Fonseca, Claudio Ruy Vasconcelos Da, Barbosa, Márcio Luís Leitão & Fernandez, Maria Fernanda Souza, 2011, A hypothetical evolutionary history of passalid beetles narrated by the comparative anatomy of the hindgut (Coleoptera: Passalidae), Zootaxa 3012, pp. 1-20: 14

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.200834

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Subfamily Passalinae  Leach, 1815 (subfamily here redefined to include a smaller group of taxa)

This branch was supported by one synapomorphy:

[Character 17] Ileum with symmetrical, lateral diverticula (0); asymmetrical (1). Unambiguous optimization (ci = 100; ri = 100).

At this level, lateral diverticula were asymmetrical in numbers and size on both surfaces of the ileum, giving it a more flattened appearance ( Figs 6View FIGURE 6, 7View FIGURE 7). This character state was apomorphic.