Aulacocyclinae

Fonseca, Claudio Ruy Vasconcelos Da, Barbosa, Márcio Luís Leitão & Fernandez, Maria Fernanda Souza, 2011, A hypothetical evolutionary history of passalid beetles narrated by the comparative anatomy of the hindgut (Coleoptera: Passalidae), Zootaxa 3012, pp. 1-20: 5-6

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.200834

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E922B809-FFFD-FF94-66CB-CAA8FB06F937

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Aulacocyclinae
status

 

Subfamily Aulacocyclinae  Kaup, 1868

( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1)

The genera Aulacocyclus Kaup  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A), Comacupes Kaup  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B), Taeniocerus Kaup  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 C), Cylindrocaulus Fairmaire  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 D) and Ceracupes Kaup  ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 E) are included in this subfamily. The ileum in these genera is similar to Scarabaeidae  ( Umeya 1960; López-Guerrero 2002), where the diverticula are assembled around the proximal edge and vary in shape and number. There are about six diverticula in Comacupes  and none in Cylindrocaulus  , but the average is three to four for the subfamily. As to segmentation, there is variation from broad ( Comacupes  ) to close clustering, which makes the ileum look bellow-shaped ( Cylindrocaulus  ).

Branch Solenocyclinae + Figs 2–8View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8

This branch embodies all genera that are part of Passalinae  in Reyes-Castillo’s (1970) classification. The features of the ileum confirm this observation, as it is obvious that Solenocyclinae+ is the sister group of Aulacocyclinae  . Concerning the ileum architecture, Solenocyclinae+ show transformations that start to become noticeable on the African genera Stephanocephalus Kaup  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C), Didimus Kaup  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D), Pentalobus Kaup  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 E), Semicyclus Kaup  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 F) and Flaminius Kuwert  ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 E), possessing a collection of protuberances in the distal half. In Solenocyclus Kaup  ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 A), Vitellinus Kuwert  ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 B), Ciceronius Kaup  ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 C) and Erionomus Kaup  ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 D), such protuberances extend their range to cover the whole surface of the ileum. The number and size of the protuberances are not constant, as sometimes they can be dense in Leptaulax Kaup  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B), giving a very striking differentiation to the ileum. In addition to the protuberances, the long diverticula, which arise from the proximal region in Aulacocyclinae  , undergo shortening in the Solenocyclinae+, and in some instances turning into just one diverticulum. Protuberance clustering increases in taxa from Indo-Australian Pleurarius Kaup  ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A) to Neotro- The Neotropical taxa are included in two tribes: Passalini and Proculini  ( Boucher 2006). The ileum in most genera of Proculini  (exposed clypeus); Odontotaenius Kuwert  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 A), Spurius Kaup  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 B), Popilius Kaup  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C), Pseudacanthus Kaup  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 D), Vindex Kaup  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 E), Petrejoides Kuwert  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 F), Heliscus Zang  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 G), Chondrocephalus Kuwert  ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 H), Verres Kaup  ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A), Veturius Kaup  ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 B) and Proculejus Kaup  ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C); has the long diverticulum facing down. The long diverticulum faces up for Proculus Kaup  ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 G), in which the ileum is formed by large diverticula on the proximal region that becomes smaller towards the distal apex. On the other hand, the large, closely clustered protuberances distinguish Proculus  from all other Proculini  . In the Passalini (hidden clypeus); Ptichopus Kaup  ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A), Passalus  ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B), Spasalus Kaup  ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C), Paxillus MacLeay  ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D) and Passipassalus Fonseca & Reyes-Castillo  ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 E); the ileum becomes flattened and the protuberances increase from four to six rows, becoming noticeably denser in Macrolininae.