half: creamy grey on upper side, brownish to pale grey on underside; sensillae very fine, weakly visible (indistinct). Thorax creamy ochreous, paler than forewing, without darkenings. Forewing golden creamy with irregular patches of ochreous and fuscous scales; fringe creamy ochreus to creamy yellowish; fringe line indistinct, formed by fuscous scales. Hindwing brownish cream on upper side and underside, very narrow, with no androconia; fringe ochreous grey. Legs ochreous creamy to creamy, with dark brown to blackish darkenings on upper side. Abdomen: on upper side pale beige to pale grey, glossy; on underside creamy ochreous to creamy yellowish, with grey-brown darkenings on some segments; a pair of anal tufts creamy-colored, distinct and long (as long as abdomen's width at caudal end); anal plates golden creamy, large.

Female ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 12 – 15). Antenna with about 30–32 segments. Flagellum without sensillae. Otherwise as male.

Male genitalia ( Figs 14–21View FIGURES 12 – 15View FIGURES 16 – 18View FIGURES 19 – 21). Capsule 350–415 µm long, 200–230 µm broad. Uncus comprises two simple (not divided) slender and long lateral lobes ( Figs 14View FIGURES 12 – 15, 17View FIGURES 16 – 18, 19View FIGURES 19 – 21). Valva simple and slender, about 360–410 µm long (including basal process), 30–35 µm broad; dorsal lobe absent ( Figs 14View FIGURES 12 – 15, 21View FIGURES 19 – 21); transtilla absent; basal (sublateral) process of valva long ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 19 – 21). Anellus long and membranous, with 3–4 pairs of spines laterally ( Figs 14View FIGURES 12 – 15, 17View FIGURES 16 – 18, 20View FIGURES 19 – 21) and two almost rounded apical lobes ( Figs 17View FIGURES 16 – 18, 20View FIGURES 19 – 21). Phallus 265–275 µm, distally deeply bifurcated ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 12 – 15), without spines.

Female genitalia ( Figs 22–27View FIGURES 22, 23View FIGURES 24 – 27). Total length 1505–1510 mm. Ovipositor clothed with short, stout and darker, modified setae which we refer to as ‘peg setae’ ( Figs 23View FIGURES 22, 23, 26View FIGURES 24 – 27); area in between ovipositor lobes triangularly shaped, with tiny papillae and some setae. Second pair of lobes, lateral and anterior to the ovipositor lobes, are significantly smaller, bearing very long slender setae. Anterior and posterior apophyses very long and stout, particularly the anterior ones ( Figs 22View FIGURES 22, 23, 26, 27View FIGURES 24 – 27); remaining three apophyses pairs ( Figs 26, 27View FIGURES 24 – 27) represent slender rod-like and broad rod-like projections (of possibly modified 8 th and 9 th sternites); these apophyses were collectively referred to as the prela and the morphology was described by Braun (1972). Ventral anterior margin of 8 th segment divided into two broad rod-like arms, the tip of each arm articulating with an anterior apophysis in a groove 1 / 2 way of its length ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 24 – 27). Vestibulum without antrum which is characrteristic for Tischeria  only; however vestibulum may look thickened laterally because the prela ( Figs 26, 27View FIGURES 24 – 27). Ductus bursae considerably narrower than corpus bursae, without spines but slightly wrinkled. Corpus bursae membranous, relatively very small (355 mm long, 190 mm broad), distinctly oval ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 22, 23), without spines or signa. Ductus spermathaecae very narrow, with 5 coils ( Figs 23– 25View FIGURES 22, 23View FIGURES 24 – 27), utriculus absent (or missing in the genitalia slides).

Bionomics ( Figs 7–11View FIGURES 7 – 11). Host-plant: Sida rhombifolia  L. ( Malvaceae  ) ( Figs 7, 8View FIGURES 7 – 11). Larvae mine in late January – February and October –November. Blotch mine (at early stage triangular, latter irregular), either without frass or with very little black loose frass irregularly deposited in the narrow corner of the mine or anywhere else ( Figs 9– 11View FIGURES 7 – 11); old leaf-mines usually look paler, particularly around a silk-lined nidus inside of the mine. Larva greenish in early (first) instars to brownish grey latter (including the final instar), with dark brown intestine ( Figs 9, 10View FIGURES 7 – 11). Pupation inside of leaf-mine without cocoon; pupa beige-brown. Exit slit on upper side of the leaf. Adults know from February and November.

After the ‘Formula of evaluation of abundance and occurrence of leaf-miners’ (see Diškus & Stonis 2012: 52– 54), A. neotropicana  is common: limited in distribution, but abundant mining in all localities where it has been recorded.

Distribution ( Figs. 1–6View FIGURES 1 – 6). Known from lowland tropical disturbed habitats (roadsides, gardens, footpaths and open woodlands) of Central America ( Guatemala and Belize including the Caribbean Archipelago) and the Amazon Basin ( Ecuador and Peru) at the elevation of about 4–400 m a.s.l. ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 6).

Etymology. The species is named after the region (the Neotropics) where it occurs.

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen